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Acoustic Flowmeter Prototype Evaluation Tests

Description: Summary: "Prototype tests of an acoustic flowmeter system were made in a 24-ftdiam power penstock at Oahe Dam to evaluate the system prior to permanent installation in the outlet works at Summersville Dam. Comparative discharge measurements included acoustic, penstock pressure-momentum (Gibson), turbine model test ratings, scroll-case pressure differential (Winter-Kennedy flowmeter), and surge tank volume changes. The acoustic flowmeter measurements were very consistent and many of the comparisons were within 1%. The location of the measuring section for a single-path acoustic flowmeter must be selected to give a known or measurable relation between the flow pattern of the whole section and that along the acoustic path" (p. xi).
Date: January 1968
Creator: Pickett, Ellis B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Empirical Correlations for Thermal Flowmeters Covering a Wide Range of Thermal-Physical Properties

Description: Thermal flowmeters can provide direct mass flow measurement of gases and vapors over a wide range of process conditions without the need for density corrections based on pressure and temperature. They are widely used in industrial processes that contain toxic, corrosive, or highly reactive gases. It is often not possible to calibrate the flowmeter on the process gas in which it will be used. In this case a non-hazardous �surrogate� gas is used for calibration, and a theoretical model used to predict the meter�s response in the process gas. This can lead to large measurement errors because there are no accurate and straightforward methods for predicting the performance on one kind of gas based on the calibration on another gas because of the complexity of the thermal processes within the flow sensor. This paper describes some of the commonly used models and conversion methods and presents work done at ORNL to develop and experimentally verify better thermal models for predicting flowmeter performance.
Date: July 19, 1999
Creator: Hardy, J.E.; Hylton, J.O. & McKnight, T.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Instrument for Gravimetric Calibration of Flow Devices with Corrosive Gases

Description: An instrument was developed for the direct mass flow calibration of gas flowmeters that does not require measurement of temperature, pressure, or specific volume. This instrument measures the weight of gas collected in a container and makes measuring those thermodynamic variables unnecessary. The need to measure the weight of the gas container is eliminated by submerging it in a liquid (presently water) and balancing its weight with the force of buoyancy. The accuracy of this Gravimetric Calibrator is unaffected by the pressure and temperature of the gas. The Calibrator can also measure reactive, corrosive, and non-ideal gases. The container remains connected to the process by a torsion capillary, and a load cell measures the changing gas weight continuously throughout the measuring process. A prototype was designed for gas flows ranging from 1 sccm of hydrogen to 10,000 sccm of tungsten hexafluoride, constructed, tested, and used to calibrate flow devices. Experience with the prototype and results are presented, and plans for further developments are discussed.
Date: June 27, 1999
Creator: Hylton, J. O. & Remenyik, C. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electromagnetic Borehole Flowmeter Testing at the Southwest Plume Test Pad

Description: Multiple-well aquifer tests were recently conducted at the Southwest Plume Test Pad near the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) in accordance with the BGC Field Investigation Plan (WSRC, 1999). The pumping tests were performed in the Upper Three Runs and Gordon aquifers in February and March of 1999. The tests provide reliable estimates of horizontal conductivity averaged over aquifer thickness, and a relatively large horizontal zone of influence.
Date: January 29, 2001
Creator: Flach, G.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Real-Time Measurement of Vehicle Exhaust Gas Flow

Description: A flow measurement system was developed to measure, in real-time, the exhaust gas flow from vehicies. This new system was based on the vortex shedding principle using ultrasonic detectors for sensing the shed vortices. The flow meter was designed to measure flow over a range of 1 to 366 Ips with an inaccuracy of ~1o/0 of reading. Additionally, the meter was engineered to cause minimal pressure drop (less than 125mm of water), to function in a high temperature environment (up to 650oC) with thermal transients of 15 oC/s, and to have a response time of 0.1 seconds for a 10% to 90!40 step change. The flow meter was also configured to measure hi-directional flow. Several flow meter prototypes were fabricated, tested, and calibrated in air, simulated exhaust gas, and actual exhaust gas. Testing included gas temperatures to 600oC, step response experiments, and flow rates from O to 360 lps in air and exhaust gas. Two prototypes have been tested extensively at NIST and two additional meters have been installed in exhaust gas flow lines for over one year. This new flow meter design has shown to be accurate, durabIe, fast responding, and to have a wide rangeabi~ity.
Date: June 28, 1999
Creator: Hardy, J.E.; Hylton, J.O.; Joy, R.D. & McKnight, T.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

Description: Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.
Date: January 30, 2007
Creator: Andersen C, Hoogendoom S, Hudson B, Prince J, Teichert K, Wood J, Chase K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Joint inversion of crosshole radar and seismic traveltimes acquired at the South Oyster BacterialTransport Site

Description: The structural approach to joint inversion, entailing common boundaries or gradients, offers a flexible way to invert diverse types of surface-based and/or crosshole geophysical data. The cross-gradients function has been introduced as a means to construct models in which spatial changes in two models are parallel or anti-parallel. Inversion methods that use such structural constraints also provide estimates of non-linear and non-unique field-scale relationships between model parameters. Here, we invert jointly crosshole radar and seismic traveltimes for structurally similar models using an iterative non-linear traveltime tomography algorithm. Application of the inversion scheme to synthetic data demonstrates that it better resolves lithological boundaries than the individual inversions. Tests of the scheme on observed radar and seismic data acquired within a shallow aquifer illustrate that the resultant models have improved correlations with flowmeter data than with models based on individual inversions. The highest correlation with the flowmeter data is obtained when the joint inversion is combined with a stochastic regularization operator, where the vertical integral scale is estimated from the flowmeter data. Point-spread functions shows that the most significant resolution improvements of the joint inversion is in the horizontal direction.
Date: April 15, 2008
Creator: Linde, Niklas; Tryggvason, Ari; Peterson, John & Hubbard, Susan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commissioning Measurements and Experience Obtained from the Installation of a Fissile Mass Flow monitor in the URAL Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) in Novouralsk

Description: The Blend Down Monitoring System (BDMS) equipment sent earlier to the Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) at Novouralsk, Russia, was installed and implemented successfully on February 2, 1999. The BDMS installation supports the highly enriched uranium (HEU) Transparency Implementation Program for material subject to monitoring under the HEU purchase agreement between the United States of America (USA) and the Russian Federation (RF). The BDMS consists of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fissile (uranium-235) Mass Flow Monitor (FMFM) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Enrichment Monitor (EM). Two BDMS�s for monitoring the Main and Reserve HEU blending process lines were installed at UEIP. Independent operation of the FMFM Main and FMFM Reserve was successfully demonstrated for monitoring the fissile mass flow as well as the traceability of HEU to the product low enriched uranium. The FMFM systems failed when both systems were activated during the calibration phase due to a synchronization problem between the systems. This operational failure was caused by the presence of strong electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the blend point. The source-modulator shutter motion of the two FMFM systems was not being properly synchronized because of EMI producing a spurious signal on the synchronization cable connecting the two FMFM cabinets. The signature of this failure was successfully reproduced at ORNL after the visit. This unexpected problem was eliminated by a hardware modification and software improvements during a recent visit (June 9-11, 1999) to UEIP, and both systems are now operating as expected.
Date: July 25, 1999
Creator: March-Leuba, J.; Mastal, E.; Powell, D.; Sumner, J.; Uckan, T. & Vines, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test plan 241-C-103 natural breathing characteristics evaluation using the ultra sensitive flowmeter

Description: To facilitate the reduction of worker exposure to hazardous fumes and vapors, it is imperative to characterize and measure flows out of waste tanks that breathe due to atmospheric pressure changes. These measurements will lead to a better understanding of how these tanks breathe and thus will aid in better worker exposure control at lower cost.
Date: February 13, 1995
Creator: Hertelendy, N. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION

Description: The primary focus of this reporting period was to prepare for conducting the ocean carbon sequestration field experiment during the summer of 2002. We discuss four key aspects of this preparation: (1) Design criteria for a CO{sub 2} flow system mounted on a ship; (2) Inter-model comparison of plume models; (3) Application of a double plume model to compute near field mixing; and (4) Evaluation of tracers.
Date: September 1, 2002
Creator: Herzog, Howard J. & Adams, E. Eric
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FLUORINE DISPOSAL USING CHARCOAL

Description: Wood, coke, and coconut-shell charcoals were evaluated for fluorine entrapment. The coconut-shell charcoal produced the smallest amount of solid and liquid reaction products. Efficient removal of fluorine was accomplished by the coconut-shell charcoal in a 5-in.-diameter reactor with a feed containing 25% fluorine at flow rates from 100 to 400 scfh and reactor-wall temperatures of 1200 to 1800 deg F. (C.J.G.)
Date: July 26, 1960
Creator: Houston, N.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

D0 Silicon Upgrade: Flowdyne Flow Element Information for D-Zero Upgrade

Description: This engineering note provides the information used for purchasing two venturi flowmeters and one orifice flowmeter. One venturi and one orifice performance curve is provided along with the purchasing information. Performance data is also given to supplement the performance curves.
Date: October 3, 1995
Creator: Kuwazaki, Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A STUDY OF THE MECHANICAL IMPEDANCE TO FLOW IN THE FEMORAL PERIPHERAL VASCULAR BED OF THE DOG

Description: The mechanical impedance to blood flow in the hind limb of the dog was studied, and a dynamic relationship among the various factors affecting blood flow was derived. The blood flow through the femoral artery was routed through external polyethylene tubing containing an electromagnetic flowmeter and a Statham pressure transducer. The pulsatile blood pressure and the blood flow were displayed simultaneously on a dual-beam oscilloscope and recorded on 35-mm film. The pressure and the flow curves were then analyzed for their respective Fourier component frequencies. The Fourier analysis was performed with a frequency converter and a wave analyzer. The mechanical impedance is calculated by dividing the amplitude of each pressure harmonic by the amplitude of the corresponding flow harmonic. The average mechanical impedance vs. frequency curve has two resonant frequencies: one between 3.6 and 4.6 cps and the other between 5.6 and 7.0 cps. The impedance has a minimum value of about 1.2 peripheral resistance units at each resonant frequency. The flow vs. frequency and the pressure vs. frequency curves are also described. A theoretical electrical analog is hypothesized. This circuit consists of two arms in parallel, each arm containing an inductance and a resistance in series with a parallel capacitance and resistance. The impedence equations for the analog circuit are derived, and the impedancefrequency curve of the circuit is qualitatively constructed. This constructed curve agrees with experimental observation. The dynamic relationships existing among the elastance, inertial, and frictional factors affecting blood flow are discussed. (auth)
Date: July 1, 1960
Creator: Yanof, H M & Stacy, R W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A TRAPEZOIDAL-WAVE ELECTROMAGNETIC BLOOD FLOWMETER

Description: The electromagnetic flowmeter is an instrument that measures the velocity of a fluid moving in a tube or pipe. By constraining the vessel in a sleeve, flow may be measured directly. A magnetic field crosses the tube at 90 deg to the axis of the tube and to the plane of the electrcdes. As the ions in the fiuid pass the magnetic field, a voltage is induced in the electrode. This fiowmeter is different from existing fiowmeters because of the unique trapezoidal waveform that energizes the magnet. It was found that there are serious difficulties with electromagnetic flowmeters using sine waves or square waves. The trapezoidal-wave electromagnetic blocd flowmeter is described. This new flowmeter is compared with other types of electromagnetic flowmeters. The construction of the transducer element is also discussed. (auth)
Date: June 1, 1960
Creator: Yanof, H M & Salz, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detrimental Effects of Natural Vertical Head Gradients on Chemical and Water Level Measurements in Observation Wells: Identification and Control

Description: It is well known that vertical head gradients exist in natural aquifer systems, and borehole flowmeter data have shown that such gradients commonly set up spontaneous vertical flows in monitoring wells, often called ambient flows. What has not been fully appreciated until recently is the serious detrimental effects such flows can have on solute concentration and hydraulic head measurements in monitoring wells. This communication explores the possibilities of diminishing ambient flows by increasing the hydraulic resistance to vertical flow within monitoring wells and limiting the penetration of such wells. Analyzed also are the surprising effects that vertical gradients may have on the equilibrium water level in a monitoring well. Results are based on collected data, numerical flow simulations, and hydraulic analysis in the near-well vicinity.
Date: December 19, 2002
Creator: Flach, G.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In situ permeable flow sensor - OST reference No. 99. Subsurface contaminants focus area

Description: This summary reports describes the In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor (ISPFS) developed to directly measure the direction and velocity of groundwater flow at a point in saturated soil sediments. The ISPFS provides information for locating, designing, and monitoring waste disposal sites, and for monitoring remediated waste sites. The design and performance are described and compared to alternative methods. Economic, regulatory, and policy issues are discussed. Applicability of the ISPFS to specific situations is also summarized. 8 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: February 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Porous Medium Permeability by Acoustic Logging Finds Geothermal Applications

Description: In a well, after an acoustic waveform has circulated through the surrounding porous media, the study of its alteration can help in evaluating their permeability. The treatment of the acoustic compressional wave's first three cycles yields a unique parameter called I-c. The recording of this I-c log all along any open hole interval is now possible by respecting some practical rules known by logging companies. Large flows of fluid found in geothermal low-enthalpy operations have provided an opportunity to check the validity of this method. Cumulative I-c derived permeability with depth (''EXAFLO'' log) correlates with the flowmeter log, as examples will show. Some new aspects of the theory underlying the I-c/permeability relationship have been developed and are described here.
Date: January 21, 1986
Creator: Conche, B.; Lebreton, F. & Rojas, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Letter Report: Borehole Flow and Horizontal Hydraulic Conductivity with Depth at Well ER-12-4

Description: Borehole flow and fluid temperature during pumping were measured at well ER-12-4 at the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. This well was constructed to characterize the carbonate aquifer. The well is cased from land surface to the total depth at 1,132 m (3,713 ft bgs) below ground surface (bgs). The screened section of the well consists of alternating sections of slotted well screen and blank casing from 948 to 1,132 m bgs (3,111 to 3,713 ft bgs). Borehole flow velocity (LT-1) with depth was measured with an impeller flowmeter from the top of the screened section to the maximum accessible depth while the well was pumped and under ambient conditions. A complicating factor to data interpretation is that the well was not filter packed and there is upward and downward vertical flow in the open annulus under ambient and pumping conditions. The open annulus in the well casing likely causes the calculated borehole flow rates being highly nonrepresentative of inflow from the formation. Hydraulic conductivities calculated under these conditions would require unsupportable assumptions and would be subject to very large uncertainties. Borehole hydraulic conductivities are not presented under these conditions.
Date: December 31, 2005
Creator: Oberlander, Phil L. & Russell, Charles E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department