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Comparative Foaming Characteristics of Aeronautical Lubricating Oils

Description: Note presenting comparative data on the volume of foam and stability of foams of aeronautical lubricating oils produced at 100 degrees Celsius by the air-bubbling method. All of the data were obtained with the same foam meter, by a standard technique, and at various rates of air flow. Results regarding the reproducibility of foam tests and treatment of data are provided.
Date: February 1950
Creator: Woods, W. W. & Robinson, J. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This research effort is focused on understanding the mechanical response of foams, and other complex fluids, from the microscopic to the macroscopic level. The research uses a model two-dimensional system: bubble rafts. Bubble rafts are a single layer of gas bubbles with liquid walls that float on a water surface. The work involves studies of the macroscopic response of foam under various conditions of external forcing, mesoscopic studies of bubble motion, and systematic variations of the microscopic details of the system. In addition to characterizing the specific properties of the bubble raft, a second aim of the research is to provide experimental tests of various general theories that have recently been developed to characterize complex fluids. Primarily, the focus is on testing the proposed jamming phase diagram paradigm. This paradigm suggests that a general “jammed” state of matter exists and is common to a wide range of systems, including foam, colloids, granular matter, glasses, and emulsions. Therefore,we have extended our research in two directions. First, we have included studies of plastic bead rafts. These are systems of plastic beads floating on the air-water interface. The advantage of plastic beads is that they do not pop, so they can be studied for the much longer periods of time required to measure the slow dynamics associated with the jammed state. Also, they allow us to explore a different density regime than the bubbles. Second, to better understand the role of defects in jamming behavior, we have done a few experiments on the impact of defects on domain growth.
Date: January 10, 2012
Creator: Dennin, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and Characterization of a New Epoxy Foam Encapsulant as an Ablefoam Replacement

Description: A new epoxy foam encapsulant, EF-ARIO/20, has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a replacement for Ablefoam", an epoxy foam encapsulant used in the W76 Arming, Fusing, and Firing (Al%@) system. Since it contained toxic ingredients including a known carcinogen, Ablefoarn" is no longer commercially available. It has been demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that the microstructure of the new epoxy foam is similar to that of Ablefoam@. Mechanical properties of tensile and compressive strength, and tensile and compressive modulus, and thermal properties of glass transition temperature (.TJ, and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) have been measured for the new foam. Electrical properties of dielectric constant, dissipation factors, volume resistivity, and dielectric strength were also measured. These property measurements are comparable to those of Ablefoam@. Development and characterization of the new foam will be discusse~ and a comparison of mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties for the new epoxy foam and Ablefoam@ will be reported.
Date: December 1, 1998
Creator: Rand, P.B. & Russick, E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Breaking Aircraft-Engine Oil Foams by Use of Electrically Charged Condenser Plates

Description: Report presenting a determination of the effectiveness of a charged condenser for breaking oil foams and to obtain data on which to base the design of such a device for mounting at the oil-tank inlet of an airplane. Results regarding the condenser-plate area and arrangement, wet-plate design, condenser voltage, oil temperature, water in oil, and some safety considerations are provided.
Date: November 1944
Creator: Pinkel, I. Irving
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1-D Van der Waals Foams Heated by Ion Beam Energy Deposition

Description: One dimensional simulations of various initial average density aluminum foams (modeled as slabs of solid metal separated by low density regions) heated by volumetric energy deposition are conducted with a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code using a van der Waals equation of tate (EOS). The resulting behavior is studied to facilitate the design of future warm dense matter (WDM) experiments at LBNL. In the simulations the energy deposition ranges from 10 to 30 kJ/g and from 0.075 to 4.0 ns total pulse length, resulting in temperatures from approximately 1 o 4 eV. We study peak pressures and temperatures in the foams, expansion velocity, and the phase evolution. Five relevant time scales in the problem are identified. Additionally, we present a method for characterizing the level of inhomogeneity in a foam target as it is heated and the time it takes for a foam to homogenize.
Date: December 23, 2009
Creator: Zylstra, A. B.; Barnard, J. J. & More, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hypercrosslinked polymeric foams prepared by Friedel-Crafts polycondensation

Description: Porous materials are widely used in industry and government for chemical separations, processing and monitoring, environmental cleanup and remediation, energy efficiency, and conservation. Porous materials used in these applications include: foams, filters, membranes, absorbents, ion exchange resins, molecular sieves, zeolites, catalyst supports, sensors, and electrodes. Organic analogues to inorganic zeolites would be a significant step forward in engineered porous materials and would provide advantages in range, selectivity, tailorability and processing. A novel process for preparing hypercross linked polymeric foams has been developed via a Friedel-Crafts polycondensation reaction. A series of rigid hypercrosslinked foams have been prepared using simple rigid polyaromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, biphenyl, mterphenyl, diphenylmethane, and polystyrene, with p-dichloroxylene as the crosslinking agent. After drying the gels, the resulting foams are robust and rigid; densities range from 0.3 to 0.g/cc. Nitrogen adsorption studies have shown that by judiciously selecting monomers and crosslinking agent along with the level of crosslinking, the pore size and distribution along with total surface area of the foam can be tailored. Surface areas range from 160 to 1,200 m{sup 2}/g with pore sizes ranging from 6{Angstrom} to 250{Angstrom}. Further evidence of this has been confirmed by high resolution TEM.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Steckle, W.P. Jr.; Mitchell, M.A. & Apen, P.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low density foams for vacuum insulation

Description: An investigation to find an open cell foam polymer for vacuum insulation has shown an epoxy-modified isocyanurate foam to be superior to urea/formaldehyde foams. Though improved during the study, the urea/formaldehyde foams still had problems of being too friable, dimensionally unstable, and possessed of the odor of unreacted formaldehyde. Thermogravimetric and thermomechanical analyses showed the epoxy-modified isocyanurate foam to be more thermally and dimensionally stable than the urea/ formaldehyde foams. (auth)
Date: September 1, 1973
Creator: Richardson, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SPHINX Measurements of Radiation Induced Conductivity of Foam

Description: Experiments on the SPHINX accelerator studying radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) in foam indicate that a field-exclusion boundary layer model better describes foam than a Maxwell-Garnett model that treats the conducting gas bubbles in the foam as modifying the dielectric constant. In both cases, wall attachment effects could be important but were neglected.
Date: December 14, 1998
Creator: Ballard, W.P.; Beutler, D.E.; Burt, M.; Dudley, K.J. & Stringer, T.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Light weight cellular structures based on aluminium

Description: An interesting form of lightweight material which has emerged in the past 2 decades is metallic foam. This paper deals with the basic concepts of making metallic foams and a detailed study of foams produced from Al-SiC. In addition, some aspects of cellular solids based on honeycomb structures are outlined including the concept of producing both two-phase foams and foams with composite walls.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Prakash, O.; Embury, J.D.; Sinclair, C.; Sang, H. & Silvetti, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Aerogel Materials for High-Temperature Batteries

Description: Siiica aerogels have 1/3 the thermal conductivity of the best commercial composite insulations, or ~13 mW/m-K at 25°C. However, aerogels are transparent in the near IR region of 4-7 µm, which is where the radiation peak from a thermal-battery stack occurs. Titania and carbon- black powders were examined as thermal opacifiers, to reduce radiation at temperatures between 300°C and 600°C, which spans the range of operating temperature for most thermal batteries. The effectiveness of the various opacifiers depended on the loading, with the best overall results being obtained using aerogels filled with carbon black. Fabrication and strength issues still remain, however.
Date: May 4, 1999
Creator: Ashley, Carol S.; Guidotti, Ronald A.; Reed, Scott T. & Reinhardt, Frederick W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: In this investigation, a simple experimental technique, dot-matrix deposition and mapping, was developed to study the full-field deformation in a polymeric foam specimen. One of the advantages of using this technique is that it can be easily applied to situations where large deformations are involved. The spatial resolution of the current technique is not as high as the digital image correlation method and some other optical techniques. Nevertheless, because the largest cell diameter of the polyurethane foam studied in this investigation is about 1 mm, the smallest length scale over which the polymeric foam material can be treated as a homogeneous solid would be at least several millimeters. For the element size used in the present study in the range of 2.5 x 2.5 mm, the dot-matrix deposition and mapping technique would provide enough detail about the behavior of polymeric foam materials under complicated deformation states and under complicated loading conditions. It will also provide useful information to compare with numerical simulations so that the constitutive models can be validated.
Date: March 1, 2001
Creator: LIU, C. & AL, ET
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foam Micromechanics

Description: Foam evokes many different images: waves breaking at the seashore, the head on a pint of Guinness, an elegant dessert, shaving, the comfortable cushion on which you may be seated... From the mundane to the high tech, foams, emulsions, and cellular solids encompass a broad range of materials and applications. Soap suds, mayonnaise, and foamed polymers provide practical motivation and only hint at the variety of materials at issue. Typical of mukiphase materiaIs, the rheoIogy or mechanical behavior of foams is more complicated than that of the constituent phases alone, which may be gas, liquid, or solid. For example, a soap froth exhibits a static shear modulus-a hallmark of an elastic solid-even though it is composed primarily of two Newtonian fluids (water and air), which have no shear modulus. This apparent paradox is easily resolved. Soap froth contains a small amount of surfactant that stabilizes the delicate network of thin liq- uid films against rupture. The soap-film network deforms in response to a macroscopic strain; this increases interracial area and the corresponding sur- face energy, and provides the strain energy of classical elasticity theory [1]. This physical mechanism is easily imagined but very challenging to quantify for a realistic three-dimensional soap froth in view of its complex geome- try. Foam micromechanics addresses the connection between constituent properties, cell-level structure, and macroscopic mechanical behavior. This article is a survey of micromechanics applied to gas-liquid foams, liquid-liquid emulsions, and cellular solids. We will focus on static response where the foam deformation is very slow and rate-dependent phenomena such as viscous flow can be neglected. This includes nonlinear elasticity when deformations are large but reversible. We will also discuss elastic- plastic behavior, which involves yield phenomena. Foam structures based on polyhedra packed to fill space provide a unify- ing geometrical theme. Because a ...
Date: November 3, 1998
Creator: Kraynik, A.M.; Neilsen, M.K.; Reinelt, D.A. & Warren, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Weapon foam accelerated aging using dynamic mechanical analysis

Description: Rigid polyurethane foams are used for supports and as encapsulants for electronic assemblies in almost all weapon systems. Mechanical properties (storage, loss, rubbery, and glassy moduli) of three foams are being evaluated; the test scheme is illustrated. Aging tests are also being run on the long-term performance of foams being used in the Russian Fissile Material Container; there was no significant change in the glass transition temperature, glassy modulus, or rubbery modulus after one year of aging.
Date: March 1, 1996
Creator: Rand, P.B. & Hance, B.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved Efficiency of Miscible C02 Floods and Enhanced Prospects for C02 Flooding Heterogeneous Reservoirs

Description: In this quarter, we used parallel isolated composite core to test the effectiveness of foam on oil recovery efficiency. This composite core differs from the previous core in two areas: 1) Pyrex® glass beads were used in the center region to form a high permeability region and 2) a fired Berea sandstone was used in the annulus region to form a low permeability region. We also started to conduct surfactant adsorption measurements on coreflooding substrates. Static measurements with three anionic surfactants were conducted on Pyrex® glass beads. Surfactant concentrations were determined to calculate the amount of surfactant adsorbed on the substrate. The preliminary results showed that the loss of surfactant due to adsorption at 500 ppm concentration were 0.34 mg/cm 3 , 0.29 mg/cm 3 , and 0.19 mg/cm 3 for surfactants Alipa®CD128, Chaser�CD1040 and Dowfax�8390, respectively. Simulations were performed to assess the applicability of horizontal wells as a tool to increase oil recovery in CO2 injection projects.
Date: July 7, 1998
Creator: Schechter, David S. & Grigg, Reid B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of polyurethane systems which contain low levels of free TDI

Description: EN-7, EN-8, and EN-9 are polyurethane systems that are used in numerous applications in the Department of Energy complex. These systems contain high levels of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Currently, TDI is being treated as a suspect human carcinogen within the Department of Energy complex. This report documents the results of a material characterization study of three polyurethane systems that contain low levels of free (potentially airborne) TDI. The characterization has been accomplished by performing a set of statistically designed experiments. The purpose of these experiments is to explore the effects of formulation and cure schedule on various material properties. In general, the material properties (pot life, glass transition temperature, hardness, and tear strength) were relatively insensitive to variation in the cure schedule. On the other hand, variation in curative level had measurable effects on material properties for the polyurethane systems studied. Furthermore, the material properties of the three low-free-TDI polyurethane systems were found to be comparable or superior (for certain curative levels) to commonly-used polyurethane systems. Thus, these low-free-TDI systems appear to be viable candidates for applications where a polyurethane is needed.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Myers, R.L. & Thomas, E.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nanostructural engineering of organic aerogels

Description: Aerogels are a special class of open-cell foams with an ultrafine cell/pore size (<50 nm), high surface area (400-1100 M{sup 2}/g), and a solid matrix composed of interconnected colloidal-like particles or fibers with characteristic diameters of 10 nm. This paper examines the correlation between nanostructure and thermal conductivity in a series of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels prepared under different synthetic conditions.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Pekala, R.W.; Alviso, C.T.; Lu, X.; Caps, R. & Frocle, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department