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Air Pollution and the Siting of Fossil Fuel Power Plants

Description: The decision to locate a fossil-fueled electrical power plant on a particular site involves trade-offs among the costs of: (1) land acquisition, (2) plant construction, operation, and maintenance, (3) power transmission, and (4) air pollution damage to humans, animals, plants and materials. The fourth of these, pollution costs, has been of great concern in recent years. But seldom, if ever, are the specific dollar trade-offs between the environmental and the other costs associated with site selection taken into account. The sum of the costs of power generation (land, construction, operation, maintenance), power transmission, and air pollution damages (from sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulates) is the total social cost of a fossil-fuel plant; this total cost will generally vary by site. This paper presents an analysis of the total social cost, and the trade-offs between generation/transmission and air pollution costs, for various types of fossil plants at different sites in northern Illinois. The analysis identifies the combinations of site, fossil fuel, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) control technology that minimize total social costs.
Date: 1976
Creator: Fishelson, Gordon; Rausser, Gordon C. & Cohen, Alan S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced thermometrics for fossil power plant process improvement

Description: Improved temperature measurements in fossil power plants can reduce heat rate and uncertainties in power production efficiencies, extend the life of plant components, reduce maintenance costs, and lessen emissions. Conventional instruments for measurement of combustion temperatures, steam temperatures, and structural component temperatures can be improved by better specification, in situ calibration, signal processing, and performance monitoring. Innovative instruments can enhance, augment, or replace conventional instruments. Several critical temperatures can be accessed using new methods that were impossible with conventional instruments. Such instruments include high temperature resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermometric phosphors, inductive thermometry, and ultrasonic thermometry.
Date: April 30, 1996
Creator: Shepard, R.L.; Weiss, J.M. & Holcomb, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 2.3 - Review and Assessment of Results From the Comprehensive Characterization of Toxic Emissions From Coal-Fired Power Plants

Description: To help meet the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Phase I of a study entitled "Comprehensive Characterization of Toxic - Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants" in 1992. Final reports which detail air toxic emissions from eight power plants (nine conilgurations) were completed by the contractors. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) served as an independent third-party reviewer of these reports; it has completed the activities as outlined for the initial review process and has prepared two reports. The fiist report, entitled "A Comprehensive Assessment of Toxic Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants: Phase I Results from the U.S. Department of Energy Study" was published in September 1996 and is available to the public and private sectors through the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) at Pittsburgh. This report surnmar izes and evaluates the stack emission data. The second report prepared by the EERC, entitled "A Comprehensive Assessment of Toxic Emission from Coal-Fired Power Plants: Statistical Correlations from the Combined DOE and EPRI Field Test Data," details empirical correlations derived horn the Phase I DOE data and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPIU) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies) data. The objective of the project was to provide an independent review of the Phase I data, evaluate the scientific validity of the conclusions, identify significant correlations between emissions and fuel or process parameters, compare the data with available data from EPRI studies, make recommendations for future studies, and complete a combined report that summarizes Phase I, Phase II, and EPRI findings.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Ness, Sumitra R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrical Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee

Description: Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI�s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the EPRI/ADA Technologies dry sorbent sampling unit and the testing of Hg catalysts/sorbents in this low-flow, temperature controlled system. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future work is identified.
Date: February 18, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Damodar Valley Corporation, Chandrapura Unit 2 Thermal Power Station Residual Life Assessment Summary report

Description: The BHEL/NTPC/PFC/TVA teams assembled at the DVC`s Chadrapura station on July 19, 1994, to assess the remaining life of Unit 2. The workscope was expanded to include major plant systems that impact the unit`s ability to sustain generation at 140 MW (Units 1-3 have operated at average rating of about 90 MW). Assessment was completed Aug. 19, 1994. Boiler pressure parts are in excellent condition except for damage to primary superheater header/stub tubes and economizer inlet header stub tubes. The turbine steam path is in good condition except for damage to LP blading; the spar rotor steam path is in better condition and is recommended for Unit 2. Nozzle box struts are severely cracked from the flame outs; the cracks should not be repaired. HP/IP rotor has surface cracks at several places along the steam seal areas; these cracks are shallow and should be machined out. Detailed component damage assessments for above damaged components have been done. The turbine auxiliary systems have been evaluated; cooling tower fouling/blockage is the root cause for the high turbine back pressure. The fuel processing system is one of the primary root causes for limiting unit capacity. The main steam and hot reheat piping systems were conservatively designed and have at least 30 years left;deficiencies needing resolution include restoration of insulation, replacement of 6 deformed hanger clamp/bolts, and adjustment of a few hanger settings. The cold reheat piping system is generally in good condition; some areas should be re-insulated and the rigid support clamps/bolts should be examined. The turbine extraction piping system supports all appeared to be functioning normally.
Date: February 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A utility survey and market assessment on repowering in the electric power industry

Description: Section 1 of this report provides a background about the DOE High Performance Power Systems (HIPPS) program. There are two kinds of HIPPS cycles under development. One team is led by the Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, the other team is led by the United Technologies Research Center. These cycles are described. Section 2 summarizes the feedback from the survey of the repowering needs of ten electric utility companies. The survey verified that the utility company planners favor a repowering for a first-of-a-kind demonstration of a new technology rather than an all-new-site application. These planners list the major factor in considering a unit as a repowering candidate as plant age: they identify plants built between 1955 and 1965 as the most likely candidates. Other important factors include the following: the need to reduce operating costs; the need to perform major maintenance/replacement of the boiler; and the need to reduce emissions. Section 3 reports the results of the market assessment. Using the size and age preferences identified in the survey, a market assessment was conducted (with the aid of a power plant data base) to estimate the number and characteristics of US generating units which constitute the current, primary potential market for coal-based repowering. Nearly 250 units in the US meet the criteria determined to be the potential repowering market.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Klara, J.M.; Weinstein, R.E. & Wherley, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

Description: McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.
Date: December 3, 1998
Creator: Holmes, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

Description: Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W�s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.
Date: December 3, 1998
Creator: Evans, A. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

Description: McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.
Date: December 3, 1998
Creator: Evans, A. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

Description: McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.
Date: December 3, 1998
Creator: Holmes, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual Design of Electrical Balance of Plant for Advanced Battery Energy Storage Facility. Annual Report March 1979

Description: Large-scale efforts are in progress to develop advanced batteries for utility energy storage systems. Realization of the full benefits available from those systems requires development, not only of the batteries themselves, but also the ac/dc power converter, the bulk power interconnecting equipment, and the peripheral electric balance of plant equipment that integrate the battery/converter into a properly controlled and protected energy system. This study addresses these overall system aspects; although tailored to a 20-MW, 100-MWh lithium/sulfide battery system, the technology and concepts are applicable to any battery energy storage system.
Date: January 1980
Creator: King, Joseph M.; Vivirito, Joseph R. & Kornbrust, Frederick J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Method for removal of mercury from various gas streams

Description: The invention provides for a method for removing elemental mercury from a fluid, the method comprising irradiating the mercury with light having a wavelength of approximately 254 nm. The method is implemented in situ at various fuel combustion locations such as power plants and municipal incinerators.
Date: June 10, 2003
Creator: Granite, E. J. & Pennline, H. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated Design and Rapid Development of Refractory Metal Based Alloys for Fossil Energy Applications

Description: One common barrier in the development of new technologies for future energy generating systems is insufficiency of existing materials at high temperatures (>1150oC) and aggressive atmospheres (e.g., steam, oxygen, CO2). To overcome this barrier, integrated design methodology will be applied to the development of refractory metal based alloys. The integrated design utilizes the multi-scale computational methods to design materials for requirements of processing and performance. This report summarizes the integrated design approach to the alloy development and project accomplishments in FY 2008.
Date: July 1, 2008
Creator: Dogan, O.N.; King, P.E. & Gao, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 7.1 - Strategic Planning

Description: Energy industry decisions on resources, utilization technologies, and environmental control measures are made in reference to changing patterns of fuel cost and availability, emerging technological choices, externality impacts, and governmental policies, statutes, and regulations. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has endeavored to maintain a highly relevant research focus through activities dating back to the benchmark 1980 Low-Rank Coal Study, 1983 defederalization plans, and the 1991 comprehensive white paper on energy policy and technologies. Work was completed in FY94 on an energy and environmental profile for selected East Central European nations and more recently on a series of in-house white papers dealing with key environmental issues including global warming. Task 7.0 continues a limited effort devoted to strategic studies under the base Cooperative Agreement. The objective of this activity is to understand the potentialities, limitations, and status of competing energy technologies in terms of scientific basis, state of development, technical barriers, cost, efficiency, policy treatment, and environmental performance for the purpose of planning and evaluating research activities under the Cooperative Agreement. This work is to provide guidance in planning the broad outline for future research under the Cooperative Agreement in keeping with industry needs and national goals. This is being accomplished through the combination of directed studies, under Activity 1, Technical Assessment, and under Activity 2, Technical Oversight.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Daly, Daniel J. & Sondreal, Evertt A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee

Description: Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI�s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) test block with the Carbon Injection System. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future project work is identified.
Date: January 12, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee

Description: Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI�s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) test block with the Carbon Injection System. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future work is identified.
Date: October 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee

Description: Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI�s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) test block with the Carbon Injection System. Also, several installation activities were initiated this month for the testing of a new EPRI/ADA Technologies sorbent sampling system in December. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future work is identified.
Date: November 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Power Plant Operating and Maintenance Costs

Description: Report issued by the Brookhaven National Laboratory discussing costs of power plant operations. As stated in the objective, "the objective of this study was to determine and evaluate operating and maintenance costs for nuclear power plants" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: April 1970
Creator: Susskind, H. & Raseman, C. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994

Description: This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.
Date: July 14, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of market penetration scenarios of clean coal technologies in China using the LLNL China Energy Model

Description: This paper presents the results of an analysis of the market penetration of Clean Coal Technologies in the electric utility market in China. The analysis is based on a model of the Chinese energy system developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Under this model, the market penetration of a technology depends on the relative prices of all technologies in a market. The model assumes that for each technology there is a distribution of effective prices to the consumers in the market place. The prices for each technology computed in the model are assumed to be the means of these distributions: sometime the effective price is greater than this and sometimes it is less. Thus even a relatively expensive technology may cost less than its competitors in a fraction of the transactions. Using several scenarios about the possible dispersion of prices, we estimate the market share of CCTs over the next 50 years. We find that some CCTs penetrate under all scenarios, but the more expensive ones only show significant penetration when larger values of price dispersion are assumed. Generally the penetration of the CCTs is 15% or less of the market by 2020. However, advanced pulverized coal does exceed 15% in some cases.
Date: August 17, 1998
Creator: Lamont, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Global warming and ice ages: I. prospects for physics based modulation of global change

Description: It has been suggested that large-scale climate changes, mostly due to atmospheric injection of greenhouse gases connected with fossil-fired energy production, should be forestalled by internationally-agreed reductions in, e.g., electricity generation. The potential economic impacts of such limitations are obviously large: greater than or equal to $10{sup 11}/year. We propose that for far smaller - less than 1% - the mean thermal effects of greenhouse gases may be obviated in any of several distinct ways, some of them novel. These suggestions are all based on scatterers that prevent a small fraction of solar radiation from reaching all or part of the Earth. We propose research directed to quite near-term realization of one or more of these inexpensive approaches to cancel the effects of the greenhouse gas injection. While the magnitude of the climatic impact of greenhouse gases is currently uncertain, the prospect of severe failure of the climate, for instance at the onset of the next Ice Age, is undeniable. The proposals in this paper may lead to quite practical methods to reduce or eliminate all climate failures.
Date: August 15, 1996
Creator: Teller, E.; Wood, L. & Hyde, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department