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Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

Description: A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.
Date: January 1998
Creator: Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A. & Pennline, Henry W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

Description: Oxidation of Hg0 with any oxidant or converting it to a particle-bound form can facilitate its removal. Two sulfur-chlorine compounds, sulfur dichloride (SCl2) and sulfur monochloride (S2Cl2), were investigated as oxidants for Hg0 by gas phase reaction and by surface-involved reactions in the presence of flyash or activated carbon. The gas phase reaction rate constants between Hg0 and the sulfur/chlorine compounds were determined, and the effects of temperature and the main components in flue gases were studied. The gas phase reaction between Hg0 and SCl2 is shown to be more rapid than the gas phase reaction with chlorine, and the second order rate constant was 9.1(+-0.5) x 10-18 mL-molecules-1cdots-1 at 373oK. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibited the gas phase reaction of Hg0 with sulfur-chlorine compounds. The presence of flyash or powdered activated carbon in flue gas can substantially accelerate the reaction. The predicted Hg0 removal is about 90percent with 5 ppm SCl2 or S2Cl2 and 40 g/m3 of flyash in flue gas. The combination of activated carbon and sulfur-chlorine compounds is an effective alternative. We estimate that co-injection of 3-5 ppm of SCl2 (or S2Cl2) with 2-3 Lb/MMacf of untreated Darco-KB is comparable in efficiency to the injection of 2-3 Lb/MMacf Darco-Hg-LH. Extrapolation of kinetic results also indicates that 90percent of Hg0 can be removed if 3 Lb/MMacf of Darco-KB pretreated with 3percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 is used. Unlike gas phase reactions, NO exhibited little effect on Hg0 reactions with SCl2 or S2Cl2 on flyash or activated carbon. Mercuric sulfide was identified as one of the principal products of the Hg0/SCl2 or Hg0/S2Cl2 reactions. Additionally, about 8percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 in aqueous solutions is converted to sulfide ions, which would precipitate mercuric ion from FGD solution.
Date: July 2, 2008
Creator: Chang, Shih-Ger; Yan, Nai-Qiang; Qu, Zan; Chi, Yao; Qiao, Shao-Hua; Dod, Ray et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The potential for clean energy production using oxy-fuel combustion and integrated pollutant removal

Description: Effective remediation of flue gas produced by an oxy-fuel coal combustion process has been proven at bench scale in the course of cooperative research between USDOE’s Albany Research Center (ARC) and Jupiter Oxygen Corporation. All combustion gas pollutants were captured, including CO2 which was compressed to a liquefied state suitable for sequestration. Current laboratory-scale research and the future of combined oxy-fuel/IPR systems are discussed.
Date: May 1, 2005
Creator: Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Weber, Thomas (Jupiter Oxygen Corporation, Schiller Park, IL 60176). & Summers, Cathy A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel Process for Removal and Recovery of Vapor Phase Mercury

Description: We demonstrated in the Phase I program all key attributes of a new technology for removing mercury from flue gases, namely, a) removal of greater than 95% of both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury, both in the laboratory and in the field b) regenerability of the sorbent c) ability to scale up, and d) favorable economics. The Phase I program consisted of four tasks other than project reporting: Task I-1 � Screen Sorbent Configurations in the Laboratory Task I-2 � Design and Fabricate Bench-Scale Equipment Task I-3 � Test Bench-Scale Equipment on Pilot Combustor Task I-4 � Evaluate Economics Based on Bench-Scale Results In Task I-1, we demonstrated that the sorbents are thermally durable and are regenerable through at least 55 cycles of mercury uptake and desorption. We also demonstrated two low-pressure- drop configurations of the sorbent, namely, a particulate form and a monolithic form. We showed that the particulate form of the sorbent would take up 100% of the mercury so long as the residence time in a bed of the sorbent exceeded 0.1 seconds. In principle, the particulate form of the sorbent could be imbedded in the back side of a higher temperature bag filter in a full-scale application. With typical bag face velocities of four feet per minute, the thickness of the particulate layer would need to be about 2000 microns to accomplish the uptake of the mercury. For heat transfer efficiency, however, we believed the monolithic form of the sorbent would be the more practical in a full scale application. Therefore, we purchased commercially-available metallic monoliths and applied the sorbent to the inside of the flow channels of the monoliths. At face velocities we tested (up to 1.5 ft/sec), these monoliths had less than 0.05 inches of water pressure drop. We tested the monolithic form …
Date: March 9, 1998
Creator: Greenwell, Collin; Roberts, Daryl L.; Albiston, Jason; Stewart, Robin & Broderick, Tom
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Novel Activated Carbon-Based Adsorbents for Control of Mercury Emission From Coal-Fired Power Plants

Description: The overall objective of this study is to evaluate pertinent design and operational parameters that would enable successful application of activated carbon adsorption for the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. The study will evaluate the most suitable impregnate such as sulfur, chloride and other chelating agents for its ability to enhance the adsorptive capacity of activated carbon for mercury vapor under various process conditions. The main process variables to be evaluated include temperature, mercury concentration and speciation, relative humidity, oxygen content, and presence of SO2 and NOx in the flue gas. The optimal amount of impregnate for each of these carbons will be determined based on the exhibited performance. Another important parameter which governs the applicability of adsorption technology for the flue gas clean up is the rate at which vapor phase mercury is being removed from the flue gas by activated carbon. Therefore, the second part of this study will evaluate the adsorption kinetics using the impregnated activated carbons listed above. The rate of mercury uptake will also be evaluated under the process conditions that are representative of coal-fired power plants. Concerned with the ability of the adsorbed mercury to migrate back into the environment once saturated adsorbent is removed from the system, the study will also focus on the mercury desorption rate as a function of the type of impregnate, loading conditions, and the time of contact prior to disposal.
Date: September 8, 1997
Creator: Vidic, Radisav D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High SO2 Removal Efficiency Testing

Description: This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE/PETC project number DE-AC22-92PC91338, "High Efficiency SO2 Removal Testing", for the time period 1 April through 30 June 1997. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO2 removal efficiency. The upgrades being evaluated mostly involve using performance additives in the FGD systems. The "base" project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company�s Big Bend Station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at Hoosier Energy�s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company�s Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy�s Gibson Station (Option III), Duquesne Light�s Elrama Station (Option IV), and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation�s Kintigh Station (Option V). The originally planned testing has been completed for all six sites. However, additional testing is being conducted at the Big Bend Station. The remainder of this document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from technical efforts during the quarter, or results from prior quarters that have not been previously reported. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the third quarter of calendar year 1997. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgment.
Date: July 29, 1997
Creator: Blythe, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High SO2 Removal Efficiency Testing

Description: This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE/PETC project number DE-AC22-92PC91338, "High Efficiency SO2 Removal Testing", for the time period 1 January through 31 March 1997. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO2 removal efficiency. The upgrades being evaluated mostly involve using performance additives in the FGD systems. The "base" project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company�s Big Bend Station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at Hoosier Energy�s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company�s Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy�s Gibson Station (Option III), Duquesne Light�s Elrama Station (Option IV), and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation�s (NYSEG) Kintigh Station (Option V). The originally planned testing has been completed for all six sites. However, additional testing is planned at the Big Bend Station. The remainder of this document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from technical efforts during the quarter, or results from prior quarters that have not been previously reported. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the second quarter of calendar year 1997. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgement.
Date: April 23, 1997
Creator: Blythe, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High SO2 Removal Efficiency Testing

Description: This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE/PETC project number DE-AC22-92PC91338, "High Efficiency SO Removal Testing," for 2 the time period 1 October through 31 December 1996. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO removal efficiency. The upgrades being 2 evaluated mostly involve using performance additives in the FGD systems. The "base" project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company�s Big Bend Station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at Hoosier Energy�s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company�s Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy�s Gibson Station (Option III), Duquesne Light�s Elrama Station (Option IV), and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation�s Kintigh Station (Option V). The originally planned testing has been completed for all six sites. However, additional testing has been planned at the Big Bend Station, and that testing commenced during the current quarter. The remainder of this document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from technical efforts during the quarter, or results from prior quarters that have not been previously reported. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the first quarter of calendar year 1996. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgment.
Date: February 12, 1997
Creator: Blythe, Gary
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flue Gas Cleanup at Temperatures about 1400 C for a Coal Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant: State and Perspectives in the Pressurized Pulverized Coal Combustion (PPCC) Project

Description: The PPCC technology, a combined cycle, requires comprehensive cleaning of the flue gases because coal contains a large variety of minerals and other substances. This would lead to fast destruction of the gas turbine blades due to erosion and corrosion. The present specifications of the turbine manufacturers for the required flue gas quality are at a maximum particulate content of 5 mg/m3 s.t.p., diameter of < 5 {micro}m, and a maximum alkali content < 0.01 mg/m3 s.t.p. The PPCC project is aimed at cleaning the flue gases of pressurized coal combustion. This method will be applied at temperature ranges where the ash is in a liquid state and which will be thus cleaned from coarse particulate material by agglomeration and inertial force separators. Appropriate separating methods are also being investigated and developed for the hazardous gaseous contents, e.g. alkali compounds, which are released during the coal combustion process. The following companies are working on the development within the scope of a collaborative project to find a feasible technical solution: Babcock-Borsig-Power Env. GmbH (BBP Env.), E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, SaarEnergie GmbH, Siemens AG, and Steag AG.
Date: September 18, 2002
Creator: Foerster, M.E.C.; Oeking, K. & Hannes, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents

Description: The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.
Date: September 20, 2002
Creator: Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J. & Lau, F.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 2.0 - Air Quality Assessment, Control, and Analytical Methods Subtask 2.11 - Lactic Acid FGD Additives From Sugar Beet Wastewater

Description: Organic buffers maintain the pH of the scrubber slurry in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) as the SO2 dissolves at the air-liquid interface. Inexpensive acids with an appropriate pKa are required for this application. The pKa of lactic acid (3.86) is between that of the interface and the recirculating slurry and will make soluble calcium ion available in large amounts. Currently lactic acid is somewhat expensive for this use, but this project will develop a new source of inexpensive lactate. Microbial action during the storage and processing of sugar beets forms lactic acid in concentrations as high 14 g/L in the processing water. The concentrations are lower than those occurring in conventional fermentation production of lactic acids, but since a considerable amount of water is involved in the processing of sugar beets in the Red River Valley (1 million gallons/day), a substantial amount of lactic acid or calcium lactate could be recovered as a by- product for use in FGD and other applications.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Olson, Edwin S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Task 2.8 - Mercury Speciation and Capture in Scubber Solutions

Description: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) investigation into health risks associated with mercury emissions from utility steam generators, municipal waste combustion units, and other sources was mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. In anticipation of mercury emission regulation, attention has been focused on quantification of mercury emissions, which require verifiable sampling and analytical techniques. Several sampling and analytical methods are currently under the final stages of development as well as a variety of emission control methods. In particular, wet scrubber systems designed for S2 control in coal-fired utilities have been targeted for mercury control. Conventional wet-scrubbers remove mercury in a variety of soluble oxidized forms. Oxidized mercury is highly water-soluble and can be removed by scrubber slurry, theoretically limited only by gas-film mass transfer. However, since some oxidized mercury forms such as HgClz are borh soluble and volatile, the final fate of mercury trapped in scrubber solutions is unclear. Elemental mercury is not water-soluble, remaining in the vapor state at temperatures through pollution control devices and exiting the stack into the environment. However, notable exceptions to this rule exist. Depending on the type of mercury-sampling method used, an increase ofs 10% in elemental mercury concentrations across wet scrubbers has been metiured but is yet unconllrmed. Also, significant amounts of elemental mercury (metallic form) have been removed during wet scrubber maintenance. In addition, questions concerning 1) the initial speciation between oxidized and elemental forms of mercury in flue gas from coal- fired boilers and 2) the effects of scrubber slurry composition and pH on the mercury species have been raised.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Ness, Sumitra R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SO2 REMOVAL FROM FLUE GASES USING UTILITY SYNTHESIZED ZEOLITES

Description: It is well known that natural and synthetic zeolites (molecular sieves) can adsorb gaseous SO<sub>2</sub> from flue gas and do it more efficiently than lime based scrubbing materials. Unfortunately their cost ($500-$800 per ton) has deterred their use in this capacity. It is also known that zeolites are easy to synthesize from a variety of natural and man-made materials. The overall objective of the current work has been to evaluate the feasibility of having a utility synthesize its own zeolites, on-site, from fly ash and other recycled materials and then use these zeolites to adsorb SO<sub>2</sub> from their flue gases. Work to date has shown that the efficiency of the capture process is related to the degree of crystallinity and the type of zeolite that forms in the samples. Normally, those samples cured at 150°C contained a greater proportion of zeolite and as such were more SO<sub>2</sub> adsorptive than their low-temperature counterparts. However, in order for the project to be successful, on site synthesis must remain an option, i.e. _100°C synthesis. In light of this, the experimental focus now has two aspects. First, compositions of the starting materials are being altered by blending the current suite of fly ashes with other fly ashes, ground glass cullet and silica fume to promote the formation and growth of well crystallized and highly adsorptive zeolites. Second, greater degrees of reaction at significantly lower temperatures are being promote by ball milling the fly ash prior to use, by the use of more concentrated caustic solutions, and by the addition of zeolite seeds to the reactants. In all cases studies will focus on the effect of structure type and degree of conversion on SO<sub>2</sub> adsorption. Future work will concentrate on the study of the effect of weathering on the suitability of converting fly ash into …
Date: October 31, 1998
Creator: GRUTZECK, MICHAEL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

QUANTIFICATION OF MERCURY IN FLUE GAS EMISSION USING BORON-DOPED DIAMOND ELECTROCHEMISTRY

Description: In this project, we have attempted to develop a new technique utilizing Boron-doped diamond (BDD) films to electrochemically detect mercury dissolved in solution via the initial deposition of metallic mercury, followed by anodic linear sweep voltammetry in the range from 10-10{sup -10} M to 10{sup -5} M. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques were employed. The extremely low background current for BDD electrodes compared to glassy carbon (GC) provides a strong advantage in trace metal detection. CV peak currents showed good linearity in the micromolar range. A detection level of 6.8 x 10{sup -10} M was achieved with DPV in 0.1 M KNO{sub 3} (pH = 1) for a deposition time of 20 minutes. Reproducible stripping peaks were obtained, even for the low concentration range. A comparison with GC shows that BDD is superior. Linear behavior was also obtained in the mercury concentration range from 10{sup -10} M to 10{sup -9} M.
Date: August 19, 2003
Creator: Manivannan, A. & Seehra, M.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Sampling Methods to Determine Total and Speciated Mercury in Flue Gas, CRADA 00-F038 Final Report

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Frontier Geosciences, Inc. (FGS) collaborated in the investigation of sampling techniques that measure total and speciated forms of mercury (Hg) in flue gas. The FGS techniques investigated are referred to as the Frontier Sorbent Mercury Speciation (FSMS) method and the Sorbent Total Mercury (STM) method (Prestbo et al. 2001). Testing was conducted over five consecutive days during the week of March 27, 2000, on the 500 lb/hr pilot-scale coal combustion facility located at NETL-Pittsburgh. As a standard for comparison with the FSMS and STM methods, a standardized, draft ASTM method (ASTM 1998), referred to as the Ontario-Hydro (O-H) method, was run simultaneously at the outlet of the pilot unit baghouse. For each O-H sample, two FSMS mercury speciation traps and one STM trap were run. Following sampling, FGS analyzed the FSMS and STM samples, and NETL analyzed the O-H samples. These analytical results from FGS and NETL were combined with sampling data to calculate flue gas mercury concentrations and were then compared. This report presents the results of that comparison.
Date: January 4, 2001
Creator: Frontier Geosciences, Inc.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

Description: The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 2 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments in the mercury reactor are underway and interesting results suggested that a more comprehensive look at catalyzed surface reactions was needed. Therefore, much of the work has focused on the heterogeneous reactions. In addition, various chemical kinetic models have been explored in an attempt to explain some discrepancies between this modeling effort and others.
Date: August 1, 2005
Creator: Lighty, JoAnn S.; Silcox, Geoffrey; Fry, Andrew; Senior, Constance; Helble, Joseph & Krishnakumar, Balaji
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas Annual Report

Description: The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves two experimental scales and a modeling effort. The team is comprised of University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studies include HCl, NOx, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 1 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments in the drop tube are just beginning and a new, speciated mercury analyzer is up and running. A preliminary assessment has been made for the drop tube experiments using the existing model of gas-phase kinetics.
Date: August 1, 2004
Creator: Lighty, JoAnn S.; Silcox, Geoffrey; Fry, Andrew; Senior, Constance & Helble, Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LIFAC Demonstration at Richmond Power and Light Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 Volume II: Project Performance and Economics

Description: The C1ean Coal Technology (CCT) Program has been recognized in the National Energy Strategy as a major initiative whereby coal will be able to reach its full potential as a source of energy for the nation and the international marketplace. Attainment of this goal depends upon the development of highly efficient, environmentally sound, competitive coal utilization technologies responsive to diverse energy markets and varied consumer needs. The CCT Program is an effort jointly funded by government and industry whereby the most promising of the advanced coal-based technologies are being moved into the marketplace through demonstration. The CCT Program is being implemented through a total of five competitive solicitations. LIFAC North America, a joint venture partnership of ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., and Tampella Power Corporation, is currently demonstrating the LIFAC flue gas desulfurization technology developed by Tampella Power. This technology provides sulfur dioxide emission control for power plants, especially existing facilities with tight space limitations. Sulfur dioxide emissions are expected to be reduced by up to 85% by using limestone as a sorbent. The LIFAC technology is being demonstrated at Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, a 60-MW coal-fired power plant owned and operated by Richmond Power and Light (RP&L) and located in Richmond, Indiana. The Whitewater plant consumes high-sulfur coals, with sulfur contents ranging from 2.0-2.9 $ZO. The project, co-funded by LIFAC North America and DOE, is being conducted with the participation of Richmond Power and Light, the State of Indiana, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Black Beauty Coal Company. The project has a total cost of $21.4 million and a duration of 48 months from the preliminary design phase through the testing program.
Date: April 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enhanced control of mercury emissions through modified speciation

Description: In anticipation of possible regulations regarding mercury emissions, research efforts sponsored by DOE, EPRI, and others are investigating the risks posed by mercury emissions, improved techniques for measuring those emissions, and possible control measures. The focus in the control research is on techniques that can be used in conjunction with existing flue-gas-cleanup (FGC) systems in order to minimize additional capital costs and operational complexity. Argonne National Laboratory has supported the DOE Fossil Energy Program for over 15 years with research on advanced environmental control technologies. The emphasis in Argonne`s work has been on integrated systems that combine control of several pollutants. Specific topics have included spray drying for sulfur dioxide and particulate-matter control with high-sulfur coal, combined sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides control technologies, and techniques to enhance mercury control in existing FGC systems. The latter area has focused on low-cost dry sorbents for use with fabric filters or electrostatic precipitators and techniques for improving the capture of mercury in wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. This paper presents results from recent work that has studied the effects of several oxidizing agents in combination with typical flue-gas species (e.g., nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide) on the oxidation of Hg{sup 0}.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Livengood, C. D. & Mendelsohn, M. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonequilibrium sulfur capture and retention in an air cooled slagging coal combustor

Description: Calcium oxide injected in a slagging combustor react with the sulfur from coal combustion to form sulfur bearing particles, which are deposited on the liquid slag layer on the combustor wall. Due to the low solubility of sulfur in slag, it must be drained from the combustor to limit sulfur gas re-evolution. Analysis indicated that slag mass flow rates in excess of 400 lb/hr should limit sulfur re- evolution. The objective of this 36 month project was to perform a series of 16 one day tests to determine the factors that control the retention of the sulfur in the slag. In the present quarterly reporting period, 3 days of combustor tests were performed, bringing the total number of tests performed to 19. Two of the test were a repeat of two tests performed in the previous quarter with a high, 37% ash, Indian coal. The high slag flow rate with that coal resulted in the highest observed sulfur retention to-date, namely 20% of the injected sulfur. In the present quarter, this test was repeated with the same coal feed rate but with 75% longer period of 2.4 hours. The total mineral matter injected was 635 lb/hr, compared to only 19.7 lb/hr of sulfur, of which 75% was from injected gypsum. However, despite excellent slag flow from the previous Indian coal tests, only 5.8% of the sulfur from the gypsum reported to the slag. Since substantial amounts slag remained on the combustor walls, it is concluded that still longer duration tests are required to establish equilibrium conditions. Current efforts are focused on finding a U.S. source of high ash coal to implement additional tests.
Date: August 13, 1997
Creator: Zauderer, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fireside Corrosion

Description: Oxy-fuel fireside research goals are: (1) determine the effect of oxyfuel combustion on fireside corrosion - flue gas recycle choice, staged combustion ramifications; and (2) develop methods to use chromia solubility in ash as an ash corrosivity measurement - synthetic ashes at first, then boiler and burner rig ashes.
Date: July 14, 2011
Creator: Holcomb, Gordon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fireside Corrosion USC Steering

Description: Oxy-Fuel Fireside Research goals are: (1) Determine the effect of oxy-fuel combustion on fireside corrosion - (a) Flue gas recycle choice, Staged combustion ramifications, (c) JCOAL Collaboration; and (2) Develop methods to use chromia solubility in ash as an 'ash corrosivity' measurement - (a) Synthetic ashes at first, then boiler and burner rig ashes, (b) Applicable to SH/RH conditions.
Date: September 7, 2011
Creator: Holcomb, G. R. & Tylczak, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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