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Preliminary Data on Rain Deflection from Aircraft Windshields by Means of High-Velocity Jet-Air Blast

Description: A preliminary experimental investigation is being conducted to determine the feasibility of preventing rain from impinging on aircraft windshields by means of high-velocity jet-air blast. The results indicate that rain deflection by jet blast appears feasible for flight speeds comparable with landing and take-off speeds of interceptor-type jet aircraft; however, attainment of good visibility through the mist generated by raindrop breakup presents a problem. For the simulated windshield and the lower windshield angles used in the investigation, air-flow rates of the order of 3.3 pounds per minute of unheated air per inch of windshield span were required for adequate rain deflection at a free-stream velocity of 135 miles per hour. A method has been devised whereby it is possible to produce large-diameter water drops (1000 to 1500 p.) in a moving air stream, without breakup, at speeds in excess of 175 miles per hour.
Date: July 25, 1955
Creator: Ruggeri, Robert S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impingement of Water Droplets on an NACA 65(sub 1) -212 Airfoil at an Angle of Attack of 4 Deg

Description: The trajectories of droplets in the air flowing past an NACA 651-212 airfoil at an angle of attack of 40 were determined. The collection efficiency, the area of droplet impingement, and the rate of droplet impingement were calculated from the trajectories and are presented herein.
Date: September 10, 1952
Creator: Brun, Rinaldo J.; Serafini, John S. & Moshos, George J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of High-Subsonic Performance Characteristics of a 12 Degree 21-Inch Conical Diffuser, Including the Effects of Change in Inlet-Boundary-Layer Thickness

Description: Investigations were conducted of a 12 degree 21-inch conical diffuser of 2:l area ratio to determine the interrelation of boundary layer growth and performance characteristics. surveys were made of inlet and exit from, longitudinal static pressures were recorded, and velocity profiles were obtained through an inlet Reynolds number range, determined From mass flows and based on inlet diameter of 1.45 x 10(exp 6) to 7.45 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number range of 0.11 to approximately choking. These investigations were made to two thicknesses of inlet boundary layer. The mean value, over the entire range of inlet velocities, of the displacement thickness of the thinner inlet boundary layer was approximately 0.035 inch and that of the thicker inlet boundary layer was approximately six times this value. The loss coefficient in the case of the thinner inlet boundary layer had a value between 2 to 3 percent of the inlet impact pressure over most of the air-flow range. The loss coefficient with the thicker inlet boundary layer was of the order of twice that of the thinner inlet boundary layer at low speeds and approximately three times at high speeds. In both cases the values were substantially less than those given in the literature for fully developed pipe flow. The static-pressure rise for the thinner inlet boundary layer was of the order of 95 percent of that theoretically possible over the entire speed range. For the thicker inlet boundary layer the static pressure rise, as a percentage of that theoretically possible, ranged from 82 percent at low speeds to 68 percent at high speeds.
Date: March 24, 1950
Creator: Copp, Martin R. & Klevatt, Paul L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compressible Flow Tables for Air

Description: This paper contains a tabulation of functions of the Mach number which are frequently used in high-speed aerodynamics. The tables extend from M = 0 to M = 10.0 in increments of 0.01 and are based on the assumption that air is a perfect gas having a specific heat ratio of 1.400.
Date: January 1, 1947
Creator: Burcher, Marie A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Data from Tests of a 1/5-Scale Model of a Proposed High-Speed Submarine in the Langley Full-Scale Tunnel

Description: Tests of a 1/5 scale model of a proposed 153-foot high-speed submarine have been conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel at the request of the Bureau of Ships, Department of the Navy. The test program included: (1) force tests to determine the drag, control effectiveness, and static stability characteristics for a number of model configurations, both in pitch and in yaw, (2) pressure measurements to determine the boundary-layer conditions and flow characteristics in the region of the propeller, and (3) an investigation of the effects of propeller operation on the model aerodynamic characteristics. In response to oral requests from the Bureau of Ships representatives t hat the basic data obtained in these tests be made available to them as rapidly as possible, this data report has been prepared to present some of the more pertinent results. All test results given in the present paper are for the propeller-removed condition and were obtained at a Reynolds number of approximately 22,300,000 based on model length.
Date: May 9, 1950
Creator: Cocke, Bennie W.; Lipson, Stanley & Scallion, William I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Some External Crosswise Stiffeners on the Heat Transfer and Pressure Distribution on a Flat Plate at Mach Numbers of 0.77, 1.39, and 1.98. Coord. No. AF-AM-69

Description: The heat transfer and pressures on the surfaces of several flat-plate models with various external crosswise stiffener arrangements are presented. The tests were made in a free jet at Mach numbers of 0.77, 1.39, and 1.98 for Reynolds numbers of 3 x 10(exp 6), 7 x 10(exp 6), and 14 x 10(exp 6), respectively, based on a length of 1 foot. The addition of external crosswise stiffeners to the flat-plate models caused large pressure and heat-transfer variations on the surfaces of the models.
Date: May 14, 1957
Creator: Carter, Howard S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boundary-Layer-Transition and Heat-Transfer Measurements from Flight Tests of Blunt and Sharp 50 Degree Cones at Mach Numbers from 1.7 to 4.7

Description: Boundary-layer-transition and heat-transfer measurements were obtained from flight tests of blunt and sharp cones having apex angles of 50 deg. The test Mach number range was from 1.7 to 4.7, corresponding to free-stream Reynolds numbers, based on cone base diameter, of 18. 3 x 10(exp 6) and 32.1 x 10(exp 6), respectively. Transition on both models occurred at a local Reynolds number of 1 x 10(exp 6) to 2 X 10(exp 6) based on distance from the stagnation point. Transition Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness were between 320 and 380 for the blunt cone. The model surface roughness was 25 rms microinches or greater. Turbulent heat transfer to the conical surface of the blunt cone at a Mach number of 4 was 30 percent less than that to the surface of the sharp cone. Available theories predicted heat-transfer coefficients reasonably well for the fully laminar or turbulent flow conditions.
Date: April 18, 1957
Creator: Chauvin, Leo T. & Speegle, Katherine C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Analytical Investigation of the Heat Losses from a U.S. Navy K-Type Airship

Description: The heat losses from the envelope surface of a U.S. Navy K-type airship are evaluated to determine if the use of heat is a feasible means of preventing ice and snow accumulations on lighter-than-air craft during flight and when moored uncovered. Consideration is given to heat losses in clear air (no liquid water present in the atmosphere) and in probable conditions of icing and snow. The results of the analysis indicate that the amount of heat required in flight to raise the surface temperature of the entire envelope to the extent considered adequate for ice protection, based on experience with tests of heavier-than-air craft, is very large. Existing types of heating equipment which could be used to supply this quantity of heat would probably be too bulky and heavy to provide a practical flight installation. The heat requirements to provide protection for the nose and stern regions in assumed mild to moderate icing conditions appear to be within the range of the capacity of current types of heating equipment suitable for flight use. The amount of heat necessary to prevent snow accumulations on the upper surface of the airship envelope when moored uncovered under all conditions appear to be excessive for the heating equipment presently available for flight use, but could possibly be achieved with auxiliary ground heating equipment.
Date: December 20, 1946
Creator: Hillendahl, Wesley H. & George, Ralph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Investigation at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds of a Fighter Model Employing a Low-aspect-ratio Unswept Wing and a Horizontal Tail Mounted Well above the Wing Plane - Lateral and Directional Stability

Description: The static lateral- and directional-stability characteristics of a high-speed fighter-type airplane, obtained from wind-tunnel tests of a model, are presented. The model consisted of a thin, unswept wing of aspect ratio 2.3 and taper ratio 0.385, a body, and a horizontal tail mounted in a high position on a vertical tail. Rolling-moment, yawing moment, and cross-wind-force coefficients are presented for a range of sideslip angles of -5 deg. to +5 deg, for Mach numbers of 0.90, 1.45, and 1.90. Data are presented which show the effects on the lateral and directional stability of: (1) component parts of the complete model, (2) modification of the empennage so as to provide different heights of the horizontal tail above the wing plane, (3) angle of attack, and (4) dihedral of the wing.
Date: August 26, 1954
Creator: Wetzel, Benton E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Air-Flow Distribution and Total-Pressure Loss on Performance of One-Sixth Segment of Turbojet Combuster

Description: An investigation has been conducted on a one-sixth segment of an annular turbojet combustor to determine the effects of modification in air-flow distribution and total-pressure loss on the performance of the segment. The performance features investigated during this series of determinations were the altitude operational limits and the temperature-rise efficiency. Altitude operational limits of the combustor segment, for the 19XB engine using the original combustor-basket design were approximately 38,000 feet at 17,000 rpm and 26,000 feet at 10,000 rpm. The altitude operational limits were approximately 50,000 feet at 17,000 rpm and 38,000 feet at 10,000 rpm for a combustor-basket design in which the air-passage area in the basket was redistributed so as to admit gradually no more than 20 percent of the air along the first half of the basket. In this case the total pressure loss through the combustor segment was not appreciably changed from the total-pressure loss for the original combustor basket design. Altitude operational limits of the combustor segment for the 19XB engine were above 52,000 feet at 17,000 rpm and were approximately 23,000 feet at 10,000 rpm for a combustor-basket design in which the distribution of the air-passage area in the basket was that of the original design but where the total-pressure loss was increased to 19 times the inlet reference kinetic pressure at an inlet-to-outlet density ratio of 2.4. The total-pressure loss for the original design was 14 times the inlet kinetic reference pressure at an inlet-to-outlet density ratio of 2.4.
Date: December 10, 1947
Creator: Hill, Francis U. & Mark, Herman
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat Transfer from High-Temperature Surfaces to Fluids III - Correlation of Heat-Transfer Data for Air Flowing in Silicon Carbide Tube with Rounded Entrance, Inside Diameter of 3/4 Inch, and Effective Length of 12 Inches

Description: A heat-transfer investigation was conducted with air flowing through an electrically heated silicon carbide tube with a rounded entrance, an inside diameter of 3/4 inch, and effective heat-transfer length of 12 inches over a range of Reynolds numbers up to 300,000 and a range of average inside-tube-wall temperatures up to 2500 R. The highest corresponding local outside-tube-wall temperature was 3010 R.
Date: January 1949
Creator: Sams, Eldon W. & Desmon, Leland G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Variation of Local Liquid-Water Concentration About an Ellipsoid of Fineness Ratio 10 Moving in a Droplet Field

Description: Trajectories of water droplets about an ellipsoid of revolution with a fineness ratio of 10 (10 percent thick) in flight through a droplet field were computed with the aid of a differential analyzer. Analyses of these trajectories indicate that the local concentration of liquid water at various points about an ellipsoid varies considerably and under some conditions may be several times the free-stream concentration. Curves of the local concentration factor as a function of spatial position were obtained and are presented in terms of dimensionless parameters that describe flight and atmospheric conditions. The data indicate that the expected local concentration factors should be considered when choosing the location of devices that protrude into the stream from aircraft fuselages or missiles, or when determining antiicing heat requirements for the protection of these devices.
Date: April 1, 1955
Creator: Brun, Rinaldo J. & Dorsch, Robert G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Variation of Local Liquid-Water Concentration About and Ellipsoid of Fineness Ratio 5 Moving in a Droplet Field

Description: Trajectories of water droplets about an ellipsoid of revolution with a fineness ratio of 5 (which often approximates the shape of an aircraft fuselage or missile) were computed with the aid of a differential analyzer. Analyses of these trajectories indicate that the local concentration of liquid water at various points about an ellipsoid in flight through a droplet field varies considerably and under some conditions may be several times the free-stream concentration. Curves of the local concentration factor as a function of spatial position were obtained and are presented in terms of dimensionless parameters Re(sub 0) (free-stream Reynolds number) and K (inertia), which contain flight and atmospheric conditions. These curves show that the local concentration factor at any point is very sensitive to change in the dimensionless parameters Re(sub 0) and K. These data indicate that the expected local concentration factors should be considered when choosing the location of, or when determining antiicing heat requirements for, water- or ice-sensitive devices that protrude into the stream from an aircraft fuselage or missile. Similarly, the concentration factor should be considered when choosing the location on an aircraft of instruments that measure liquid-water content or droplet-size distribution in the atmosphere.
Date: July 1, 1954
Creator: Dorsch, Robert G. & Brun, Rinaldo J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A General Correlation of Temperature Profiles Downstream of a Heated-Air Jet Directed Perpendicularly to an Air Stream

Description: An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the temperature profile downstream of a heated-air jet directed perpendicularly to an air stream. The profiles were determined at several positions downstream of the jet as functions of jet density, jet velocity, freestream density, free-stream velocity, jet temperature, and orifice flow coefficient. A method is presented which yields a good approximation of the temperature profile in terms of dimensionless parameters of the flow and geometric conditions.
Date: September 1, 1951
Creator: Callaghan, E. E. & Ruggeri, R. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impingement of Cloud Droplets on 36.5-Percent-Thick Joukowski Airfoil at Zero Angle of Attack and Discussion of Use as Cloud Measuring Instrument in Dye-Tracer Technique

Description: The trajectories of droplets i n the air flowing past a 36.5-percent-thick Joukowski airfoil at zero angle of attack were determined. The amount of water i n droplet form impinging on the airfoil, the area of droplet impingement, and the rate of droplet impingement per unit area on the airfoil surface were calculated from the trajectories and cover a large range of flight and atmospheric conditions. With the detailed impingement information available, the 36.5-percent-thick Joukowski airfoil can serve the dual purpose of use as the principal element in instruments for making measurements in clouds and of a basic shape for estimating impingement on a thick streamlined body. Methods and examples are presented for illustrating some limitations when the airfoil is used as the principal element in the dye-tracer technique.
Date: September 1, 1957
Creator: Brun, R. J. & Vogt, Dorothea E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impingement of Droplets in 60 Deg Elbows with Potential Flow

Description: Trajectories were determined for water droplets or other aerosol particles in air flowing through 600 elbows especially designed for two-dimensional potential motion. The elbows were established by selecting as walls of each elbow two streamlines of a flow field produced by a complex potential function that establishes a two-dimensional flow around. a 600 bend. An unlimited number of elbows with slightly different shapes can be established by selecting different pairs of streamlines as walls. Some of these have a pocket on the outside wall. The elbows produced by the complex potential function are suitable for use in aircraft air-inlet ducts and have the following characteristics: (1) The resultant velocity at any point inside the elbow is always greater than zero but never exceeds the velocity at the entrance. (2) The air flow field at the entrance and exit is almost uniform and rectilinear. (3) The elbows are symmetrical with respect to the bisector of the angle of bend. These elbows should have lower pressure losses than bends of constant cross-sectional area. The droplet impingement data derived from the trajectories are presented along with equations so that collection efficiency, area, rate, and distribution of droplet impingement can be determined for any elbow defined by any pair of streamlines within a portion of the flow field established by the complex potential function. Coordinates for some typical streamlines of the flow field and velocity components for several points along these streamlines are presented in tabular form. A comparison of the 600 elbow with previous calculations for a comparable 90 elbow indicated that the impingement characteristics of the two elbows were very similar.
Date: October 1, 1956
Creator: Hacker, Paul T.; Saper, Paul G. & Kadow, Charles F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impingement of Droplets in 90 deg Elbows with Potential Flow

Description: Trajectories were determined for droplets in air flowing through 90 deg elbows especially designed for two-dimensional potential motion with low pressure losses. The elbows were established by selecting as walls of each elbow two streamlines of the flow field produced by a complex potential function that establishes a two-dimensional flow around a 90 deg bend. An unlimited number of elbows with slightly different shapes can be established by selecting different pairs of streamlines as walls. The elbows produced by the complex potential function selected are suitable for use in aircraft air-intake ducts. The droplet impingement data derived from the trajectories are presented along with equations in such a manner that the collection efficiency, the area, the rate, and the distribution of droplet impingement can be determined for any elbow defined by any pair of streamlines within a portion of the flow field established by the complex potential function. Coordinates for some typical streamlines of the flow field and velocity components for several points along these streamlines are presented in tabular form.
Date: September 1, 1953
Creator: Hacker, Paul T.; Brun, Rinaldo J. & Boyd, Bemrose
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impingement of Water Droplets on a Sphere

Description: Droplet trajectories about a sphere in ideal fluid flow were calculated. From the calculated droplet trajectories the droplet impingement characteristics of the sphere were determined. Impingement data and equations for determining the collection efficiency, the area, and the distribution of impingement are presented in terms of dimensionless parameters. The range of flight and atmospheric conditions covered in the calculations was extended considerably beyond the range covered by previously reported calculations for the sphere.
Date: November 1, 1955
Creator: Dorsch, Robert G.; Saper, Paul G. & Kadow, Charles F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impingement of Water Droplets on an Ellipsoid with Fineness Ratio 5 in Axisymmetric Flow

Description: The presence of radomes and instruments that are sensitive to water films or ice formations in the nose section of all-weather aircraft and missiles necessitates a knowledge of the droplet impingement characteristics of bodies of revolution. Because it is possible to approximate many of these bodies with an ellipsoid of revolution, droplet trajectories about an ellipsoid of revolution with a fineness ratio of 5 were computed for incompressible axisymmetric air flow. From the computed droplet trajectories, the following impingement characteristics of the ellipsoid surface were obtained and are presented in terms of dimensionless parameters: (1) total rate of water impingement, (2) extent of droplet impingement zone, (3) distribution of impinging water, and (4) local rate of water impingement.
Date: March 1, 1954
Creator: Dorsch, Robert G.; Brun, Rinaldo J. & Gregg, John L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Impingement of Water Droplets on an Ellipsoid with Fineness Ration 10 in Axisymmetric Flow

Description: The presence of radomes and instruments that are sensitive to water films or ice formations in the nose section of all-weather aircraft and missiles necessitates a knowledge of the droplet impingement characteristics of bodies of revolution. Because it is possible to approximate many of these bodies with an ellipsoid of revolution, droplet trajectories about an ellipsoid of revolution with a fineness ratio of 10 were computed for incompressible axisymmetric air flow. From the computed droplet trajectories, the following impingement characteristics of the ellipsoid surface were obtained and are presented in terms of dimensionless parameters: (1) total rate of water impingement, (2) extent of droplet impingement zone, and (3) local rate of water impingement. These impingement characteristics are compared briefly with those previously reported for an ellipsoid of revolution with a fineness ratio of 5.
Date: May 1, 1954
Creator: Brun, Rinaldo J & Dorsch, Robert G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department