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Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and ResultingConcentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids

Description: Experiments were conducted to quantify emissions and concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids from cleaning product and air freshener use in a 50-m{sup 3} room ventilated at {approx}0.5 h{sup -1}. Five cleaning products were applied full-strength (FS); three were additionally used in dilute solution. FS application of pine-oil cleaner (POC) yielded 1-h concentrations of 10-1300 {micro}g m{sup -3} for individual terpenoids, including {alpha}-terpinene (90-120), d-limonene (1000-1100), terpinolene (900-1300), and {alpha}-terpineol (260-700). One-hour concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and/or dlimonene were 300-6000 {micro}g m{sup -3} after FS use of other products. During FS application including rinsing with sponge and wiping with towels, fractional emissions (mass volatilized/dispensed) of 2-butoxyethanol and d-limonene were 50-100% with towels retained, {approx}25-50% when towels were removed after cleaning. Lower fractions (2-11%) resulted from dilute use. Fractional emissions of terpenes from FS use of POC were {approx}35-70% with towels retained, 20-50% with towels removed. During floor cleaning with dilute solution of POC, 7-12% of dispensed terpenes were emitted. Terpene alcohols were emitted at lower fractions: 7-30% (FS, towels retained), 2-9% (FS, towels removed), and 2-5% (dilute). During air-freshener use, d-limonene, dihydromyrcenol, linalool, linalyl acetate, and {beta}-citronellol were emitted at 35-180 mg d{sup -1} over three days while air concentrations averaged 30-160 {micro}g m{sup -3}.
Date: August 1, 2005
Creator: Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T. & Nazaroff,William W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of the quantities and distribution of K East Basin floor sludge constituents

Description: Floor sludge constituent masses and their spatial distribution within K East Basin were calculated. This information will be beneficial in the assessing the acceptability of K Basin sludge in the Tank Waste Remediation System and in the design and/or operational practices related to retrieval and handling of this K Basin sludge. Calculations were made based on results from recent laboratory chemical and radionuclides analyses of sludge sampled from thirteen locations in K East main basin. This concentration data was mathematically processed to determine the various constituents concentration distribution throughout the basin floor. This data was further processed, along with data previously generated from the analysis of measured sludge depths, to give both basin total masses and associated spatial distribution of the various sludge constituents. Results of these calculations, showed that the major gravimetric constituents of the sludge are iron (1505 kg), uranium (1387 kg), aluminum, sodium and c2@15cium. Significant amounts of fissionable materials were also calculated: u (9.92 kg) and 239pU (3.42 kg). The calculated distribution of sludge constituent masses showed distinct patterns. Sludge constituent associated with corroded spent nuclear fuel were concentrated near the north-west corner of the basin. Aluminum and iron, and many other elements are mainly located near the mouth of the South Load Out Pit. A value of 10,200 Ci of alpha (5%) + beta (95%) radioactivity was calculated for the total basin floor sludge, and was concentrated near the north-west corner of the basin and near the Dummy Elevator Pit.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Hecht, S.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Refinishing contamination floors in Spent Nuclear Fuels storage basins

Description: The floors of the K Basins at the Hanford Site are refinished to make decontamination easier if spills occur as the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is being unloaded from the basins for shipment to dry storage. Without removing the contaminated existing coating, the basin floors are to be coated with an epoxy coating material selected on the basis of the results of field tests of several paint products. The floor refinishing activities must be reviewed by a management review board to ensure that work can be performed in a controlled manner. Major documents prepared for management board review include a report on maintaining radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable, a waste management plan, and reports on hazard classification and unreviewed safety questions. To protect personnel working in the radiation zone, Operational Health Physics prescribed the required minimum protective methods and devices in the radiological work permit. Also, industrial hygiene safety must be analyzed to establish respirator requirements for persons working in the basins. The procedure and requirements for the refinishing work are detailed in a work package approved by all safety engineers. After the refinishing work is completed, waste materials generated from the refinishing work must be disposed of according to the waste management plan.
Date: July 11, 1997
Creator: Huang, F.F. & Moore, F.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual Variation of Temperature Field and Heat Transfer Under Heated Ground Surfaces (Slab-on-Grade Floor Heat Loss Calculation)

Description: Report issued by the National Bureau of Standards over studies conducted on sub-surface temperatures and heat transfer. Testing methods are discussed. This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: June 1983
Creator: Kusuda, Tamami; Piet, O. & Bean, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physico-Chemical Dynamics of Nanoparticle Formation during Laser Decontamination

Description: Laser-ablation based decontamination is a new and effective approach for simultaneous removal and characterization of contaminants from surfaces (e.g., building walls, ground floors, etc.). The scientific objectives of this research are to: (1) characterize particles generated during laser decontamination, (2) develop a technique for simultaneous cleaning and verification, and (3) develop a model for predicting particle generation. The research will provide fundamental data regarding the particle generation mechanisms, and a model for prediction of particle generation such that an effective control strategy can be devised to facilitate worker protection.
Date: June 1, 2004
Creator: Cheng, M.-D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tune measurement methods of the Tevatron

Description: We will discuss several methods for measuring the tunes in the Tevatron. These methods can be separated into three classes: active, passive and hybrid. In the active method, the beam is tickled in order to obtain a frequency response. In the passive method, a Schottky detector which uses a resonant stripline is used to measure the Schottky spectrum of the beam. In the hybrid method, we tickle the beam using kickers, or the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) in order to bring the tune signal above the noise floor of the Schottky detectors. An automatic tune fitting algorithm is also under development which allows us to measure the tune without human intervention.
Date: June 10, 2003
Creator: Tan, Cheng-Yang; Zhang, Xiaolong & Lebrun, Paul
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Changing ventilation rates in U.S. offices: Implications for health, work performance, energy, and associated economics

Description: This paper provides quantitative estimates of benefits and costs of providing different amounts of outdoor air ventilation in U.S. offices. For four scenarios that modify ventilation rates, we estimated changes in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, work performance, short-term absence, and building energy consumption. The estimated annual economic benefits were $13 billion from increasing minimum ventilation rates (VRs) from 8 to 10 L/s per person, $38 billion from increasing minimum VRs from 8 to 15 L/s per person, and $33 billion from increasing VRs by adding outdoor air economizers for the 50% of the office floor area that currently lacks economizers. The estimated $0.04 billion in annual energy-related benefits of decreasing minimum VRs from 8 to 6.5 L/s per person are very small compared to the projected annual costs of $12 billion. Benefits of increasing minimum VRs far exceeded energy costs while adding economizers yielded health, performance, and absence benefits with energy savings.
Date: July 1, 2011
Creator: Fisk, William; Black, Douglas & Brunner, Gregory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterizing Indoor Airflow and Pollutant Transport using Simulation Modeling for Prototypical Buildings. I. Office Buildings

Description: This paper describes the first efforts at developing a set of prototypical buildings defined to capture the key features affecting airflow and pollutant transport in buildings. These buildings will be used to model airflow and pollutant transport for emergency response scenarios when limited site-specific information is available and immediate decisions must be made, and to better understand key features of buildings controlling occupant exposures to indoor pollutant sources. This paper presents an example of this approach for a prototypical intermediate-sized, open style, commercial building. Interzonal transport due to a short-term source release, e.g., accidental chemical spill, in the bottom and the upper floors is predicted and corresponding HVAC system operation effects and potential responses are considered. Three-hour average exposure estimates are used to compare effects of source location and HVAC operation.
Date: June 1, 1999
Creator: Sohn, M.D.; Daisey, J.M. & Feustel, H.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a Mathematical Air-Leakage Model from MeasuredData

Description: A statistical model was developed to relate residential building shell leakage to building characteristics such as building height, floor area, floor leakage, duct leakage, and year built or the age of the house. Statistical regression techniques were used to determine which of the potential building characteristics best described the data. Seven preliminary regressions were performed to investigate the influence of each variable. The results of the eighth and last multivariable linear regression form the predictive model. The major factors that influence the tightness of a residential building are participation in an energy efficiency program (40% tighter than ordinary homes), having low-income occupants (145% leakier than ordinary) and the age of a house (1% increase in Normalized Leakage per year). This predictive model may be applied to data within the range of the data that was used to develop the model.
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: McWilliams, Jennifer & Jung, Melanie
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air Tightness of US Homes: Model Development

Description: Air tightness is an important property of building envelopes. It is a key factor in determining infiltration and related wall-performance properties such as indoor air quality, maintainability and moisture balance. Air leakage in U.S. houses consumes roughly 1/3 of the HVAC energy but provides most of the ventilation used to control IAQ. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been gathering residential air leakage data from many sources and now has a database of more than 100,000 raw measurements. This paper uses that database to develop a model for estimating air leakage as a function of climate, building age, floor area, building height, floor type, energy-efficiency and low-income designations. The model developed can be used to estimate the leakage distribution of populations of houses.
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Sherman, Max H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RESTORING A DAMAGED 16-YEAR -OLD INSULATING POLYMER CONCRETE DIKE OVERLAY: REPAIR MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGIES.

Description: The objective of this program was to design and formulate organic polymer-based material systems suitable for repairing and restoring the overlay panels of insulating lightweight polymer concrete (ILPC) from the concrete floor and slope wall of a dike at KeySpan liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in Greenpoint, Brooklyn, NY, just over sixteen years ago. It also included undertaking a small-scale field demonstration to ensure that the commercial repairing technologies were applicable to the designed and formulated materials.
Date: January 1, 2007
Creator: SUGAMA,T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOECGF 2010 Site Report

Description: The Data group provides data analysis and visualization support to its customers. This consists primarily of the development and support of VisIt, a data analysis and visualization tool. Support ranges from answering questions about the tool, providing classes on how to use the tool, and performing data analysis and visualization for customers. The Information Management and Graphics Group supports and develops tools that enhance our ability to access, display, and understand large, complex data sets. Activities include applying visualization software for large scale data exploration; running video production labs on two networks; supporting graphics libraries and tools for end users; maintaining PowerWalls and assorted other displays; and developing software for searching and managing scientific data. Researchers in the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) work on various projects including the development of visualization techniques for large scale data exploration that are funded by the ASC program, among others. The researchers also have LDRD projects and collaborations with other lab researchers, academia, and industry. The IMG group is located in the Terascale Simulation Facility, home to Dawn, Atlas, BGL, and others, which includes both classified and unclassified visualization theaters, a visualization computer floor and deployment workshop, and video production labs. We continued to provide the traditional graphics group consulting and video production support. We maintained five PowerWalls and many other displays. We deployed a 576-node Opteron/IB cluster with 72 TB of memory providing a visualization production server on our classified network. We continue to support a 128-node Opteron/IB cluster providing a visualization production server for our unclassified systems and an older 256-node Opteron/IB cluster for the classified systems, as well as several smaller clusters to drive the PowerWalls. The visualization production systems includes NFS servers to provide dedicated storage for data analysis and visualization. The ASC projects have delivered new versions ...
Date: April 12, 2010
Creator: Springmeyer, R. R.; Brugger, E. & Cook, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY 2004 Energy Use and Recommended Energy Conservation Measures - Environmental Technology and National Security Buildings at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Description: This report addresses the question of why the ETB on PNNL's campus used about 20% more electricity than the NSB in FY 2004, even though ETB has more energy conservations installed than NSB and the two buildings were built using nearly identical floor plans. It was determined that the difference in electricity use between the two buildings was due to the large number of computers in the basement of ETB. It was further determined that ETB's high electricity consumption rate cannot be remedied until these computers can be relocated to a more suitable facility.
Date: December 15, 2005
Creator: Olson, Norman J.; Hadley, Donald L. & Routh, Richard M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Flood Hazards for the Materials and Fuels Complex at the Idaho National Laboratory Site

Description: Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a flood hazard analysis for the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. The general approach for the analysis was to determine the maximum water elevation levels associated with the design-basis flood (DBFL) and compare them to the floor elevations at critical building locations. Two DBFLs for the MFC site were developed using different precipitation inputs: probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and 10,000 year recurrence interval precipitation. Both precipitation inputs were used to drive a watershed runoff model for the surrounding upland basins and the MFC site. Outflows modeled with the Hydrologic Engineering Centers Hydrologic Modeling System were input to the Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System hydrodynamic flood routing model.
Date: November 1, 2010
Creator: Skaggs, Richard; Breithaupt, Stephen A.; Waichler, Scott R.; Kim, Taeyun & Ward, Duane L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PEAK DISPLACEMENTS AND INTERSTORY DRIFTS ON NONLINEAR MULTI DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS USING PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS.

Description: Principal Components Analysis (PCA) is a method to extract the principal components (or modes) of response from recorded or computed response data, of systems exhibiting linear and/or nonlinear response. For linear systems, the PCA mode shapes coincide with the elastic mode shapes, if the nodal mass is uniformly distributed. For nonuniform mass distributions, the PCA modes are related to the elastic modes. The PCA technique is particularly valuable when applied to systems responding nonlinearly, because it identifies the 'predominant mode' of response and the degree to which the response is in this mode. This paper illustrates the use of the PCA technique for estimating floor and interstory drifts for a 12-story moment-resistant frame responding to earthquake ground motions. Linear and nonlinear responses are considered, and the observed mode shapes and the accuracy of drift estimates are discussed. The interaction of modal amplitudes in time is considered in detail. The peak roof drift and interstory drifts are expressed as linear combinations of the PCA modes, and are represented graphically, together with the observed interaction response. A technique is described to determine peak values of these quantities by maximizing the drift functions relative to the observed modal interactions.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Garcia, M. I. (M. Isabel) & Aschheim, M. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SAMPLING OF TANK 18 IN F TANK FARM

Description: Representative sampling is required for characterization of the residual floor material in Tank 18 prior to operational closure. Tank 18 is an 85-foot diameter, 34-foot high carbon steel tank with nominal operating volume of 1,300,000 gallons. It is a Type IV tank, and has been in service storing radioactive materials since 1959. Recent mechanical cleaning of the tank removed all mounds of material. Anticipating a low level of solids in the residual material, Huff and Thaxton [2009] developed a plan to sample the material during the final clean-up process while it would still be resident in sufficient quantities to support analytical determinations in four quadrants of the tank. Execution of the plan produced fewer solids than expected to support analytical determinations in all four quadrants. Huff and Thaxton [2009] then restructured the plan to characterize the residual floor material separately in the North and the South regions: two 'hemispheres.' This document provides sampling recommendations to complete the characterization of the residual material on the tank bottom following the guidance in Huff and Thaxton [2009] to split the tank floor into a North and a South hemisphere. The number of samples is determined from a modification of the formula previously published in Edwards [2001] and the sample characterization data for previous sampling of Tank 18 described by Oji [2009]. The uncertainty is quantified by an upper 95% confidence limit (UCL95%) on each analyte's mean concentration in Tank 18. The procedure computes the uncertainty in analyte concentration as a function of the number of samples, and the final number of samples is determined when the reduction in the uncertainty from an additional sample no longer has a practical impact on results. The characterization of the full suite of analytes in the North hemisphere is currently supported by a single Mantis rover sample ...
Date: December 14, 2009
Creator: Shine, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Towards a Very Low Energy Building Stock: Modeling the U.S. Commercial Building Sector to Support Policy and Innovation Planning

Description: This paper describes the origin, structure and continuing development of a model of time varying energy consumption in the US commercial building stock. The model is based on a flexible structure that disaggregates the stock into various categories (e.g. by building type, climate, vintage and life-cycle stage) and assigns attributes to each of these (e.g. floor area and energy use intensity by fuel type and end use), based on historical data and user-defined scenarios for future projections. In addition to supporting the interactive exploration of building stock dynamics, the model has been used to study the likely outcomes of specific policy and innovation scenarios targeting very low future energy consumption in the building stock. Model use has highlighted the scale of the challenge of meeting targets stated by various government and professional bodies, and the importance of considering both new construction and existing buildings.
Date: July 1, 2009
Creator: Coffey, Brian; Borgeson, Sam; Selkowitz, Stephen; Apte, Josh; Mathew, Paul & Haves, Philip
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small-angle Compton Scattering to Determine the Depth of a Radioactive Source in Matter

Description: A gamma-ray peak in a spectrum is often accompanied by a discontinuity in the Compton continuum at the peak. The Compton continuum results from Compton scattering in the detector. The discontinuity at a peak results from small-angle Compton scattering by the gamma rays in matter situated directly between the gamma-ray source and the detector. The magnitude of this discontinuity with respect to the gamma-ray peak is therefore an indicator of the amount of material or shielding between the gamma-ray source and the detector. This small-angle scattering was used to determine the depth of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) solution standards in a concrete floor mockup. The empirical results of the use of this small-angle scattering discontinuity in a concrete floor experiment will be described. A Monte Carlo calculation of the experiment will also be described. In addition, the depth determined from small-angle scattering was used in conjunction with differential attenuation to more accurately measure the uranium content of the mockup. Following these empirical results, the theory of small-angle scattering will be discussed. The magnitude of the discontinuity compared to the peak count rate is directly related to the depth of the gamma-ray source in matter. This relation can be described by relatively simple mathematical expressions. This is the first instance that we are aware of in which the small-angle Compton scattering has been used to determine the depth of a radioactive source. Furthermore this is the first development of the theoretical expressions for the magnitude of the small-angle scattering discontinuity.
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Oberer, R. B.; Gunn, C. A.; Chiang, L. G.; Valiga, R. E. & Cantrell, J. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Material Procurement Report for the FNAL pp Forward Detector's Toroids and Cos8 Dipole Magnets

Description: We outline the possibilities of starting construction of the {bar p}p forward detector toroids and cos{theta} dipole magnets described in CDP Note 64 as soon as possible using material that already exists on the FNAL site. Personal inspection of the steel supplies indicates that as much as 2000 tons of steel or over 50% of all the steel needed for the toroids is now available at the FNAL boneyard. Copper inventories indicate that there is enough copper on the FNAL site to construct both the toroid magnets and the cos{theta} dipole magnets. A construction schedule of one toroid in FY81, two toroids in FY82, and the final toroid in FY83 is shown to be feasible. Floor space and loading requirements for the IR Hall housing the forward detector are examined and finally, budgets for the initial FY8l phase and the completed project are given. The FY81 costs are $393K and to-completion costs are $1506K.
Date: October 27, 1980
Creator: Cline, D.; Morse, R.; Orosz, I. & Thomas, L.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cold Vacuum Drying facility effluent drains system design description (SYS 18)

Description: The Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility provides required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities needed for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) mission. This system design description (SDD) addresses the effluent drain system (EFS), which supports removal of water from the process bay floors. The discussion that follows is limited to piping, valves, components, and the process bay floor drain retention basin.
Date: May 11, 2000
Creator: TRAN, Y.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pattern of Thermal Fluctuations in a Recovery Boiler Floor

Description: The floor of a black liquor recovey boiler at a mill in central Canada has experienced cracking and delamination of the composite tubing near the spout wall and deformation of the floor panels that is most severe in the vicinity of the spout wall. One possible explanation for the observed damage is impacts of salt cake falling from the convective section onto the floor. In order to determine if such impacts do occur, strain gauges and thermocouples were installed on the boiler floor in areas where cracking and deformation were most frequent. The data obtained from these instruments indicate that brief, sudden temperature fluctuations do occur, and changes in the strain experienced by the affected tube occur simultaneously. These fluctuations appear to occur less often along the spout wall and more frequently with increasing distance from the wall. The frequency of these temperature fluctuations is insufficient for thermal fatigue to be the sole cause of the cracking observed on the tubes, but the data are consistent with what might be expected from pieces of falling salt cake.
Date: April 25, 1999
Creator: Abdullah, Z.; Gorog, J.P.; Keiser, J.R.; Meyers, L.E. & Swindeman, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

Description: ELECTROSORB Electrokinetic Extraction Technology, developed by ISOTRON Corp., offers a cost-effective approach to treating contaminated concrete. Heavy metals/radionuclides trapped in concrete can be extracted using this process if they are chemically solubilized; solubilizers used are citric acid alone and a mixture of citric and nitric acids. A DC electric field is applied across the contaminated concrete to electrokinetically transport the solubilized contaminants from the concrete pores to a collector on the concrete surface. The collector is an extraction pad laid on the surface. The pad provides confinement for a planar electrode and solubilizer solution; it is operated under a vacuum to hold the pad against the concrete surface. Operation requires little attendance, reducing the workers` health hazards. The process incorporates a mechanism for recycling the solubilizer solution. A field demonstration of the process took place in Building 21 of DOE`s Mound facility in Miamisburg, OH, over 12 days in June 1996. The thorium species present in this building`s concrete floors included ThO{sub 2} and thorium oxalate. The nitric acid was found to facilitate Th extraction.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Lomasney, H.L.; SenGupta, A.K. & Yachmenev, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department