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DynCorp Tricities Services, Inc. Hanford fire department FY 1998 annual work plan

Description: The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the U.S. Department of Energy operated Hanford site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under mutual aid and state mobilization agreements and fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site through Requests for Service from DOE-RL. This fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This plan provides a program overview, program baselines, and schedule baseline.
Date: August 19, 1997
Creator: Good, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Justification to remove 333 Building fire suppression system

Description: Justification to remove the 333 Building fire suppression system is provided. The Maximum Possible Fire Loss (MPFL) is provided (approximately $800K), potential radiological and toxicological impacts from a postulated fire are discussed, Life Safety Code issues are addressed, and coordination with the Hanford Fire Department is assured.
Date: December 4, 1995
Creator: Benecke, M.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fire safeguards for the farm.

Description: Describes how to remove fire threats from the farm, and how to prepare to fight a fire should one break out on the farm.
Date: 1940
Creator: Valgren, V. N. (Victor Nelson), b. 1876.; Roethe, Harry E. (Harry Edward), 1891-1989.; Betts, M. C. (Morris Cotgrave), 1875-1936.; Ashby, Wallace, b. 1890.; Rowe, William H. (William Hobson), b. 1896. & Mattoon, Wilbur R. (Wilbur Reed), 1875-1941.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EOS for critical slurry and solution systems

Description: In a fire involving fissile material, the mixture of the fissile material ash with fire fighting water may lead to a criticality excursion if there are nearby sumps that permit a critical geometry. The severity of the resulting energy release and pressure pulse is dependent on the rate at which the mixing occurs. To calculate these excursions, a non-equilibrium equation of state for the water ash mixture or slurry is needed that accounts for the thermal non-equilibrium that occurs due to finite heat transfer rates. We are developing the slurry EOS as well as a lumped neutronic and hydrodynamic model to serve as a testing ground for the non-equilibrium EOS before its incorporation into more sophisticated neutronic-hydrodynamics codes. Though the model lacks spatial dependence, it provides estimates of energy release and pressure pulses for various mixture assembly rates. We are also developing a non-equilibrium EOS for critical solution systems in which the fissile material is dissolved in water, which accounts for chemical non-equilibrium due to finite mass transfer rates. In contrast to previously published solution EOS, our solution EOS specifically accounts for mass diffusion of dissolved radiolytic gas to bubble nucleation sites. This EOS was developed to check our overall modeling against published solution excursion experiments and to compare solution excursions with slurry excursions initiated under the same conditions. Preliminary results indicate a good match between solution EOS calculations and experiments involving premixed 60-80 g U/l solutions for both low rate and high rate reactivity insertions. Comparison between slurry and solution calculations for the same composition show comparable energy release and pressure peaks for both low and high rate reactivity insertions with the slurry releasing less energy but generating more pressure than the solution for the amount of energy released. Calculations more appropriate to actual fire fighting scenarios will also ...
Date: October 27, 1998
Creator: DiPeso, G & Peterson, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report with Baseline Risk Assessment for the Fire Department Hose Training Facility (904-113G)

Description: This report documents the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment (RFI/RI/BRA) for the Fire Department Hose Training Facility (FDTF) (904-113G).
Date: April 1, 1997
Creator: Palmer, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Issues in Numerical Simulation of Fire Suppression

Description: This paper outlines general physical and computational issues associated with performing numerical simulation of fire suppression. Fire suppression encompasses a broad range of chemistry and physics over a large range of time and length scales. The authors discuss the dominant physical/chemical processes important to fire suppression that must be captured by a fire suppression model to be of engineering usefulness. First-principles solutions are not possible due to computational limitations, even with the new generation of tera-flop computers. A basic strategy combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation techniques with sub-grid model approximations for processes that have length scales unresolvable by gridding is presented.
Date: April 12, 1999
Creator: Tieszen, S.R. & Lopez, A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrective action plan for corrective action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

Description: The Mercury Fire Training Pit is a former fire training area located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Mercury Fire Training Pit was used from approximately 1965 to the early 1990s to train fire-fighting personnel at the NTS, and encompasses an area approximately 107 meters (m) (350 feet [ft]) by 137 m (450 ft). The Mercury Fire Training Pit formerly included a bermed burn pit with four small burn tanks, four large above ground storage tanks an overturned bus, a telephone pole storage area, and areas for burning sheds, pallets, and cables. Closure activities will include excavation of the impacted soil in the aboveground storage tank and burn pit areas to a depth of 1.5 m (5 ft), and excavation of the impacted surface soil downgradient of the former ASTs and burnpit areas to a depth of 0.3 m (1 ft). Excavated soil will be disposed in the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill at the NTS.
Date: August 1, 1999
Creator: Nacht, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decision Document for the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, Pesticide Rinse Area, Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, Illicit PCB Dump Site, and the Battery Acid Pit Fort Lewis, Washington

Description: PNNL conducted independent site evaluations for four sites at Fort Lewis, Washington, to determine their suitability for closure on behalf of the installation. These sites were recommended for ''No Further Action'' by previous investigators and included the Storm Water Outfalls/Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant (IWTP), the Pesticide Rinse Area, the Old Fire Fighting Training Pit, and the Illicit PCB Dump Site.
Date: January 10, 2001
Creator: Cantrell, Kirk J; Liikala, Terry L; Strenge, Dennis L & Taira, Randal Y
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fire protection program fiscal year 1997 site support program plan - Hanford fire department

Description: The mission of the Hanford Fires Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford Site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. this includes response to surrounding fire department districts under mutual aids agreements and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site. the fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing, and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention and education.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Good, D.E., Westinghouse Hanford
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit Nevada Test Site, Nevada

Description: The purpose of this Closure Report (CR) is to provide documentation of the completed corrective action and to provide data confirming the corrective action. The corrective action was performed following the approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 1999b) and consisted of closure-in-place with partial excavation, disposal, backfilling, administrative controls, and post-closure monitoring. Soil with petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations above the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) Action Level of 100 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) (Nevada Administrative Code, 1996) was removed to a depth of 1.5 meters (m) (5 feet [ft]). The excavations were backfilled with clean fill to restore the site and to prevent contact with deeper, closed-in-place soil that exceeded the NDEP Action Level. According to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (DOE, 1998), the Mercury Fire Training Pit was used from approximately 1965 to the early 1990s to train fire-fighting and emergency response personnel at the NTS and encompasses an area approximately 85 by 115 m (280 by 380 ft). The location of the Mercury Fire Training Pit is shown in Figure 1 and a site plan is shown in Figure 2. The Mercury Fire Training Pit formerly included a bermed bum pit with four small bum tanks; four large above ground storage tanks (ASTS); an overturned bus, a telephone pole storage area; and several areas for burning sheds, pallets, and cables. During the active life of the Mercury Fire Training Pit, training events were conducted at least monthly and sometimes as often as weekly. Fuels burned during these events included off-specification or rust-contaminated gasoline, diesel, and aviation fuel (JP-4). Other items burned during these events included paint, tires, a pond liner, wood, paper, cloth, and copper cable. Approximately 570 liters (L) (150 gallons [gal]) of fuel were used for each training event resulting in ...
Date: April 1, 2000
Creator: Obi, C. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The national wildfire prediction program: a key piece of the wildfire solution

Description: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed an initiative for a National Wildfire Prediction Program. The program provides guidance for fire managers throughout the country, assisting them to efficiently use limited fire-fighting resources. To achieve maximum cost leveraging, the program builds upon existing physics-based atmospheric and wildfire modeling efforts, a proven emergency response infrastructure, state-of-the-art computer science, and the world's most advanced supercomputers to create a comprehensive wildfire prediction system.
Date: August 6, 1999
Creator: Bossert, J E; Bradley, M M; Hanson, H P; Schomer, C L & Sumikawa, D A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of an Eye-Safe, Portable LIDAR for Remote Wildland Fire and Smoke Detection

Description: During periods of drought when surface water supplies are severely limited, wildland forest fires tend to become more frequent and often can grow into major fires that threaten valuable timber, real estate, and even human lives. Fire-fighting crews are critically dependent upon accurate and timely weather data to help ensure that individuals are not inadvertently exposed to dangerous conditions and to enhance normal fire-fighting activities. To that end, the use of an eye-safe, portable lidar for remote wildland fire and smoke detection is described.
Date: November 29, 2004
Creator: MATTHEW, PARKER
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of Fire-Fighting Facilities at Coal Mines

Description: Report issued by the Bureau of Mines over surveys conducted to determine the best fire-fighting technology for coal mines. The equipment, procedures, and cost of the technology were assessed. This report includes tables, maps, and illustrations.
Date: September 1957
Creator: Stahl, R. Ward & Dodge, C. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

Description: Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.
Date: August 18, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford fire department FY 99 annual work plan WBS 6.5.7

Description: The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing a full range of services at the lowest possible cost to customers. These services include fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, the general public, or interest of the U. S. Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under mutual aid and state mobilization agreements and fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site through Requests for Service from DOE-RL. The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education.
Date: February 24, 1999
Creator: GOOD, D.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A transport model for prediction of wildfire behavior

Description: Wildfires are a threat to human life and property, yet they are an unavoidable part of nature. In the past people have tried to predict wildfire behavior through the use of point functional models but have been unsuccessful at adequately predicting the gross behavior of the broad spectrum of fires that occur in nature. The majority of previous models do not have self-determining propagation rates. The author uses a transport approach to represent this complicated problem and produce a model that utilizes a self-determining propagation rate. The transport approach allows one to represent a large number of environments including transition regions such as those with nonhomogeneous vegetation and terrain. Some of the most difficult features to treat are the imperfectly known boundary conditions and the fine scale structure that is unresolvable, such as the specific location of the fuel or the precise incoming winds. The author accounts for the microscopic details of a fire with macroscopic resolution by dividing quantities into mean and fluctuating parts similar to what is done in traditional turbulence modelling. The author develops a complicated model that includes the transport of multiple gas species, such as oxygen and volatile hydrocarbons, and tracks the depletion of various fuels and other stationary solids and liquids. From this model the author also forms a simplified local burning model with which he performs a number of simulations for the purpose of demonstrating the properties of a self-determining transport-based wildfire model.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Linn, R.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary report, California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection evaluation of full-face air-purifying respirators for wildland fire fighting use

Description: Wildland fire suppression personnel employed by the CDF do not currently have the equipment to protect themselves from the short-term acute affects of smoke from wildland fires. In addition, no regulations exist that specify appropriate respiratory protection and the current air-purifying respirator technology and carbon monoxide monitoring has not been adapted to fit wildland fire suppression requirements. This three-year limited study evaluated the ability of wildland fire fighters to perform their normal job function while wearing full-face air-purifying respirators. In the first two years of this study we designed, developed and field tested a prototype ``smart`` air-purifying respirator which incorporated a real-time carbon monoxide monitor into a commercial full-face respirator.` Data on carbon monoxide exposure while fighting wildland fires was collected. During the third year of this study we evaluated eight different commercially available full-face air-purifying respirators equipped with a variety of cartridges. Apparatus to aid the fire fighter in carrying the respirator and carbon monoxide personal monitor was designed and fabricated. A smoke exposure test method was developed and a laboratory study on the penetration of smoke through respirator cartridges was conducted.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Beason, D.G.; Johnson, J.S.; Foote, K.L. & Weaver, W.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aktau Plastics Plant Explosives Material Report

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been cooperating with the Republic of Kazakhstanin Combined Threat Reduction (CTR) activities at the BN350 reactor located at the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex (MAEC) in the city of Aktau, Kazakhstan since 1994. DOE contract personnel have been stationed at this facility for the last two years and DOE representatives regularly visit this location to oversee the continuing cooperative activities. Continued future cooperation is planned. A Russian news report in September 1999 indicated that 75 metric tons of organic peroxides stored at the Plastics Plant near Aktau were in danger of exploding and killing or injuring nearby residents. To ensure the health and safety of the personnel at the BN350 site, the DOE conducted a study to investigate the potential danger to the BN350 site posed by these materials at the Plastics Plant. The study conclusion was that while the organic peroxides do have hazards associated with them, the BN350 site is a safe distance from the Plastics Plant. Further, because the Plastics Plant and MAEC have cooperative fire-fighting agreements,and the Plastics Plant had exhausted its reserve of fire-fighting foam, there was the possibility of the Plastics Plant depleting the store of fire-fighting foam at the BN350 site. Subsequently, the DOE decided to purchase fire-fighting foam for the Plastics Plant to ensure the availability of free-fighting foam at the BN350 site.
Date: December 1, 1999
Creator: CASE JR.,ROGER S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

Description: This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P. & Tanaka, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Substitution and elimination of CFCs at the Pantex Plant

Description: Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are categorized as Class I Ozone Depleting Solvents (ODSs). Due to the detrimental effects which these have on the ozone layer of the stratosphere, current federal legislation mandates their eliminated production. As part of this mandate, President Bush ordered the production of CFCs to cease by 1995. Facilities are, therefore, striving to eliminate the use of CFCs by this time. In the past, large quantities of CFCs were used at the Pantex Plant as fire suppressants, as solvents, and as refrigerants. The solvents were primarily used for cleaning weapon components, as well as various other applications. The Mason & Hanger has been very successful in its efforts to reduce the discharge of CFCs to the environment. This has been accomplished by initiating elimination, substitution, and recycling practices, as well as by instituting new technologies, such as waterjet machining.
Date: November 1, 1993
Creator: Mings, S. & Kohn, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hanford Site emergency response needs, Volumes 1 and 2

Description: This report presents the results of a comprehensive third party needs assessment of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD), conducted by Hughes Associates Inc. The assessment was commissioned with the intent of obtaining an unbiased report which could be used as a basis for identifying needed changes/modifications to the fire department and its services. This report serves several functions: (1) it documents current and future site operations and associated hazards and risks identified as a result of document review, site and facility surveys, and interviews with knowledgeable personnel; (2) describes the HFD in terms of organization, existing resources and response capabilities; (3) identifies regulatory and other requirements that are applicable to the HFD and includes a discussion of associated legal liabilities; and (4) provides recommendations based on applicable requirements and existing conditions. Each recommendation is followed by a supporting statement to clarify the intent or justification of the recommendation. This report will be followed by a Master Plan document which will present an implementation method for the recommendations (with associated costs) considered to be essential to maintaining adequate, cost effective emergency services at the Hanford site in the next five to seven years.
Date: April 16, 1996
Creator: Good, D. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing an operational capabilities index of the emergency services sector.

Description: In order to enhance the resilience of the Nation and its ability to protect itself in the face of natural and human-caused hazards, the ability of the critical infrastructure (CI) system to withstand specific threats and return to normal operations after degradation must be determined. To fully analyze the resilience of a region and the CI that resides within it, both the actual resilience of the individual CI and the capability of the Emergency Services Sector (ESS) to protect against and respond to potential hazards need to be considered. Thus, a regional resilience approach requires the comprehensive consideration of all parts of the CI system as well as the characterization of emergency services. This characterization must generate reproducible results that can support decision making with regard to risk management, disaster response, business continuity, and community planning and management. To address these issues, Argonne National Laboratory, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Sector Specific Agency - Executive Management Office, developed a comprehensive methodology to create an Emergency Services Sector Capabilities Index (ESSCI). The ESSCI is a performance metric that ranges from 0 (low level of capabilities) to 100 (high). Because an emergency services program has a high ESSCI, however, does not mean that a specific event would not be able to affect a region or cause severe consequences. And because a program has a low ESSCI does not mean that a disruptive event would automatically lead to serious consequences in a region. Moreover, a score of 100 on the ESSCI is not the level of capability expected of emergency services programs; rather, it represents an optimal program that would rarely be observed. The ESSCI characterizes the state of preparedness of a jurisdiction in terms of emergency and risk management. Perhaps the index's primary benefit is that it ...
Date: February 20, 2012
Creator: Collins, M.J.; Eaton, L.K.; Shoemaker, Z.M.; Fisher, R.E.; Veselka, S.N.; Wallace, K.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Defoamers for Confinenment Foam

Description: Aqueous foam concentrate (AFC) 380 foam was developed by Sandia National Laboratory as a blast mitigation foam for unexploded ordnance (UXO) and its ''engineered foam structure'' is reported to be able to ''envelop chemical or biological aerosols'' [1]. It is similar to commercial fire-fighting foams, consisting mostly of water with small amounts of two alcohols, an ether and surfactant. It also contains xanthan gum, probably, to strengthen the foam film and delay drainage. The concentrate is normally diluted in a 6:94 ratio with water for foaming applications. The diluted solution is normally foamed with air to an expansion factor of about 100 (density 0.01 g/cc), which is called ''dry'' foam. Higher density foam (0.18 > {rho} > 0.03 g/cc) was discovered which had quite different characteristics from ''dry'' foam and was called ''wet'' foam. Some characterization of these foams has also been carried out, but the major effort described in this document is the evaluation, at the small and medium scale, of chemical, mechanical and thermal approaches to defoaming AFC 380 foam. Several chemical approaches to defoaming were evaluated including oxidation and precipitation of the xanthan, use of commercial oil-emulsion or suspension defoamers, pH modification, and cation exchange with the surfactant. Of these the commercial defoamers were most effective. Two mechanical approaches to defoaming were evaluated: pressure and foam rupture with very fine particles. Pressure and vacuum techniques were considered too difficult for field applications but high surface area silica particles worked very well on dry foam. Finally simple thermal techniques were evaluated. An order-disorder transition occurs in xanthan solutions at about 60 C, which may be responsible for the effectiveness of hot air as a defoamer. During defoaming of 55 gallons of foam with hot air, after about 70% of the AFC 380 foam had been defoamed, the effectiveness ...
Date: August 10, 2005
Creator: Hoffman, D M & Mitchell, A R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department