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Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols -- FY 2007 Progress Report

Description: The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities.
Date: December 5, 2008
Creator: Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B. & Stevens, Don J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Software Framework for Advanced Power Plant Simulations

Description: This report summarizes the work accomplished during the Phase II development effort of the Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS). The objective of the project is to develop the tools to efficiently combine high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models with process modeling software. During the course of the project, a robust integration controller was developed that can be used in any CAPE-OPEN compliant process modeling environment. The controller mediates the exchange of information between the process modeling software and the CFD software. Several approaches to reducing the time disparity between CFD simulations and process modeling have been investigated and implemented. These include enabling the CFD models to be run on a remote cluster and enabling multiple CFD models to be run simultaneously. Furthermore, computationally fast reduced-order models (ROMs) have been developed that can be 'trained' using the results from CFD simulations and then used directly within flowsheets. Unit operation models (both CFD and ROMs) can be uploaded to a model database and shared between multiple users.
Date: August 1, 2010
Creator: Widmann, John; Munteanu, Sorin; Jain, Aseem; Gupta, Pankaj; Moales, Mark; Ferguson, Erik et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SRAT CHEMISTRY AND ACID CONSUMPTION DURING SIMULATED DWPF MELTER FEED PREPARATION

Description: Due to higher than expected hydrogen generation during the Tank 51-Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) qualification run, DWPF engineering requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to expand the ongoing catalytic hydrogen generation program. The work presented in this Technical Report was identified as part of SRNL/Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) meetings to define potential causes of catalytic hydrogen generation as well as from an external technical review panel commissioned to evaluate SRNL hydrogen related data and programs. New scope included improving the understanding of SRAT/SME process chemistry, particularly as it related to acid consumption and hydrogen generation. The expanded hydrogen program scope was covered under the technical task request (TTR): HLW-DWPF-TTR-2007-0016. A task technical and quality assurance plan (TT&QAP) was issued to cover focus areas raised in meetings with LWO plus a portion of the recommendations made by the review panel. A supporting analytical study plan was issued. It was also noted in the review of catalytic hydrogen generation that control of the DWPF acid stoichiometry was an important element in controlling hydrogen generation. A separate TTR was issued to investigate ways of improving the determination of the acid requirement during processing: HLWDWPF-TTR-0015. A separate TT&QAP was prepared for this task request. This report discusses some progress on this task related to developing alternative acid equations and to performing experimental work to supplement the existing database. Simulant preparation and preliminary flowsheet studies were already documented. The prior work produced a sufficient quantity of simulant for the hydrogen program and melter feed rheology testing. It also defined a suitable acid addition stoichiometry. The results presented in this report come from samples and process data obtained during sixteen 22-L SRAT/SME simulations that were performed in the second half of 2007 to produce eight SME products with frit 418 and a matching set of ...
Date: December 3, 2008
Creator: Koopman, D; David Best, D & Bradley Pickenheim, B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

Description: The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utility's 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes an investigation of the secondary classification characteristics of the ash feedstock excavated from the lower ash pond at Ghent Station. The secondary classification testing was concluded using a continuous demonstration-scale lamella classifier that was operated at a feed rate of 0.3 to 1.5 tons/hr. Feed to the secondary classifier was generated by operating the primary classifier at the conditions shown to be effective previously. Samples were taken while the secondary classifier was operated under a variety of conditions in order to determine the range of conditions where the unit could be efficiently operated. A Topical Report was prepared and included all of the pertinent processing data generated during Budget Period 1 of the project as well as results of beneficiated ash product evaluations in mortar and concrete, schematic plant designs with mass and water balances for the four flowsheets tested with equipment lists, capital and installation costs, expected product outputs and equipment justifications. A proposal for continuation of the project to Budget Period 2 was also prepared and submitted, with the exception of a Letter of Commitment from Cemex. The proposal is currently under internal review with Cemex and a decision is expected by the end of September, 2006.
Date: June 30, 2006
Creator: Groppo, John & Robl, Thomas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

Description: DOE Vision 21 project requirements for the support of Global CAPE-OPEN Reaction Kinetics interfaces in Aspen Plus 12 was written (Task 2.4). The software design document was written and posted on the project web site. Intergraph started work on a proof of concept demo of the physical domain software (Task 2.6). The COM-side (Aspen Plus) and CORBA-side (Fluent) pieces of the Vision 21 controller code were written and independently verified. The two pieces of the code were then combined. Debugging of the combined code is underway (Task 2.7). Papers on fuel cell processes were read in preparation for developing an example based on a fuel cell process (Task 2.8). The INDVU code has been used to replace the boiler component in the Aspen Plus flowsheet of the RP&L power plant. The INDVU code receives information from Aspen Plus and iterates on the split backpass LTSH bypass and excess air quantities until the stipulated superheat outlet temperature is satisfied. The combined INDVU-Aspen Plus model has been run for several load conditions (Task 2.14). Work on identifying a second demonstration case involving an advanced power cycle has been started (Task 3.2). Plans for the second Advisory Board meeting in November were made (Task 5.0). Intergraph subcontract was signed and work on a physical domain software demo was started. A second teleconference with Norsk Hydro was conducted to discuss Global CAPE-OPEN standards and issues related to COM-CORBA Bridge (Task 7.0).
Date: October 20, 2001
Creator: Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technetium removal: preliminary flowsheet options

Description: This document presents the results of a preliminary investigation into options for preliminary flowsheets for 99Tc removal from Hanford Site tank waste. A model is created to show the path of 99Tc through pretreatment to disposal. The Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) flowsheet (Orme 1995) is used as a baseline. Ranges of important inputs to the model are developed, such as 99Tc inventory in the tanks and important splits through the TWRS flowsheet. Several technetium removal options are discussed along with sensitivities of the removal schemes to important model parameters
Date: October 24, 1995
Creator: Eager, K.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic analysis of ethanol production from switchgrass using hybrid thermal/biological processing

Description: The economics of ethanol production from switchgrass using Waterloo fast pyrolysis with a fermentation step is investigated. Standard chemical engineering methods are used to estimate capital investment and operating costs. Order of magnitude method is employed for preliminary approximation of capital investment. The azeotropic ethanol production capacity used in this case study is 189 million liters/year (50 million gallons/year). All cost figures are updated to 1997 US $. Total capital investment is estimated to be $142 million, while the annual operating cost is about $118 million with an ethanol selling price of $0.62/l ($2.35/gal). This compares to $0.58/l ($2.20/gal) for ethanol from popular wood as determined in a previous study of the Waterloo fast pyrolysis process. Conservation of energy, especially, in the separation and purification steps, and generation of steam from lignin to meet energy requirements are evaluated in terms of energy saving costs. Additional steam has to be purchased, at $0.30 million/year, in order to meet the heat energy requirement of the process. Sensitivity analyses of feedstock cost and yield of sugar fermentation on the selling price of ethanol show that feedstock cost is positively related to ethanol selling price, while the yield has a negative relationship with selling price.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: So, K.S.; Brown, R.C. & Scott, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improvement of storage, handling, and transportability of fine coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

Description: The objectives of this project are to demonstrate that: The Mulled Coal process, which has been proven to work on a wide range of wet fine coals at bench scale, will work equally well on a continuous basis, producing consistent quality at a convincing rate of production in a commercial coal preparation plant. The wet product from a fine coal cleaning circuit can be converted to a solid fuel form for ease of handling and cost savings in storage and rail car transportation. A wet fine coal product thus converted to a solid fuel form, can be stored, shipped, and burned with conventional fuel handling, transportation, and combustion systems. During this fourth quarter of the contract period, activities were underway under Tasks 2 and 3. Sufficient characterization of the bench-scale testing and pilot-plant testing results enabled the design and procurement activities to move forward. On that basis, activities in the areas of design and procurement that had been initiated during the previous quarter were conducted and completed.
Date: August 20, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improvement of storage, handling, and transportability of fine coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

Description: The Mulled Coal process was developed as a means of overcoming the adverse handling characteristics of wet fine coal without thermal drying. The process involves the addition of a low cost harmless reagent to wet fine coal using off-the-shelf mixing equipment. Based on laboratory- and bench-scale testing, Mulled Coal can be stored, shipped, and burned without causing any of the plugging, pasting, carryback and freezing problems normally associated with wet coal. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate that: The Mulled Coal process, which has been proven to work on a wide range of wet fine coals at bench scale, will work equally well in a commercial coal preparation plant. The wet product from a fine coal cleaning circuit can be converted to a solid fuel form for ease of handling and cost savings in storage and rail car transportation. A wet fine coal product thus converted to a solid fuel form can be stored, shipped, and burned with conventional fuel handling, transportation, and combustion systems. The Mulled Coal circuit was installed in an empty bay at the Chetopa Preparation Plant. Equipment has been installed to divert a 2.7 tonnes/hr (3 tons/hr) slipstream of the froth concentrate to a dewatering centrifuge. The concentrated wet coal fines from the centrifuge dropped through a chute directly into a surge hopper and feed system for the Mulled Coal circuit. The Mulled Coal product was gravity discharged from the circuit to a truck or product discharge area from which it will be hauled to a stockpile located at the edge of the clean coal stockpile area. During the 3-month operating period, the facility produced 870 tonnes (966 tons) of the Muffed Coal for evaluation in various storage, handling, and transportation equipment and operations. Immediately following the production demonstration, the circuit was disassembled and ...
Date: August 22, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mixed Waste Treatment Project: LLNL and LANL computer simulations of integrated flowsheets

Description: Computer simulations of mixed waste processing flowsheets using ASPEN PLUS process simulation software were completed by a joint Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/Los National Laboratory (LLNL/LANL) effort for the US Department of Energy Mixed Waste Treatment Project. The LLNL model used relatively detailed synthesized chemical ``cocktails`` to simulate waste streams. The LANL approach used less detail but made extensive use of simple steam splitters and thermodynamic coal models for combustible waste compositions. The two modeling approaches agreed within 16% for the product streams and within 25% for the auxiliary fuel rate. The discrepancy between the auxiliary fuel rates was traced to different methods of handling organics in lab packs and scintillation vials with the process models. The ASPEN models are valuable tools for evaluating waste processing flowsheets.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Camp, D.W.; Dietsche, L.J.; Upadhye, R.S.; Borduin, L.C.; Pendergrass, J.A. & Thompson, T.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solvent extraction studies of coprocessing flowsheets: Results from Campaign 6 of the Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF)

Description: A series of five solvent extraction tests were made in the Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF) during Campaign 6. Each test used a coprocessing flowsheet that included coextraction-coscrubbing of the heavy metals followed by partial partitioning of the uranium and plutonium into separate uranium and uranium-plutonium products. The separation of the uranium and plutonium was aided by the addition of HNO{sub 2} to the organic backscrub stream. Two of these tests compared the performance of the traditional Purex solvent, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), with a potential replacement, tri-2-ethylhexyl phosphate (TEHP). The remaining three tests were made with a chemically-degraded TBP solvent to compare the effectiveness of two solvent cleanup methods - treatment with silica gel or scrubbing with sodium carbonate and water.
Date: November 1, 1986
Creator: Benker, D.E.; Bigelow, J.E.; Chattin, F.R.; Collins, E.D.; King, L.J.; Ross, R.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plutonium(IV) oxalate precipitation and calcination process for plutonium nitrate to oxide conversion

Description: The Plutonium(IV) Oxalate Precipitation and Calcination Process for converting plutonium nitrate to plutonium oxide is described for a 100-kg plutonium per day (Pu/day/ throughput facility. Block flow diagrams, equipment flowsheets, and stream material balances are included. Advantages and disadvantages of the process, additional research and development necessary, and history of the process are also discussed. This report is one of a series describing various processes for converting plutonium nitrate to oxide. This information in this report should be used when comparing the various processes, and as a starting point for development of a prototype or plant-scale facility.
Date: July 26, 1978
Creator: Greintz, R.M. & Neal, D.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EXPLORATORY RESEARCH ON NOVEL COAL LIQUEFACTION CONCEPT

Description: The report presents a summary the work performed under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-95PC95050. Investigations performed under Task 4--Integrated Flow Sheet Testing are detailed. In this program, a novel direct coal liquefaction technology was investigated by CONSOL Inc. with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and LDP Associates. The process concept explored consists of a first-stage coal dissolution step in which the coal is solubilized by hydride ion donation. In the second stage, the products are catalytically upgraded to refinery feedstocks. Integrated first-stage and solids-separation steps were used to prepare feedstocks for second-stage catalytic upgrading. An engineering and economic evaluation was conducted concurrently with experimental work throughout the program. Approaches to reduce costs for a conceptual commercial plant were recommended at the conclusion of Task 3. These approaches were investigated in Task 4. The economic analysis of the process as it was defined at the conclusion of Task 4, indicates that the production of refined product (gasoline) via this novel direct liquefaction technology is higher than the cost associated with conventional two-stage liquefaction technologies.
Date: November 30, 1998
Creator: Brandes, S.D. & Winschel, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

Description: This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process.
Date: June 26, 2001
Creator: Harmon, H.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solvent extraction studies with intermediate-burnup Fast Flux Test Facility fuel in the Solvent Extraction Test Facility

Description: In Campaign 8, two batches of irradiated fuel from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) were processed, using 30% TBP-NPH, in the Solvent Extraction Test Facility (SETF). The burnups were about 36 and 55 MWd/kg with 1.3- and 1-year cooling times, respectively. The latter fuel had the highest burnup and shortest cooling time of any fuel ever handled in the SETF. No major problems were noted during the operation of the mixer-settlers, and low uranium and plutonium losses (<0.02%) were achieved. Zirconium and ruthenium decontamination factors (DFs) were improved by increasing the number of scrub stages and increasing the peak solvent loading in the coextraction-coscrub bank. The use of an in-line photometer to measure the uranium and plutonium concentrations in a process stream permitted high solvent loadings of heavy metals to be achieved in the extraction bank while maintaining low losses to the aqueous raffinate. The investigation of two flowsheet options for making separate uranium and plutonium products (organic backscrub and selective uranium extraction) that was started in Campaign 7 was continued. High-quality products were again obtained (uranium and plutonium DFs of {similar_to}0{sup 4}). Plutonium reoxidation was still extensive even though hydrazine was added to the aqueous strip for the organic backscrub flowsheet. Two different plutonium oxalate precipitation procedures [Pu(III) and Pu(IV)] were used in the preparation of the plutonium oxide products; this was done so that the fuel fabrication characteristics of the oxide from the two procedures could be compared. A total of {similar_to}50 g of plutonium was recovered and shipped to the fuel refabrication program.
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: Benker, D. E.; Bigelow, J. E.; Bond, W. D.; Chattin, F. R.; King, L. J.; Kitts, F. G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanical design and construction new transport reactor system. Second quarterly progress report, January--March 1995

Description: During the last quarter, the detailed mechanical design of the new reactor system was completed and construction of the unit was well underway. The new design includes a mixing zone, riser reactor, cyclone, and downcomer as well as instrumentation, heating elements, insulation, and a structural system for supporting the unit. Design modifications were also made to the hydrocarbon feed system. There were no changes required for the downstream sections which cool and condition the reactor product gas, recover liquid products (if any), and measure product gas make. Construction of the unit is expected to be completed by early May, with shakedown runs beginning immediately after. Installation of the electrical windings, insulation of the unit, erection, hook-up, and checkout are the main items yet to be completed. It is expected that the unit will be ready for test work in the latter part of May. The initial tests planned are both pyrolysis runs and partial oxidation runs using a simulated aromatic naphtha feed. Later this year, heavier hydrocarbon feeds will be tested.
Date: April 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 25, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

Description: A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. This progress report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings.
Date: December 31, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank 241-B-203 Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

Description: This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements in accordance with the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Babad and Redus 1994). This Data Quality Objective (DQO) is described in the Tank Characterization Plan (Jo, 1995) for tank 241-B-203 (B-203). This SAP will also identify procedures and requirements for collecting and characterizing samples from tank B-203 by the core sampling method.
Date: May 16, 1995
Creator: Jo, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Material balance flowsheet Redox Production plant

Description: The attached material balance flowsheet for the proposed Redox Production plant is based on the two chemical flowsheets submitted by R.B. Richards of the Technical Division in HW 13,320 (INDC-3130) and HW 13,452 (INDC 3176). Production rates for the plant have been assumed as 2.5 short tone U per day (including a maximum of 0.75 short tons of U from stored Bi PO{sub 4} waste) and 19 kg. Pu per month (633 gms/day) as established by the Redox Committee. The flowsheets for preparation of solvent extraction feed from Bi PO{sub 4} waste, as well as the waste treatment systems will be covered in a future document.
Date: June 6, 1949
Creator: Tomlinson, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

COMPCOAL{trademark}: A profitable process for production of a stable high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin coal

Description: This report describes the Western Research Institute (WRI) COMPCOAL{trademark} process which is designed to produce a stable, high-Btu fuel from Powder River Basin (PRB) and other low-rank coals. The process is designed to overcome the problems of oxidation and spontaneous combustion, readsorption of moisture, and dust formation from the friable coal. PRB coal is susceptible to low-temperature oxidation and self-heating, particularly after it has been dried. This report describes a method WRI has developed to prevent self-heating of dried PRB coal. The ``accelerated aging`` not only stabilizes the dried coal, but it also increases the heating value of the COMPCOAL product. The stabilized COMPCOAL product has a heating value of 12,000 to 12,700 Btu/lb, contains 35 to 40 wt % volatiles, and is comparable to unprocessed PRB coal in self-heating and low-temperature oxidation characteristics. Importantly, the self-heating tendency can be controlled by slightly adjusting the ``aging`` step in the process.
Date: July 1, 1993
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation. Quarterly technical progress report No. 26, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

Description: A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO{sub 2} emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery. The overall project scope of the engineering development project is to conceptually develop a commercial flowsheet to maximize pyritic sulfur reduction at practical energy recovery values. This is being accomplished by utilizing the basic research data on the surface properties of coal, mineral matter and pyrite obtained from the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Fine Coal Flotation Project, to develop this conceptual flowsheet. This progress report provides a summary of the technical work undertaken during this period, highlighting the major results. A brief description of the work done prior to this quarter is provided in this report under the task headings.
Date: July 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department