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Efficiency of a solar collector with internal boiling

Description: The behavior of a solar collector with a boiling fluid is analyzed to provide a simple algebraic model for future systems simulations, and to provide guidance for testing. The efficiency equation is developed in a form linear in the difference between inlet and saturation (boiling) temperatures, whereas the expression upon which ASHRAE Standard 109P is based utilizes the difference between inlet and ambient temperatures. The coefficient of the revised linear term is a weak function of collector parameters, weather, and subcooling of the working fluid. For a glazed flat-plate collector with metal absorber, the coefficient is effectively constant. Therefore, testing at multiple values of insolation and subcooling, as specified by ASHRAE 109P, should not be necessary for most collectors. The influences of collector properties and operating conditions on efficiency are examined.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Neeper, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Efficiency of a solar collector with internal boiling

Description: The behavior of a solar collector with a boiling fluid is analyzed to provide a simple algebraic model for future systems simulations, and to provide guidance for testing. The efficiency equation is developed in a form linear in the difference between inlet and saturation (boiling) temperatures, whereas the expression upon which ASHRAE Standard 109P is based utilizes the difference between inlet and ambient temperatures. The coefficient of the revised linear term is a week function of collector parameters, weather, and subcooling of the working fluid. For a glazed flat-plate collector with metal absorber, the coefficient is effectively constant. Therefore, testing at multiple values of insolation and subcooling, as specified by ASHRAE 109P, should not be necessary for most collectors. The influences of collector properties and operating conditions on efficiency are examined.
Date: June 1, 1986
Creator: Neeper, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-cost solar collector test and evaluation. Final report

Description: Project was to test and evaluate a highly efficient low cost solar collector and to make this technology available to the average homeowner. The basic collector design was for use in mass production, so approximately forty collector panels were made for testing and to make it simple to be hand built. The collectors performed better than expected and written and visual material was prepared to make construction easier for a first time builder. Publicity was generated to make public aware of benefits with stories by Associated Press and in publications like Popular Science.
Date: unknown
Creator: Benjamin, C. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Certification and verification for calmac flat plate solar collector

Description: This document contains information used in the certification and verification of the Calmac Flat Plate Collector. Contained are such items as test procedures and results, information on materials used, Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Manuals, and other information pertaining to the verification and certification.
Date: January 27, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and installation package for the Sunmat Flat Plate Solar Collector

Description: The information used in evaluating the design of the Sunmat Liquid Flat Plat Plate Solar Collector developed by Calmac Manufacturing Company is presented. Included in this package are the Subsystem Performance Specification, Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manuals, collector sizing guides, and detailed drawings of the single-glazed collector.
Date: March 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal performance evaluation of the solargenics solar collector at outdoor conditions

Description: Information contained within this report presents test procedures used during the performance of an evaluation program. The test program was conducted to obtain the following performance data and information on the solar collector. (1) Thermal performance data under outdoor conditions, (2) Structural behavior of collector under static conditions, and (3) Effects of long term exposure to material weathering elements. The Solargenics is a liquid, single-glazed, flat-plate collector. Approximate dimensions of each collector are 240 inches long, 36 inches wide, and 3.5 inches in depth.
Date: December 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar supplement to laundry drying. Annual progress report, October 31, 1977--October 31, 1978

Description: A project is reported which utilizes solar energy to supplement the heating energy requirements of a large commercial type laundry dryer. Air is solar heated in flat-plate collectors and is introduced into the air intake of a dryer. The air is drawn directly from the outdoor ambient air. This system is designed for direct supply of solar heated air to the dryer with no solar heat storage. Solar heat storage could not be justified economically due to the close match in schedule between solar availability and laundry operation. The factors associated with selection of a hospital laundry facility for the project site are discussed. The design of the system for solar laundry drying is presented.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Smith, C.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indoor test for thermal performance evaluation of seven Elcam fin-tube solar collector configurations

Description: The test procedure used and the results obtained from an evaluation test program conducted to obtain thermal performance data on seven Elcam fin-tube solar collector configurations under simulated conditions are described. These tests were made using the Marshall Space Flight Center solar facilities. The Elcam, Inc. fin-tube (liquid) solar collectors each consist of an absorber plate 5.9 inches wide by 83 inches long with a type M copper tube of 0.569 inch nominal inside diameter. No cover plate was used with any of the specimens. The uniqueness of each of the seven configurations is described and tests were performed on each separate configuration.
Date: June 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development, testing, and certification of CALMAC Manufacturing Corporation solar collector and solar operated pump. Final report

Description: A summary is presented of the final results of the Calmac Manufacturing Corporation of Englewood, New Jersey, for the additional development work on their existing rubber tube solar collector and solar operated pump for use with solar heating and cooling systems. It discusses the intended use of the final report, describes the development hardware, lists deliverable end items, deals with problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and includes certification statements of performance. It is shown that the products developed are marketable and suitable for public use, with limitations.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Parker, J.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, construction and testing of a liquid-heating flat-plate solar collector

Description: The purpose of this study was to design, construct, and test a liquid-heating flat-plate solar collector. From the literature search, information was gathered concerning the basic components of the collector, the different processes and materials that can be used in the construction of these components, and their advantages and disadvantages. The literature search also revealed a method used to measure the performance of the collector in terms of efficiency and heat output. Design considerations were then listed for each of the major components as well as the collector as a single unit. Then, each component was designed, taking into consideration the final assembly of the completed unit. Detailed designs were required for the absorber plate and the box and frame assembly because of their complexity in construction and assembly. Once the components were designed, the construction details were arranged in a logical sequence, again considering the final assembly of the unit. The collector was then carefully constructed and assembled following the design details. After the solar collector was assembled completely, tests were made, data were obtained and recorded, and a collector performance curve was developed.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Tuttle, R E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat pipes applied to flat-plate solar collectors. Final report

Description: The objective of this program was to analytically and experimentally investigate the use of heat pipes in flat-plate solar collectors. Heat pipes are passive heat transport devices which utilize a closed evaporation-condensation cycle. Because of their high equivalent conductance, they appear to be well suited to transport heat from the solar absorber to an air or liquid distribution system. The program consisted of the following tasks: (I) Configuration Studies, (II) Parametric Performance Studies, (III) Economic Analysis, (IV) System Integration Studies, (V) Submodule Fabrication and Testing (in the laboratory), and (VI) Full-Scale Module Fabrication and Testing (using solar input). An additional Task VII, Feasibility Study of a Stationary Concentrator, was identified during the program and was also completed. In performing Tasks I through IV, various aspects of integrating heat pipes into flat-palte solar collectors were investigated. The results of these tasks were reported in the Annual Progress Report (Ref. 2) dated January 31, 1975. A summary of that program effort is included in the present report. The results of the experimental work conducted under Tasks V and VI are presented in this report. Under Task V, breadboard heat pipes were fabricated from sections of Roll-Bond panels and their heat transfer performance was evaluated in the laboratory. Three complete solar panels, two of which were heat pipe absorbers and one was a Roll-Bond control panel, were fabricated and solar tested during Task VI. Finally, under the new Task VII, a feasibility study of a stationary concentrator using heat pipes as thermal diodes was conducted. Results are presented and discussed.
Date: May 1, 1976
Creator: Bienert, W. B. & Wolf, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of compound parabolic concentrator for solar energy collection

Description: The joint team of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the University of Chicago is reporting their midyear results of a proof-of-concept investigation of the Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) for solar-energy collection. The CPC is a non-imaging, optical-design concept for maximally concentrating radiant energy onto a receiver. This maximum concentration corresponds to a relative aperture (f/number) of 0.5, which is well beyond the limit for imaging collectors. We have constructed an X3 concentrating flat-plate collector 16 ft/sup 2/ in area. This collector has been tested in a trailer laboratory facility built at ANL. The optical and thermal performance of this collector was in good agreement with theory. We have constructed an X10 collector (8 ft/sup 2/) and started testing. A detailed theoretical study of the optical and thermal characteristics of the CPC design has been performed.
Date: January 1, 1974
Creator: Rabi, A.; Sevcik, V. J.; Giugler, R. M. & Winston, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed method for determining the thickness of glass in solar collector panels

Description: An analytical method has been developed for determining the minimum thickness for simply supported, rectangular glass plates subjected to uniform normal pressure environmental loads such as wind, earthquake, snow, and deadweight. The method consists of comparing an analytical prediction of the stress in the glass panel to a glass breakage stress determined from fracture mechanics considerations. Based on extensive analysis using the nonlinear finite element structural analysis program ARGUS, design curves for the structural analysis of simply supported rectangular plates have been developed. These curves yield the center deflection, center stress and corner stress as a function of a dimensionless parameter describing the load intensity. Results are included for plates having length-to-width ratios of 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4. The load range considered extends to 1000 times the load at which the behavior of the plate becomes significantly nonlinear. Over the load range analyzed, the analysis shows that the ratio of center deflection to plate thickness for a plate of length-to-width ratio of 4 is less than 70 to 1, whereas linear theory would predict a center deflection about 1200 times the plate thickness. The stress is also markedly lower than would be predicted by linear theory. These analytical results show good agreement with the analytical and experimental work of others.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Moore, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the Libbey-Owens-Ford (liquid) solar collector

Description: Test procedures used during an evaluation test program to obtain the thermal performance data on the solar collector following long term exposure to natural weathering conditions are given. The total weathering period was about fourteen and one-half months. The test article is a flat-plate solar collector that uses liquid as the heat transfer medium. The overall dimensions of the collector are 3' x 7' x 4-3/4''. The absorber plate is No. 110 copper and is .021'' thick. It has a double glass cover of 1/8'' tempered glass, and weighs approximately 130 pounds.
Date: January 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the Solargenics (liquid) solar collector at outdoor conditions

Description: The test procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program of the Solargenics single-covered liquid solar collector are presented. The tests were performed under outdoor natural conditions at the Solar Test Facility at MSFC, following long-term exposure to natural weathering conditions. The collector was under stagnation conditions from August 26, 1978, to June 13, 1979, for a total of approximately ten months. The Solargenics solar collector is a liquid, single-glazed, flat-plate collector, and is about 240 inches long, 38 inches wide, and 3.8 inches in depth.
Date: July 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

OUT Success Stories: Solar Hot Water Technology

Description: Solar hot water technology was made great strides in the past two decades. Every home, commercial building, and industrial facility requires hot water. DOE has helped to develop reliable and durable solar hot water systems. For industrial applications, the growth potential lies in large-scale systems, using flat-plate and trough-type collectors. Flat-plate collectors are commonly used in residential hot water systems and can be integrated into the architectural design of the building.
Date: August 31, 2000
Creator: Clyne, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar radiation data manual for flat-plate and concentrating collectors

Description: For designers and engineers of solar energy-related systems, the Solar Radiation Data Manual for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors gives the solar resource available for various types of collectors for the US and its territories. The data in the manual were modeled using hourly values of direct beam and diffuse horizontal solar radiation from the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). The NSRDB contains modeled (93%) and measured (7%) global horizontal, diffuse horizontal, and direct beam solar radiation for 1961-1990.
Date: unknown
Creator: Dunlap, M. A.; Marion, W. & Wilcox, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Objective Method for Selecting Outdoor Reporting Conditions for Photovoltaic Performance

Description: Outdoor performance of photovoltaic modules and systems depends on prevailing conditions at the time of measurement. Outdoor test conditions must be relevant to device performance and readily attainable. Flat-plate, nonconcentrator PV device performance is reported with respect to fixed conditions referred to as Standard Reporting Conditions (SRC) of 1 kW/m{sup 2} plane of array total irradiance, 25 C device temperature, and a reference spectral distribution at air mass 1.5 under certain atmospheric conditions. We report a method of analyzing historical meteorological and irradiance data to determine the range of outdoor environmental parameters and solar irradiance components that affect solar collector performance when the SRC 1 kW/m{sup 2} total irradiance value occurs outdoors. We used data from the 30 year U.S. National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) , restricting irradiance conditions to within +/- 25 W/m{sup 2} of 1 kW/m{sup 2} on a solar tracking flat-plate collector. The distributions of environmental parameter values under these conditions are non-Gaussian and site dependent. Therefore the median, as opposed to the mean, of the observed distributions is chosen to represent appropriate outdoor reporting conditions. We found the average medians for the direct beam component (834 W/m{sup 2}), ambient temperature (24.4 C), total column water vapor (1.4 cm), and air mass (1.43) are near commonly used SRC values. Average median wind speed (4.4 m/s) and broadband aerosol optical depth (0.08) were significantly different from commonly used values.
Date: February 25, 1999
Creator: Myers, D. R.; Kurtz, S. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Whitaker, C.; Townsend, T. (Endecon Engineering: San Ramon, California) & Maish, A. (Sandia National Laboratories: Albuquerque, New Mexico)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal performance evaluation of the SEMCO (liquid) solar collector

Description: This report contains the procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on the SEMCO Corporation, Model FP 40-7-DG (liquid) Solar Collector. The flat plate collector uses water as the working fluid. The absorber plate is copper tube soldered to copper fin coated with flat black paint. The glazing consists of two plates of Lo-Iron glass; the insulation is polyurethane foam. The collector weight is 242.5 pounds with overall external dimensions of approximately 48.8'' x 120.8'' x 4.1''. The test program was conducted to obtain thermal performance data before and after 34 days of weather exposure test. These tests were conducted using Florida Solar Energy Center Test Facilities.
Date: May 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods for reducing heat losses from flat plate solar collectors: Phase II. Final report, February 1, 1976--August 31, 1977

Description: Improvements to flat plate solar collectors for heating and cooling of buildings were investigated through two parallel studies. The first study, which deals with the free convective heat loss from V-corrugated absorber plate to a plane glass cover, has shown that, for the same average spacing, the free convective heat loss is greater for a V-corrugated absorber plate than for a plane absorber plate. However, provided the average spacing is large enough, the amount of increase is slight. The second study, which deals with the free convective heat loss in a honeycomb solar collector in which the honeycomb consists of a set of horizontal partitions, or slits, has shown that provided the solar collector is tilted to near vertical, such a honeycomb gives equivalent or superior free convective loss suppression than does a square-celled honeycomb having the same amount of material. Correlation equations for the free convective heat loss are given for both studies.
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Hollands, K.G.T.; Raithby, G.D. & Unny, T.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Indoor test for thermal performance evaluation of the solaron (air) solar collector

Description: The test procedure used and the results obtained from an evaluation test program, conducted to obtain thermal performance data on a Solaron double glazed air solar collector under simulated conditions are described. These tests were made using the Marshall Space Flight Center Solar Simulator. A time constant test and incident angle modifier test were also conducted to determine the transient effect and the incident angle effect on the collector. These results and the results of the collector load test are also discussed. The Solaron collector absorber plate is made of 24-gage steel, the coating is baked-on black paint, the cover consists of two sheets of /sup 1///sub 8/-inch low-iron tempered glass, and the insulation is one thickness of 3 /sup 5///sub 8/-inch fiberglass batting.
Date: January 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal performance evaluation of MSFC hot air collectors with various flow channel depths

Description: The test procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program on the MSFC air collector with flow channel depth of 3 in., 2 in., and 1 in., under simulated conditions are presented. The MSFC hot air collector consists of a single glass cover with a non-selective coating absorber plate and using air as the heat transfer medium. The absorber panel consisted of a thin flat sheet of aluminum.
Date: January 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department