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The Hessian Fly and How to Prevent Losses from It

Description: "The Hessian fly undoubtedly is the most injurious insect enemy of wheat in the United States. During the last 37 years at least seven general outbreaks of this pest have occurred in the States east of the Mississippi River. These invasions have averaged about one every five years, although they have occurred at rather irregular intervals. The last one was very destructive and was at its height during the period from 1914 to 1916.... A large proportion of such losses is preventable, although no remedy is known which will destroy the pest or save the crop once it has become thoroughly infested. Control and preventive measures are described on page 13 and summarized on page 16." -- p. 2
Date: 1920
Creator: Walton, William Randolph, 1873-1952
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Hessian Fly and How to Prevent Losses from It

Description: Revised editions. "The Hessian fly undoubtedly is the most injurious insect enemy of wheat in the United States. During the last 37 years at least seven general outbreaks of this pest have occurred in the States east of the Mississippi River. These invasions have averaged about one every five years, although they have occurred at rather irregular intervals. The last one was very destructive and was at its height during the period from 1914 to 1916.... A large proportion of such losses is preventable, although no remedy is known which will destroy the pest or save the crop once it has become thoroughly infested. Control and preventive measures are described on page 13 and summarized on page 16." -- p. 2
Date: 1924
Creator: Walton, William Randolph, 1873-1952
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Screw-Worms and Other Maggots Affecting Animals

Description: This bulletin discusses the screwworm, which is a maggot that causes losses to livestock, and measures for its control. Other maggots and insects discussed include the sheep-wool maggot, the black blowfly, the green bottle fly, and the gray flesh fly.
Date: 1917
Creator: Bishopp, F. C. (Fred Corry), 1884-1970; Mitchell, J. D. & Parman, D. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stable Flies: How to Control Them.

Description: Describes characteristics of stable flies, the damage they cause, and methods of control.
Date: May 1953
Creator: United States. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine. Division of Insects Affecting Man and Animals.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Life History and Ecology of the Mayfly Neochoroterpes mexicanus Allen (Ephemeroptera: Leptophebiidae)

Description: The life history and ecology of Neochoroterpes mexicanus was studied from data collected September, 1971, to August, 1972, and January to December, 1973, in the Brazos River, Texas. Nymphal development, instar analysis, voltinism, standing crops, and production estimates were determined from the quantitative samples taken in 1971 and 1972. Aspects of the life history and food habits of 230 specimens were arrived at from qualitative samples and light box captures in 1973. Laboratory investigation in 1973 helped in establishing instar analysis, egg incubation and description, and first instar descriptions. Neochoroterpes mexicanus appeared to have three generations per year with brood overlap in the summer and fall. It displayed 16 and 19 instars for overwintering and combined summer generations respectively.
Date: August 1974
Creator: McClure, Richard G.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The House Fly

Description: "The presence of flies is an indication of uncleanliness, insanitary conditions, and improper disposal of substances in which they breed. They are not only annoying; they are actually dangerous to health, because they may carry disease germs to exposed foods. It is therefore important to know where and how they breed, and to apply such knowledge in combating them. This bulletin gives information on this subject. Besides giving directions for ridding the house of flies by the use of screens, fly papers, poisons, and flytraps, it lays especial emphasis on the explanation of methods of eliminating breeding places and preventing the breeding of flies." -- p. 2
Date: 1917
Creator: Howard, L. O. (Leland Ossian), 1857-1950 & Hutchison, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Hessian Fly

Description: Report discussing the Hessian fly, which causes more damage to the American wheat crop than any other insect. The fly's life cycle, geographic distribution, diet, predators, and the methods for its eradication are discussed.
Date: 1915
Creator: Webster, F. M. (Francis Marion), 1849-1916
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A connectionist model of the Drosophila blastoderm

Description: The authors present a phenomenological modeling framework for development, and apply it to the network of segmentation genes operating in the blastoderm of Drosophila. Their purpose is to provide a systematic method for discovering and expressing correlations in experimental data on gene expression and other developmental processes. The modeling framework is based on a connectionist or neural net dynamics for biochemical regulators, coupled to grammatical rules which describe certain features of the birth, growth, and death of cells, synapses and other biological entities. They present preliminary numerical results regarding regulatory interactions between the genes Kruppel and knirps that demonstrate the potential utility of the model. 14 refs., 5 figs.
Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Reinitz, J. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA). Dept. of Biological Sciences); Mjolsness, E. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA). Dept. of Computer Science) & Sharp, D.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA). Theoretical Div.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Early evolution of the LIM homeobox gene family

Description: LIM homeobox (Lhx) transcription factors are unique to the animal lineage and have patterning roles during embryonic development in flies, nematodes and vertebrates, with a conserved role in specifying neuronal identity. Though genes of this family have been reported in a sponge and a cnidarian, the expression patterns and functions of the Lhx family during development in non-bilaterian phyla are not known. We identified Lhx genes in two cnidarians and a placozoan and report the expression of Lhx genes during embryonic development in Nematostella and the demosponge Amphimedon. Members of the six major LIM homeobox subfamilies are represented in the genomes of the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. The hydrozoan cnidarian, Hydra magnipapillata, has retained four of the six Lhx subfamilies, but apparently lost two others. Only three subfamilies are represented in the haplosclerid demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. A tandem cluster of three Lhx genes of different subfamilies and a gene containing two LIM domains in the genome of T. adhaerens (an animal without any neurons) indicates that Lhx subfamilies were generated by tandem duplication. This tandem cluster in Trichoplax is likely a remnant of the original chromosomal context in which Lhx subfamilies first appeared. Three of the six Trichoplax Lhx genes are expressed in animals in laboratory culture, as are all Lhx genes in Hydra. Expression patterns of Nematostella Lhx genes correlate with neural territories in larval and juvenile polyp stages. In the aneural demosponge, A. queenslandica, the three Lhx genes are expressed widely during development, including in cells that are associated with the larval photosensory ring. The Lhx family expanded and diversified early in animal evolution, with all six subfamilies already diverged prior to the cnidarian-placozoan-bilaterian last common ancestor. In Nematostella, Lhx gene expression is correlated with neural territories in larval and juvenile polyp ...
Date: January 1, 2010
Creator: Srivastava, Mansi; Larroux, Claire; Lu, Daniel R; Mohanty, Kareshma; Chapman, Jarrod; Degnan, Bernard M et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Life History of the Mayfly Isonychia sicca (Walsh) (Ephemeroptera--Siphlonuridae) in an Intermittent Stream in North Central Texas

Description: The life history of Isonychia sicca (Walsh) was elucidated from samples collected at Clear Creek from Oct. 1976-Jun. 1978, and Elm Fork of the Trinity River from Sept. 1977-Jun. 1978, Denton County, Texas. Adaptations for existence in an intermittent stream were of primary concern. Eggs are capable of diapausing through hot, dry summers and cold, wet or dry winters. Diapause is broken in the fall after rehydration and/or in the spring. I. sicca is usually bivoltine during a Sept.-Jul. wet period. Observations from Elm Fork indicate that emergence continues to Oct. if the stream remains permanent. Considerable overlap occurs between overwintering, spring, and summer populations.
Date: December 1978
Creator: Grant, Peter M., fl. 1978-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Evaluation of the Economic, Social, and Biological Feasibility of Bioconverting Food Wastes with the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens)

Description: Food waste in the waste stream is becoming an important aspect of integrated waste management systems. Current efforts are composting and animal feeding. However, these food waste disposal practices rely on slow thermodynamic processes of composting or finding farmers with domestic animals capable of consuming the food wastes. Bioconversion, a potential alternative, is a waste management practice that converts food waste to insect larval biomass and organic residue. This project uses a native and common non-pest insect in Texas, the black soldier fly, which processes large quantities of food wastes, as well as animal wastes and sewage in its larval stage. The goal of this research is to facilitate the identification and development of the practical parameters of bioconversion methods at a large cafeteria. Three major factors were selected to evaluate the practicality of a bioconversion system: (1) the biological constraints on the species; (2) the economic costs and benefits for the local community; (3) the perception of and interaction between the public and management agencies with respect to the bioconversion process. Results indicate that bioconversion is feasible on all levels. Larvae tolerate and consume food waste as well as used cooking grease, reducing the overall waste volume by 30-70% in a series of experiments, with an average reduction of 50%. The economical benefits are reduced collection costs and profit from the sale of pupae as a feedstuff, which could amount to as much as $1,200 per month under optimal conditions. Social acceptance is possible, but requires education of the public, specifically targeting school children. Potential impediments to social acceptance include historical attitudes and ignorance, which could be overcome through effective educational efforts.
Date: August 2004
Creator: Barry, Tami
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Wheat Jointworm and Its Control

Description: Revised edition. "The wheat jointworm is a very small grub which lives in stems of wheat, feeding on the juices of the plant and causing a slight swelling or distortion of the stem above the joint. The egg from which it hatches is laid in the stem by an insect resembling a small black ant with wings. This insect attacks wheat only. The injury which it causes to wheat is very distinct from that caused by the Hessian fly, yet the effects caused by these two insects are often confused by farmers." -- p. 1-2. This bulletin gives a brief outline of the life cycle and the nature of the injury to the plant by the jointworm so that any farmer may readily recognize its work and be able to apply the measures of control herein recommended.
Date: 1940
Creator: Phillips, W. J. (William Jeter), 1879-1972 & Poos, F. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Wheat Jointworm and Its Control

Description: Revised edition. "The wheat jointworm is a very small grub which lives in stems of wheat, sucking the juices of the plant and causing a swelling in the stem. The egg from which it hatches is laid in the stem by an insect resembling a small black ant with wings. This insect attacks no other kind of plant. The injury which it does to wheat is very distinct from that caused by the Hessian fly, yet the depredations of these two insects are often confused by farmers. This paper is intended, therefore, to give a brief outline of the life history and the nature of the injury to the plant by the jointworm so that any farmer may readily recognize its work and be able to apply the measures of control herein recommended." -- p. 3-4
Date: 1918
Creator: Phillips, W. J. (William Jeter), 1879-1972
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department