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Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

Description: Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.
Date: June 30, 2006
Creator: Fan, Zhen; Goidich, Steve; Robertson, Archie & Wu, Song
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of heat transfer and combustion in the advanced fluidized bed combustor (FBC)

Description: The objective of this project is to predict the heat transfer and combustion performance in newly-designed fluidized bed combustor (FBC) and to provide the design guide lines and innovative concept for small-scale boiler and furnace. The major accomplishments are summarized.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Lee, Dr. Seong W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Second-Generation PFBC Systems R&D

Description: No work was performed; the two remaining Multi Annular Swirl Burner test campaigns are on hold pending selection of a new test facility (replacement for the shut down UTSI burner test facility) and identification of associated testing costs. The Second-Generation PFB Combustion Plant conceptual design prepared in 1987 is being updated to reflect the benefit of pilot plant test data and the latest advances in gas turbine technology. The updated plant is being designed to operate with 95 percent sulfur capture and a single Siemens Westinghouse (SW) 501G gas turbine. Using carbonizer and gas turbine data generated by Foster Wheeler (FW) and SW respectively, Parsons Infrastructure & Technology prepared preliminary plant heat and material balances based on carbonizer operating temperatures of 1700 and 1800 F and found the former to yield the higher plant efficiency. As a result, 1700 F has been selected as the preferred operating condition for the carbonizer. The 501G gas turbine has an air compressor discharge temperature of 811EF and an exhaust temperature of 1140 F. Both of these streams represent high sources of heat and must be cooled, the air to 600 F to be compatible with a 650 F PCFB pressure vessel design temperature and the exhaust for a 275 F stack gas temperature. Because of their relatively high temperature, they can be used for feed water heating, steam generation and/or steam superheating and reheating. As a result, the plant could have one boiler (the PCFB boiler), or as many as three boilers if their cooling is used to generate steam. If the two streams are used to heat feed water, the feed water flow must be increased to absorb this heat while staying below the boiling point, and the steam turbine output increases; this decreases both the gas turbine to steam turbine power ...
Date: April 30, 2000
Creator: Robertson, Archie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Second Generation PFBC Systems R&D

Description: No work was performed; the two remaining Multi Annular Swirl Burner test campaigns are on hold pending selection of a new test facility (replacement for the shut down UTSI burner test facility) and identification of associated testing costs. The Second-Generation PFB Combustion Plant conceptual design prepared in 1987 is being updated to reflect the benefit of pilot plant test data and the latest advances in gas turbine technology. The updated plant is being designed to operate with 95 percent sulfur capture and a single Siemens Westinghouse (SW) 501G gas turbine. Using carbonizer and gas turbine data generated by Foster Wheeler (FW) and SW respectively, Parsons Infrastructure & Technology prepared preliminary plant heat and material balances based on carbonizer operating temperatures of 1700 and 1800 F; the former yielded the higher plant efficiency and has been selected for the design update. The 501G gas turbine has an air compressor discharge temperature of 811EF and an exhaust temperature of 1140 F. Both of these streams represent high sources of heat and must be cooled, the air to 600 F to be compatible with a 650 F PCFB pressure vessel design temperature and the exhaust for a 275 F stack gas temperature. Because of their relatively high temperature, they can be used for feed water heating, steam generation and/or steam superheating and reheating. As a result, the plant could have one boiler (the PCFB boiler), or as many as three boilers if their cooling is used to generate steam. Three different plant arrangements using one, two and then three boilers were considered with the three-boiler arrangement minimizing the feedwater flow/steam turbine size and maximizing the plant efficiency. After reviewing the three arrangements it was felt the operating complexity associated with a three-boiler plant did not justify the 1/2 point increase in plant efficiency ...
Date: August 31, 2000
Creator: Robertson, Archie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure fluctuations as a diagnostic tool for fluidized beds. Technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

Description: Additional pressure fluctuation data was recorded from the ISU power plants two CFB boilers. Absolute pressure fluctuations were measured immediately above the distributor nozzles and near the top of the CFB boilers. The fluctuations measured near the bottom of the bed exhibit a highly oscillatory (0.25-0.3 Hz) phenomena. This {open_quotes}square wave{close_quotes} pressure signal is observed at all times of the day and under different boiler loadings. Steps were taken to insure that abasing was not the cause of the observed pressure dynamics. It is hypothesized that these fluctuations are the result of the coal feed system, and are not related to the CFB hydrodynamics. Pressure fluctuations measured near the top of the bed do not show this dominant periodic behavior attributed to the coal feed system. The Bode plots of pressure fluctuations in this region show a near -40 dB/decade roll-off and a cornering frequency of around 0.07 Hz. This result suggests that the pressure dynamics in industrial scale CFBs may be governed by a wave phenomenon similar to that observed in the laboratory scale circulating fluidized beds. This result cannot be confined until more is known about the boiler control dynamics, and more extensive boiler instrumentation is available.
Date: April 20, 1996
Creator: Brown, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1995

Description: The report summarizes progress in design, fabrication, and construction activities. Progress on the fluid bed combustor, piping, fuel feeding system, ash system, and the control and instrumentation design is described. The report lists the construction activities completed during this quarter which included bed tubes installation, fan inlet flow measuring duct, bag filter, silencers for roots blowers, electric power cabling connections, light distributor panel and transformer installation inside the control panel, steam/water recirculation piping, fine coal receiving vent filter, and partial painting of ash silo and boiler.
Date: December 31, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

Description: The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal or coal refuse, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and Cofiring Alternatives. The major emphasis of work during this reporting period was to assess the types and quantities of potential feedstocks and collect samples of them for analysis. Approximately twenty different biomass, animal waste, and other wastes were collected and analyzed.
Date: October 9, 2000
Creator: Miller, Bruce G. & Jawdy, Curtis
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

Description: The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, work focused on completing the biofuel characterization and the design of the conceptual fluidized bed system.
Date: July 13, 2001
Creator: Miller, Bruce G.; Miller, Sharon Falcone; Cooper, Robert; Donovan, Douglas; Gaudlip, John; Lapinsky, Matthew et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental and computational studies of hydrodynamics in three-phase and two-phase fluidized beds

Description: The objective of the present study was to investigate the hydrodynamics of three-phase fluidized beds, their rheology, and experimentally verify a predictive three fluid hydrodynamic model developed at the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago. The recent reviews show that there exist no such models in the literature. The IIT hydrodynamic model computes the phase velocities and the volume fractions of gas, liquid, and particulate phases. Model verification involves a comparison of these computed velocities and volume fractions to experimental values. In this thesis, a three fluid model is presented. The input into the model can be particulate viscosities either measured with a Brookfield viscometer or derived using the mathematical techniques of kinetic theory of granular flows pioneered by Savage and others. The computer simulation of a three-phase fluidized bed in an asymmetric mode qualitatively predicts the gas, liquid and solid hold-ups (volume fractions) and flow patterns in the industrially important churn-turbulent (bubbly coalesced) regimes. The computations in a fluidized bed with a symmetric distributor incorrectly showed no bubble coalescence. A combination of X-ray and {gamma}-ray densitometers was used to measure the solids and the liquid volume fractions in a two dimensional bed in the bubble coalesced regime. There is a good agreement between the theory for an asymmetric distributor and the experiments.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Bahary, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

Description: The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, work focused on performing the design of the conceptual fluidized bed system and determining the system economics.
Date: January 18, 2001
Creator: Miller, Bruce G.; Miller, Sharon Falcone; Cooper, Robert; Donovan, Douglas; Gaudlip, John; Lapinsky, Matthew et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

Description: The Pennsylvania State University, utilizing funds furnished by the U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Power Program, investigated the installation of a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The study was performed using a team that included personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. The activities included assessing potential feedstocks at the University Park campus and surrounding region with an emphasis on biomass materials, collecting and analyzing potential feedstocks, assessing agglomeration, deposition, and corrosion tendencies, identifying the optimum location for the boiler system through an internal site selection process, performing a three circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler design and a 15-year boiler plant transition plan, determining the costs associated with installing the boiler system, developing a preliminary test program, determining the associated costs for the test program, and exploring potential emissions credits when using the biomass CFB boiler.
Date: March 26, 2003
Creator: Miller, Bruce G.; Miller, Sharon Falcone; Cooper, Robert; Gaudlip, John; Lapinsky, Matthew; McLaren, Rhett et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

Description: The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives.
Date: July 12, 2002
Creator: Miller, Bruce G.; Miller, Sharon Falcone; Cooper, Robert; Donovan, Douglas; Gaudlip, John; Lapinsky, Matthew et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure fluctuations as a diagnostic tool for fluidized beds. Technical progress report, October 1, 1995--December 30, 1995

Description: Experimentation was conducted to determine the nature of bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) pressure fluctuations. The goal of the experiments was to explain the physical phenomena that governs the structure of pressure fluctuations. A study of the effect of the differential pressure tap spacing was conducted. The results confirmed the hypothesis that spatial aliasing can significantly distort expected fluctuation structure. The behavior of bubbling bed fluctuations was compared to previously published theories that predicted the natural frequency of incipiently fluidized beds. A modified theory was derived for fluidized systems which better predicts the observed frequency in shallow fluidized beds. This theory not only predicts the natural frequency of bed oscillations, but also explains the second order system behavior observed in bubbling fluidized bed Bode plots. The effect of bubble coalescence in deep bed acts both to decrease the frequency of bed oscillations and to complicate the observed frequency response with multiple peaks.
Date: January 15, 1996
Creator: Brown, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Topping PCFB combustion plant with supercritical steam pressure

Description: Research is being conducted to develop a new type of coal fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant, called a second generation or topping pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustion (topping PCFB) plant, offers the promise of efficiencies greater than 46 percent (HHV), with both emissions and a cost of electricity that are significantly lower than conventional pulverized coal fired plants with scrubbers. The topping PCFB plant incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a carbonizer, the combustion of carbonizer char in a pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustor (PCFB), and the combustion of carbonizer fuel gas in a topping combustor to achieve gas turbine inlet temperatures of 2,300 F and higher. After completing pilot plant tests of a carbonizer, a PCFB, and a gas turbine topping combustor, all being developed for this new plant, the authors calculated a higher heating value efficiency of 46.2 percent for the plant. In that analysis, the plant operated with a conventional 2,400 psig steam cycle with 1,000 F superheat and reheat steam and a 2.5 inch mercury condenser back pressure. This paper identifies the efficiency gains that this plant will achieve by using supercritical pressure steam conditions.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Robertson, A. & White, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure fluctuations as a diagnostic tool for fluidized beds. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1996

Description: The pressure fluctuations in the transition regime between bubbling fluidization and fast fluidization were investigated using system identification techniques. The results show that the voidage waves and surface eruption effects seen in bubbling fluidized beds are also observed in the transition regime fluctuations. In addition, a third frequency phenomenon is observed in the spectrum which is hypothesized to be a surface wave phenomenon analogous to surface waves in water. The validity of previously derived similitude parameters for bubbling fluidized beds (BFB) was investigated using spectral analysis of pressure fluctuations. When BFB similitude parameters are matched in two different beds, the pressure dynamics are similar under most conditions, suggesting that the correct similitude parameters have been defined for BFBs.
Date: July 10, 1996
Creator: Brown, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

Description: The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives.
Date: March 31, 2001
Creator: Miller, Bruce G.; Miller, Sharon Falcone; Cooper, Robert; Donovan, Douglas; Gaudlip, John; Lapinsky, Matthew et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of hot-gas filter ash under PFBC operating conditions

Description: The objective of this program was to perform bench scale dynamic tests of ash formation and long-term ash cake formation in pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) systems to help in the development of methods to predict possible filter bridging problems and suggest possible strategies for mitigating these problems. During the program, four ash formation tests using a washed coal from the Consol Enlow Fork mine, with two size distributions of Plum Run dolomite at two different temperatures, were completed under conditions simulating the operation of the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd PFBC. In addition, the same test matrix, plus two tests using no sorbent, was completed with the Belle Ayr Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal, which will be used at the Southern Company Services (SCS) Wilsonville, Alabama, power systems development facility (PSDF).
Date: January 1998
Creator: Henderson, A. K.; Swanson, M. L.; Hurley, J. P. & Watne, T. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Final report

Description: ThermoChem, under contract to the Department of Energy, conducted extensive research, development and demonstration work on a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor (PAFBC) to confirm that advanced technology can meet these performance objectives. The ThermoChem/MTCI PAFBC system integrates a pulse combustor with an atmospheric bubbling-bed type fluidized bed combustor (BFBC) In this modular configuration, the pulse combustor burns the fuel fines (typically less than 30 sieve or 600 microns) and the fluidized bed combusts the coarse fuel particles. Since the ThermoChem/MTCI PAFBC employs both the pulse combustor and the AFBC technologies, it can handle the full-size range of coarse and fines. The oscillating flow field in the pulse combustor provides for high interphase and intraparticle mass transfer rates. Therefore, the fuel fines essentially burn under kinetic control. Due to the reasonably high temperature (>1093 C but less than the temperature for ash fusion to prevent slagging), combustion of fuel fines is substantially complete at the exit of the pulse combustor. The additional residence time of 1 to 2 seconds in the freeboard of the PAFBC unit then ensures high carbon conversion and, in turn, high combustion efficiency. A laboratory unit was successfully designed, constructed and tested for over 600 hours to confirm that the PAFBC technology could meet the performance objectives. Subsequently, a 50,000 lb/hr PAFBC demonstration steam boiler was designed, constructed and tested at Clemson University in Clemson, South Carolina. This Final Report presents the detailed results of this extensive and successful PAFBC research, development and demonstration project.
Date: March 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure fluctuations as a diagnostic tool for fluidized beds. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1995

Description: The first phase of experimentation for the comprehensive similitude study on the two laboratory scale cold-model circulating fluidized beds has been completed. This first phase required the acquisition and analysis of pressure fluctuation data from a 2.0 inch diameter pressurized circulating fluidized bed. The second phase required the matching of each of the 20 experiments in a cold-model twice the size of the smaller 2.0 inch circulating fluidized bed model using similitude relations. Problems of excessive electrostatic buildup were encountered in this second phase. To alleviate these problems, the large model had to be redesigned and reconstructed. The focus of the research this past quarter has been devoted to these modifications. Currently, the new sections have been constructed and the modified circulating fluidized bed is in the process of reassembly. Two related projects were undertaken while the large circulating fluidized bed model was being modified. A bubbling bed was constructed such that pressure fluctuation data could be measured in both bubbling and turbulent fluidization regimes. The purpose of such tests was to relate pressure fluctuation structure in the lower sections of the circulating fluidized bed with phenomena observed in bubbling/turbulent regimes. Two probes designed to measure heat transfer coefficients in the large and small circulating fluidized bed models were completed and initially tested under bubbling bed conditions. These tests insured the validity and accuracy of the bed to surface heat transfer coefficient measurement. The two probes were constructed as an additional means of validating similitude relations in circulating fluidized beds in addition to pressure fluctuations.
Date: July 14, 1995
Creator: Brown, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot gas cleanup test facility for gasification and pressurized combustion project. Quarterly report, October--December 1995

Description: The objective of this project is to evaluate hot gas particle control technologies using coal-derived gas streams. This will entail the design, construction, installation, and use of a flexible test facility which can operate under realistic gasification and combustion conditions. The conceptual design of the facility was extended to include a within scope, phased expansion of the existing Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility Cooperative Agreement to also address systems integration issues of hot particulate removal in advanced coal-based power generation systems. This expansion included the consideration of the following modules at the test facility in addition to the original Transport Reactor gas source and Hot Gas Cleanup Units: Carbonizer/pressurized circulating fluidized bed gas source; hot gas cleanup units to mate to all gas streams; combustion gas turbine; and fuel cell and associated gas treatment. This expansion to the Hot Gas Cleanup Test Facility is herein referred to as the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). The major emphasis during this reporting period was continuing the detailed design of the facility towards completion and integrating the balance-of-plant processes and particulate control devices (PCDs) into the structural and process designs. Substantial progress in construction activities was achieved during this quarter.
Date: February 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure fluctuations as a diagnostic tool for fluidized beds. Technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

Description: Comprehensive experimentation has been conducted to determine whether circulating fluidized bed (CFB) pressure fluctuations can be used to verify that similitude conditions in circulating fluidized beds have been achieved. Using two geometrically similar CFB models, pressure fluctuations were recorded while the full set of similitude parameters were matched under a broad range of operating conditions. The method of data acquisition and analysis is shown to be very important in order to observe the significant frequency phenomena. Under relatively dilute conditions similar power spectral density and Bode plot profiles are observed in the two geometrically similar beds. The dominant frequency under these dilute conditions is inversely proportional to the characteristic CFB dimension. Under conditions of higher solids loading, an additional lower bed frequency phenomena is observed in the spectrum which may be a function of the depth of the lower dense bed in the CFB. It is evident from the results that under some operating conditions, a single dimensionless frequency is not sufficient to validate the achievement of similitude using pressure fluctuations. The results also suggest that the use of similitude parameters as they are currently defined is limited to dilute operating conditions, prior to the formation of a lower dense CFB.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Brown, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department