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Physical Chemistry of the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

Description: From Summary: "This paper summarizes the results of physicochemical studies of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide) undertaken by the Federal Bureau of Mines as part of its program on improving processes for producing liquid fuels from coal."
Date: 1959
Creator: Anderson, R. B.; Shultz, J. F.; Hofer, L. J. E. & Storch, H. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Kinetics of the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on Iron Catalysts

Description: From Introduction: "The first of this Bulletin describes rate studies on iron catalysts and the second part the influence of catalyst geometry on rate. The appendix describes special experiments at higher pressure than those usually employed in the synthesis on iron catalysts."
Date: 1964
Creator: Anderson, R. B.; Karn, F. S. & Shultz, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sulfur Poisoning of Fixed Beds of Iron Catalysts in the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

Description: From Introduction: "This bulletin describes the results of poisoning of fixed beds of reduced, carbided, and nitrided fused iron oxide catalysts and reduced steel turnings by H2S in 1H2 + 1CO synthesis gas in tests in which the temperature (1) was held constant and (2) was increased as required to maintain constant productivity."
Date: 1965
Creator: Anderson, R. B.; Karn, F. S.; Kelly, R. E. & Shultz, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax from Catalyst by Supercritical Extraction

Description: Further progress in achieving the objectives of the project was made in the period of January I to March 31, 1998. The direct numerical simulation of particle removal process in turbulent gas flows was completed. Variations of particle trajectories are studied. It is shown that the near wall vortices profoundly affect the particle removal process in turbulent boundary layer flows. Experimental data for transport and deposition of fibrous particles in the aerosol wind tunnel was obtained. The measured deposition velocity for irregular fibrous particles is compared with the empirical correlation and the available data for glass fibers and discussed. Additional progress on the sublayer model for evaluating the particle deposition and resuspension in turbulent flows was made.
Date: April 30, 1998
Creator: Thies, Mark C. & Joyce, Patrick C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax from Catalyst by Supercritical Extraction

Description: Further progress in achieving the objectives of the project was made in the period of January I to March 31, 1998. The direct numerical simulation of particle removal process in turbulent gas flows was completed. Variations of particle trajectories are studied. It is shown that the near wall vortices profoundly affect the particle removal process in turbulent boundary layer flows. Experimental data for transport and deposition of fibrous particles in the aerosol wind tunnel was obtained. The measured deposition velocity for irregular fibrous particles is compared with the empirical correlation and the available data for glass fibers and discussed. Additional progress on the sublayer model for evaluating the particle deposition and resuspension in turbulent flows was made.
Date: January 31, 1998
Creator: Thies, Mark C. & Joyce, Patrick C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bibliography of the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and Related Processes: (In Two Parts) I. Review and Compilation of the Literature on the Production of Synthetic Liquid Fuels and Chemicals by the Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide

Description: Report containing abstracts of the technical literature and patents dealing with the history, development, and commercial application of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and related processes for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide and the production of synthetic fuels and chemicals.
Date: 1954
Creator: Anderson, H. C.; Wiley, J. L. & Newell, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering Development of Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) Technology

Description: This report summarizes the procedures used and results obtained in determining radial gas holdup profiles, via gamma ray scanning, and in assessing liquid and gas mixing parameters, via radioactive liquid and gas tracers, during Fischer Tropsch synthesis. The objectives of the study were (i) to develop a procedure for detection of gas holdup radial profiles in operating reactors and (ii) to test the ability of the developed, previously described, engineering models to predict the observed liquid and gas mixing patterns. It was shown that the current scanning procedures were not precise enough to obtain an accurate estimate of the gas radial holdup profile and an improved protocol for future use was developed. The previously developed physically based model for liquid mixing was adapted to account for liquid withdrawal from the mid section of the column. The ability of our engineering mixing models for liquid and gas phase to predict both liquid and gas phase tracer response was established and illustrated.
Date: July 31, 2002
Creator: Gupta, Puneet
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sandia support for PETC Fischer-Tropsch research: Experimental characterization of slurry-phase bubble-column reactor hydrodynamics

Description: Sandia`s program to develop, implement, and apply diagnostics for hydrodynamic characterization of slurry bubble-column reactors (SBCRs) at industrially relevant conditions is discussed. Gas-liquid flow experiments are performed in an industrial-scale 48 cm ID stainless steel vessel. Gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) is applied to make spatially resolved gas holdup measurements. Both water and Drakeol 10 with air sparging are examined at ambient and elevated pressures. Gas holdup increases with gas superficial velocity and pressure, and the GDT values are in good agreement with values from differential pressure measurements. Other diagnostic techniques are also discussed.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Jackson, N.B.; Torczynski, J.R.; Shollenberger, K.A.; O`Hern, T.J. & Adkins, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Slurry phase iron catalysts for indirect coal liquefaction. Second semi-annual progress report, January 5, 1996--July 4, 1996

Description: During this period, work was continued on understanding the attrition of precipitated iron catalysts and work initiated on synthesizing catalysts containing silica binders. Use of a sedigraph particle size analyzer with an ultrasonic probe provides a simple method to test the strength of catalyst agglomerates, allowing the strength comparison of silica and hematite catalysts (the former is considerably stronger). Study of Fe/silica interactions was continued. Addition of a colloidal silica precursor to calcined Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst had no detrimental effect on reducibility of the hematite to {alpha}-Fe. XRD and electron microscopy will be used to analyze the crystal structure and types of C present in samples from long Fischer-Tropsch runs.
Date: August 2, 1996
Creator: Datye, A.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology development for iron fisher-tropsch catalysis

Description: The goal of the proposed work is the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. the catalyst that is developed will be suitable for testing at the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas or similar sized plant. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the standard-catalyst developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis, The proposed work will optimize the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for this low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. the oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studies at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity, and aging characteristics.
Date: July 15, 1997
Creator: Davis, B.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax from Catalyst by Supercritical Extraction

Description: The proposed process of using supercritical fluid extraction in conjunction with the Fischer-Tropsch slurry bubble column reactor has been examined using the ASPEN Plus simulator by the research group at North Carolina State University. Qualitative results have been obtained for varying the following process parameters: solvent-to-wax ratio, solvent type (pentane or hexane), extraction temperature and pressure, and recovery unit temperature and pressure. The region of retrograde behavior was determined for pentane and hexane. Initial results show hexane to be the superior solvent; compared to pentane, hexane requires lower quantities of solvent makeup (the amount of solvent which needs to be added to account for solvent that cannot be recycled), and also results in a lower average molecular weight of slurry in the reactor. Studies indicate that increasing the extraction temperature, extraction pressure, recovery temperature, or solvent to wax ratio decreases the amount solvent makeup required. Decreasing the recovery pressure was found to decrease the makeup flowrate.
Date: January 31, 1997
Creator: Joyce, P.C. & Thies, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MOSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY STUDIES OF IRON CATALYSTS USED IN SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

Description: Iron and cobalt are the two principal choices as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis. As discussed in a recent review by Wender each metal has certain advantages and disadvantages. Davis and co-workers have recently discussed the advantages of iron-based F-T catalysts in some detail. In order to understand the catalytic reaction mechanisms of iron during F-T synthesis, it is critical to identify the active catalytic phases. Moreover, from a practical point of view, it is equally important to identify the reactions and transformations that deactivate the catalysts. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy is perhaps the best technique available for quantitative characterization of the iron phases in complex samples. For the past several years, our group has been using Moessbauer spectroscopy to characterize the iron-based catalysts prepared and tested for F-T synthesis in a number of DOE-sponsored programs. The results of this investigation have been summarized in detail in DOE reports and in a number of publications released over the past few years. A list of the principal publications resulting from this work is given. A brief summary of the highlights of the results presented in these papers is presented in the current report.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Huffman, G.P.; Rao, K. R. P. M. & Huggins, F.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Separation of Fischer-Tropsch wax from catalyst by supercritical fluid extraction. Technical progress report, January--March 1995

Description: Objective is to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid extraction for separating the catalyst slurry of a Fischer-Tropsch (F- T) slurry bubble column reactor into a wax and a concentrated catalyst slurry that is ready for recycle/regeneration. The automated apparatus was evaluated using a toluene-petroleum pitch system. The Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (SAFT) equation will be used to fit the VLE and LLE data for F-T wax-solvent systems; this equation was successful in predicting both phase compositions and average molecular weight distributions.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Thies, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology development for iron and cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

Description: The simple polymerization mechanism for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis produces products which follows an Anderson-Schulz-Flory distribution. Thus, plotting the logarithm of the mole fraction versus carbon number will produce a straight line whose slope is related to alpha which is determined by the chain termination and propagation probabilities. In contrast, the products from laboratory and large commercial plants exhibit a two-alpha plot. Vapor-liquid calculations show that product accumulation cannot be responsible for the two-alpha plot when the alpha value is large enough to produce liquid products at the reaction temperature. Only in the case where alpha is small and all products are in the vapor phase, allowing evaporation of the startup solvent and a drying out of the reactor can a product accumulation produce a two-alpha plot. Results of filtration successes and failures from runs with the CSTR are described.
Date: July 31, 1999
Creator: Davis, B.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology Development for Iron Fischer-Tropsch Catalysis.

Description: The goal of the proposed work is the development of iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that combined high activity, selectivity and life with physical robustness for slurry phase reactors that will produce either low-alpha or high-alpha products. The catalyst that is developed will be suitable for testing at the Advanced Fuels Development Facility at LaPorte, Texas or similar sized plant. Previous work by the offeror has produced a catalyst formulation that is 1.5 times as active as the `standard-catalyst` developed by German workers for slurry phase synthesis. The proposed work will optimize the catalyst composition and pretreatment operation for this low-alpha catalyst. In parallel, work will be conducted to design a high-alpha iron catalyst that is suitable for slurry phase synthesis. Studies will be conducted to define the chemical phases present at various stages of the pretreatment and synthesis stages and to define the course of these changes. The oxidation/reduction cycles that are anticipated to occur in large, commercial reactors will be studied at the laboratory scale. Catalyst performance will be determined for catalysts synthesized in this program for activity, selectivity and aging characteristics.
Date: December 16, 1997
Creator: Davis, B.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Attrition Resistant Iron-Based Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts.

Description: The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction provides a way of converting coal-derived synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}) to liquid fuels. Since the reaction is highly exothermic, one of the major problems in control of the reaction is heat removal. Recent work has shown that the use of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) can largely solve this problem. Iron-based (Fe) catalysts are preferred catalysts for F-T when using low CO/H{sub 2} ratio synthesis gases derived from modern coal gasifiers. This is because in addition to reasonable F-T activity, the F-T catalysts also possess high water gas shift (WGS) activity. However, a serious problem with the use of Fe catalysts in a SBCR is their tendency to undergo attrition. This can cause fouling/plugging of downstream filters and equipment, making the separation of catalyst from the oil/wax product very difficult if not impossible, and results in a steady loss of catalyst from the reactor. The objectives of this research are to develop a better understanding of the parameters affecting attrition resistance of Fe F-T catalysts suitable for use in SBCRs and to incorporate this understanding into the design of novel Fe catalysts having superior attrition resistance. Catalyst preparations will be based on the use of spray drying and will be scalable using commercially available equipment. The research will employ among other measurements, attrition testing and F-T synthesis, including long duration slurry reactor runs in order to ascertain the degree of success of the various preparations. The goal is to develop an Fe catalyst which can be used in a SBCR having only an internal filter for separation of the catalyst from the liquid product, without sacrificing F-T activity and selectivity.
Date: September 22, 1997
Creator: Jothimurugesan, K.; Goodwin, J.S.; Spivey, J.J. & Gangwal, S.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conversion of associated natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons

Description: Energy International is a leader in catalyst and process development as it relates to Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology. Through this activity, a concept evolved for a new technique for capturing the fuel value in the associated natural gas contained in crude oil. In the new concept, the dissolved natural gas would be processed via F-T technology to produce light hydrocarbons that would then, in one manifestation of this concept, be redissolved in the crude oil to produce a lighter crude than the original, containing all of the natural gas, but with the vapor pressure of the crude lowered to an acceptable level via the conversion process. This technique would be of particular interest in those instances where the alternative methods of collections and utilizing the associated natural gas were expensive. A study of the application of this technology was undertaken by EI with support from the DOE.
Date: December 31, 1979
Creator: Singleton, A.H., Cooper, P.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BASELINE DESIGN/ECONOMICS FOR ADVANCED FISCHER-TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY

Description: Bechtel, along with Amoco as the main subcontractor, developed a Baseline design, two alternative designs, and computer process simulation models for indirect coal liquefaction based on advanced Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology for the U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC).
Date: April 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR IRON AND COBALT FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS

Description: The effects of copper on Fischer-Tropsch activity, selectivity and water-gas shift activity were studied over a wide range of syngas conversion. Three catalyst compositions were prepared for this study: (a) 100Fe/4.6Si/1.4K, (b) 100Fe/4.6Si/0.10Cu/1.4K and (c) 100Fe/4.6Si/2.0Cu/1.4K. The results are reported in Task 2. The literature review for cobalt catalysts is approximately 90% complete. Due to the size of the document, it has been submitted as a separate report labeled Task 6.
Date: January 30, 1999
Creator: Davis, Burtron H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department