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Low-cost solar collector test and evaluation. Final report

Description: Project was to test and evaluate a highly efficient low cost solar collector and to make this technology available to the average homeowner. The basic collector design was for use in mass production, so approximately forty collector panels were made for testing and to make it simple to be hand built. The collectors performed better than expected and written and visual material was prepared to make construction easier for a first time builder. Publicity was generated to make public aware of benefits with stories by Associated Press and in publications like Popular Science.
Date: unknown
Creator: Benjamin, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indoor test for thermal performance evaluation of seven Elcam fin-tube solar collector configurations

Description: The test procedure used and the results obtained from an evaluation test program conducted to obtain thermal performance data on seven Elcam fin-tube solar collector configurations under simulated conditions are described. These tests were made using the Marshall Space Flight Center solar facilities. The Elcam, Inc. fin-tube (liquid) solar collectors each consist of an absorber plate 5.9 inches wide by 83 inches long with a type M copper tube of 0.569 inch nominal inside diameter. No cover plate was used with any of the specimens. The uniqueness of each of the seven configurations is described and tests were performed on each separate configuration.
Date: June 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the Solargenics (liquid) solar collector at outdoor conditions

Description: The test procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program of the Solargenics single-covered liquid solar collector are presented. The tests were performed under outdoor natural conditions at the Solar Test Facility at MSFC, following long-term exposure to natural weathering conditions. The collector was under stagnation conditions from August 26, 1978, to June 13, 1979, for a total of approximately ten months. The Solargenics solar collector is a liquid, single-glazed, flat-plate collector, and is about 240 inches long, 38 inches wide, and 3.8 inches in depth.
Date: July 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development, testing, and certification of CALMAC Manufacturing Corporation solar collector and solar operated pump. Final report

Description: A summary is presented of the final results of the Calmac Manufacturing Corporation of Englewood, New Jersey, for the additional development work on their existing rubber tube solar collector and solar operated pump for use with solar heating and cooling systems. It discusses the intended use of the final report, describes the development hardware, lists deliverable end items, deals with problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and includes certification statements of performance. It is shown that the products developed are marketable and suitable for public use, with limitations.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Parker, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed method for determining the thickness of glass in solar collector panels

Description: An analytical method has been developed for determining the minimum thickness for simply supported, rectangular glass plates subjected to uniform normal pressure environmental loads such as wind, earthquake, snow, and deadweight. The method consists of comparing an analytical prediction of the stress in the glass panel to a glass breakage stress determined from fracture mechanics considerations. Based on extensive analysis using the nonlinear finite element structural analysis program ARGUS, design curves for the structural analysis of simply supported rectangular plates have been developed. These curves yield the center deflection, center stress and corner stress as a function of a dimensionless parameter describing the load intensity. Results are included for plates having length-to-width ratios of 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4. The load range considered extends to 1000 times the load at which the behavior of the plate becomes significantly nonlinear. Over the load range analyzed, the analysis shows that the ratio of center deflection to plate thickness for a plate of length-to-width ratio of 4 is less than 70 to 1, whereas linear theory would predict a center deflection about 1200 times the plate thickness. The stress is also markedly lower than would be predicted by linear theory. These analytical results show good agreement with the analytical and experimental work of others.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Moore, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar supplement to laundry drying. Annual progress report, October 31, 1977--October 31, 1978

Description: A project is reported which utilizes solar energy to supplement the heating energy requirements of a large commercial type laundry dryer. Air is solar heated in flat-plate collectors and is introduced into the air intake of a dryer. The air is drawn directly from the outdoor ambient air. This system is designed for direct supply of solar heated air to the dryer with no solar heat storage. Solar heat storage could not be justified economically due to the close match in schedule between solar availability and laundry operation. The factors associated with selection of a hospital laundry facility for the project site are discussed. The design of the system for solar laundry drying is presented.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Smith, C.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

Description: Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.
Date: August 31, 2000
Creator: Clyne, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal performance evaluation of the Suncatcher SH-11 (Liquid) Solar Collector

Description: This report contains the procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on the Solar Unlimited, Inc., Suncatcher SH-11 (Liquid) Solar Collector. The flat-plate collector case assembly is made of .08 inch aluminum 3003 H14 rivited with fiberglass board insulation. The absorber consists of collared aluminum fins mechanically bonded to 3/8 inch copper tubing and coated with 3M ''Nextel'' black. Water is used as the working fluid. The glazing is made of a single glass, 1/8 inch water white, tempered and antireflective. The collector weight is 85 pounds with overall external dimensions of about 35.4'' x 82.0'' x 4.0''. The test program was conducted to obtain thermal performance data on the Solar Unlimited Suncatcher SH-11 solar collector under simulated conditions. These tests were conducted using the MSFC Solar Simulator.
Date: July 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Qualification test procedures and results for Honeywell solar collector subsystem, single-family residence

Description: The test procedures and results are described in qualifying the Honeywell solar collector subsystem. Testing began in mid-August 1976, and was concluded in late February 1977. Testing was done in the following areas: pressure, service loads, hail, solar degradation, pollutants, thermal degradation, and outgassing. Results from these tests are summarized.
Date: February 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of surfaces optically suitable for flat solar panels. Final report

Description: This final report contains three principal items. The first describes a simple and novel reflectometer which can separately evaluate the spectral and diffuse reflectivities of surfaces. A phase locked detection system for the reflectometer is also described. The second item is a selective coating on aluminium potentially useful for flat-plate solar collector applications. The coating is composed of strongly bound copper oxide (divalent) and is formed by an etching process performed on an aluminium alloy with high copper content. Because of this one step fabrication process, fabrication costs are expected to be small. Process parameters, however, need further definition. The third item contains conclusions gleaned from the literature as to the required optical properties of flat plate solar collectors.
Date: August 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inherent freeze protection for solar water heaters

Description: Research and development of a method for protection of a solar collector from freezing is described. The method is shown to be technically and economically feasible. A prototype water heating system using the inherent freeze protection method was successfully operated during the winter of 1980 to 1981.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Jeter, S.M.; Leonaitis, L.L. & Leonaitis, L.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development, testing, and certification of Owens--Illinois Model SEC-601 Solar Energy Collector System. Final report

Description: The final results of Owens-Illinois, Toledo, Ohio, for the additional development work on their existing air-cooled solar energy collector subsystem for use with solar heating and cooling systems are summarized. The intended use of the final report is discussed, the deliverable end items are described, program objectives and how they were accomplished are listed, problems encountered during fabrication and testing are mentioned, and a certification statement of performance are included. It is shown that the products developed are marketable and suitable for public use.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Parker, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Objective Method for Selecting Outdoor Reporting Conditions for Photovoltaic Performance

Description: Outdoor performance of photovoltaic modules and systems depends on prevailing conditions at the time of measurement. Outdoor test conditions must be relevant to device performance and readily attainable. Flat-plate, nonconcentrator PV device performance is reported with respect to fixed conditions referred to as Standard Reporting Conditions (SRC) of 1 kW/m{sup 2} plane of array total irradiance, 25 C device temperature, and a reference spectral distribution at air mass 1.5 under certain atmospheric conditions. We report a method of analyzing historical meteorological and irradiance data to determine the range of outdoor environmental parameters and solar irradiance components that affect solar collector performance when the SRC 1 kW/m{sup 2} total irradiance value occurs outdoors. We used data from the 30 year U.S. National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) , restricting irradiance conditions to within +/- 25 W/m{sup 2} of 1 kW/m{sup 2} on a solar tracking flat-plate collector. The distributions of environmental parameter values under these conditions are non-Gaussian and site dependent. Therefore the median, as opposed to the mean, of the observed distributions is chosen to represent appropriate outdoor reporting conditions. We found the average medians for the direct beam component (834 W/m{sup 2}), ambient temperature (24.4 C), total column water vapor (1.4 cm), and air mass (1.43) are near commonly used SRC values. Average median wind speed (4.4 m/s) and broadband aerosol optical depth (0.08) were significantly different from commonly used values.
Date: February 25, 1999
Creator: Myers, D. R.; Kurtz, S. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Whitaker, C.; Townsend, T. (Endecon Engineering: San Ramon, California) & Maish, A. (Sandia National Laboratories: Albuquerque, New Mexico)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low cost, bare plate solar air collector. Semi-annual progress report

Description: A low cost, bare plate solar collector that is specifically designed to preheat ambient air with solar energy is discussed. Two prototype solar collector test systems have been designed, fabricated and assembled. Each system has been instrumented to provide instantaneous and average thermal performance data by means of a computerized data logger system. This data logger system is currently being made operational. Data collection is scheduled to begin March 1, 1980 and continue until the project completion date of June 17, 1980. Some preliminary test data have been obtained for both prototype systems. The results showed that ambient air was preheated between 5/sup 0/F and 10/sup 0/F with the systems achieving a thermal performance of between 15% and 30% efficiency.
Date: January 1, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Isothermal flow distribution in solar collectors and collector manifolds

Description: As a first step to a detailed analysis of the influence of flow in solar collector absorber tubes on the collector's heat transfer and thermal performance, this study investigates the distribution of isothermal flow through a typical system consisting of two manifolds connected by a number of parallel riser-tubes. No thermal effects are taken into account. A discreet hydrodynamic model was developed for this system, and the resulting set of simultaneous nonlinear algebraic equations was solved numerically by the successive substitution method, for 23 different combinations of the major independent variables. Quantitative flow distribution results are presented. In the investigated range, it was determined that the two parameters which have the major influence on flow distribution are the ratio of riser diameter to manifold diameter, and the number of risers, with maldistribution increasing with both of them.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Jones, G F & Lior, N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the Sunworks liquid solar collector

Description: This report presents the test procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program of the Sunworks single-covered liquid solar collector. The tests were performed under simulated conditions, following long-term exposure to natural weathering conditions. The Sunworks collector is a flat-plate solar collector. The absorber plate is copper with copper tubes bonded by soft solder, and is coated with Enthon selective black with an absorptivity factor of .87 approx. .92 and an emissivity factor of .10 approx. .20. It has a single glass cover of 3/16'' tempered glass and weighs about 115 pounds. The overall dimensions of the collector are 36'' x 84'' x 4''.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Available, Not
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods for reducing heat losses from flat plate solar collectors: Phase III. Final report, May 1, 1977-January 31, 1979

Description: The present study extends earlier studies by examining the effect of the emissivities of both the absorber plate and the glass cover on the honeycomb's ability to suppress free convection, and on the radiative and conductive heat transfer which takes place across the honeycomb in the absence of free convection. By means of heat transfer measurements on ten Mylar honeycombs, this study has shown that the effect of the above emissivities on the suppression of convection by the honeycomb is slight, and can probably be ignored. On the other hand, the measurements also showed that the effect of these emissivities on the non-convective heat transfer is substantial, but not nearly so large as would have been predicted by existing theories. To explain this latter result theories were developed which take into account the important coupling (ignored by previous theories) between the conductive and radiative modes of heat transfer. These new theories predict the measured heat transfer rates to with about +-15%, depending on the emissivities. The results of this study have direct application to evaluating solar collectors which combine a selective surface with a honeycomb.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Hollands, K.G.T.; Raithby, G.D.; Russell, F.B. & Wilkinson, R.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal performance evaluation of the SEMCO (liquid) solar collector

Description: This report contains the procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on the SEMCO Corporation, Model FP 40-7-DG (liquid) Solar Collector. The flat plate collector uses water as the working fluid. The absorber plate is copper tube soldered to copper fin coated with flat black paint. The glazing consists of two plates of Lo-Iron glass; the insulation is polyurethane foam. The collector weight is 242.5 pounds with overall external dimensions of approximately 48.8'' x 120.8'' x 4.1''. The test program was conducted to obtain thermal performance data before and after 34 days of weather exposure test. These tests were conducted using Florida Solar Energy Center Test Facilities.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Available, Not
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department