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The Scientific and Legal Uncertainty Behind Ocean Fertilization to Sequester Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Final Report

Description: A three-day workshop was organized in April 2001 in Washington, DC, consisting of scientists, policy experts, and entrepreneurs to explore the proposed use of iron fertilization in the High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll regions, notably the Equatorial Pacific and Southern Oceans, to actively sequester atmospheric CO{sub 2}.
Date: June 1, 2002
Creator: Phinney, J. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Warm-Water Fishponds

Description: "Fishponds are successful if they are managed well. To provide recreation and supplement income, they must afford good fishing. Mistakes in construction, stocking, and management can lead to disappointments. This bulletin is concerned only with warm-water ponds -- not with cool-water or cold-water ponds. It points out the importance of a favorable site, proper pond construction, erosion control, correct stocking, fertilizing, and weed control. And it tells how to manage a warm-water pond for fishing. By following these guides, you can have a lasting pond that can be fished many times a year." -- p. ii
Date: 1977
Creator: Dillon, Olan W., 1917-; Neely, William W., 1915-; Davison, Verne E. (Verne Elbert), 1904- & Compton, Lawrence V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantifying the effects of CO2-fertilized vegetation on future global climate and carbon dynamics

Description: Climate and the global carbon cycle are a tightly coupled system where changes in climate affect exchange of atmospheric CO{sup 2} with the land biosphere and the ocean, and vice-versa. In particular, the response of the land biosphere to the ongoing increase in atmospheric CO{sup 2} is not well understood. To evaluate the approximate upper and lower limits of land carbon uptake, we perform simulations using a comprehensive climate-carbon model. In one case the land biosphere is vigorously fertilized by added CO{sup 2} and sequesters carbon throughout the 21st century. In a second case, CO{sup 2} fertilization saturates in year 2000; here the land becomes an additional source of CO{sup 2} by 2050. The predicted atmospheric CO{sup 2} concentration at year 2100 differs by 40% between the two cases. We show that current uncertainties preclude determination of whether the land biosphere will amplify or damp atmospheric CO{sup 2} increases by the end of the century.
Date: October 13, 2004
Creator: Thompson, S L; Govindasamy, B; Mirin, A; Caldeira, K; Delire, C; Milovich, J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temporal Changes in the Spatial Variability of Soil Nutrients

Description: This paper reports the temporal changes in the spatial variability of soil nutrient concentrations across a field during the growing season, over a four-year period. This study is part of the Site-Specific Technologies for Agriculture (SST4Ag) precision farming research project at the INEEL. Uniform fertilization did not produce a uniform increase in fertility. During the growing season, several of the nutrients and micronutrients showed increases in concentration although no additional fertilization had occurred. Potato plant uptake did not explain all of these changes. Some soil micronutrient concentrations increased above levels considered detrimental to potatoes, but the plants did not show the effects in reduced yield. All the nutrients measured changed between the last sampling in the fall and the first sampling the next spring prior to fertilization. The soil microbial community may play a major role in the temporal changes in the spatial variability of soil nutrient concentrations. These temporal changes suggest potential impact when determining fertilizer recommendations, and when evaluating the results of spatially varying fertilizer application.
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Hoskinson, Reed Louis; Hess, John Richard & Alessi, Randolph Samuel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterizing the production and retention of dissolved iron as Fe(II) across a natural gradient in chlorophyll concentrations in the Southern Drake Passage - Final Technical Report

Description: Recent mesoscale iron fertilization studies in the Southern Ocean (e.g. SOIREE, EisenEx, SOFeX) have demonstrated the importance of iron as a limiting factor for phytoplankton growth in these high nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters. Results of these experiments have demonstrated that factors which influence the biological availability of the iron supplied to phytoplankton are crucial in bloom development, longevity, and generation of carbon export flux. These findings have important implications for the future development of iron fertilization protocols to enhance carbon sequestration in high-latitude oceans. In particular, processes which lead to the mobilization and retention of iron in dissolved form in the upper ocean are important in promoting continued biological availability of iron. Such processes can include photochemical redox cycling, which leads to the formation of soluble reduced iron, Fe(II), within iron-enriched waters. Creation of effective fertilization schemes will thus require more information about Fe(II) photoproduction in Southern Ocean waters as a means to retain new iron within the euphotic zone. To contribute to our knowledge base in this area, this project was funded by DOE with a goal of characterizing the production and retention of dissolved Fe as Fe(II) in an area of the southern Drake Passage near the Shackleton Transverse Ridge, a region with a strong recurrent chlorophyll gradient which is believed to be a site of natural iron enrichment in the Southern Ocean. This area was the focus of a multidisciplinary NSF/OPP-funded investigation in February 2004 (OPP02-30443, lead PI Greg Mitchell, SIO/UCSD) to determine the influence of mesoscale circulation and iron transport with regard to the observed patterns in sea surface chlorophyll in the region near the Shackleton Transverse Ridge. A number of parameters were assessed across this gradient in order to reveal interactions between plankton community structure and iron distributions. As a co-PI in the NSF/OPP-funded project, ...
Date: April 10, 2007
Creator: Barbeau, Katherine
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Cigarette smoking in men has been associated with increased chromosomal abnormalities in sperm and with increased risks for spontaneous abortions, birth defects and neonatal death. Little is known, however, about the reproductive consequences of paternal exposure to second-hand smoke. We used a mouse model to investigate the effects of paternal exposure to sidestream (SS) smoke, the main constituent of second-hand smoke, on the genetic integrity and function of sperm, and to determine whether male germ cells were equally sensitive to mainstream (MS) and SS smoke. A series of sperm DNA quality and reproductive endpoints were investigated after exposing male mice for two weeks to MS or SS smoke. Our results indicated that: (i) only SS smoke significantly affected sperm motility; (ii) only MS smoke induced DNA strand breaks in sperm; (iii) both MS and SS smoke increased sperm chromatin structure abnormalities; and (iv) MS smoke affected both fertilization and the rate of early embryonic development, while SS smoke affected fertilization only. These results show that MS and SS smoke have differential effects on the genetic integrity and function of sperm and provide further evidence that male exposure to second-hand smoke, as well as direct cigarette smoke, may diminish a couple's chance for a successful pregnancy and the birth of a healthy baby.
Date: March 13, 2009
Creator: Polyzos, Aris; Schmid, Thomas Ernst; Pina-Guzman, Belem; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet & Marchetti, Francesco
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa

Description: Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.
Date: May 3, 2009
Creator: Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J . & Quintanilla-Vega, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of CO{sub 2} and nitrogen fertilization on soils planted with ponderosa pine

Description: The effects of elevated CO{sub 2} (ambient, 525, and 700 {micro}l l{sup -1})and N fertilization (0, 10, and 20 g N m{sup 2} yr{sup -1}) on soil pCO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} efflux, soil solution chemistry, and soil C and nutrients in an open-top chamber study with Pinus ponderosa are described. Soil pCO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} efflux were significantly greater with elevated CO{sub 2}, at first (second growing season) in the 525 {micro}l l{sup -1} and later (fourth and fifth growing seasons) in the 700 {micro}l l{sup -1} CO{sub 2} treatments. Soil solution HCO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations were temporarily elevated in the 525 {micro}l l{sup -1} CO{sub 2} treatment during the second growing season, consistent with the elevated pCO{sub 2}. Nitrogen fertilization had no consistent effect on soil pCO{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} efflux, but did have the expected negative effect on exchangeable Ca{sup 2+}, K{sup +}, and Mg{sup 2+}, presumed to be caused by increased nitrate leaching. Elevated CO{sub 2} had no consistent effects on exchangeable Ca{sup 2+}, K{sup +}, and Mg{sup 2+}, but did cause temporary reductions in soil NO{sup 3{sup -}} (second growing season). Statistically significant negative effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on soil extractable P were noted in the third and sixth growing seasons. However, these patterns in extractable P reflected pre-treatment differences, which, while not statistically significant, followed the same pattern. Statistically significant effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on total C and N in soils were noted in the third and sixth growing seasons, but these effects were inconsistent among N treatments and years. The clearest effect of elevated CO{sub 2} was in the case of C/N ratio in year 6, where there was a consistent, positive effect. The increases in C/N ratio with elevated CO{sub 2} in year six were largely a result of ...
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Johnson, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration potential of forests growing on 14 mined sites in a seven-state region in the Midwestern and Eastern Coalfields. Carbon contents of these forests were compared to adjacent forests on non-mined land. The study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each location. The treatments include three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Analysis of soil samples was completed and these data are being used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions. Fertilizer prescripts will be developed for each site. Fertilizer will be applied during the second quarter 2004. Data are included as appendices in this report. As part of our economic analysis of mined land reforestation, we focused on the implications of a shift in reforestation burden from the landowner to the mine operator. Results suggest that the reforestation of mined lands as part of the mining operation creates a viable and profitable forest enterprise for landowners with greater potential for carbon sequestration.
Date: June 4, 2004
Creator: Burger, J.; Galbraith, J.; Fox, T.; Amacher, G.; Sullivan, J. & Zipper, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of In Vitro Mammalian Blastocyst Development: Assessment of Culture Conditions, Ovarian Stimulation and Experimental Micro-Manipulation

Description: Factors currently at the forefront of human in vitro fertilization (IVF) that collectively influence treatment success in the form of blastocysts development were investigated during early mammalian embryology with concentration on infertile patients presenting with diminished ovarian reserve or preliminary ovarian failure. A novel experimental technique, Graft Transplant-Embryonic Stem Cells (GT-ESC) was introduced in the mouse model, as the first inclusive approach for embryo selection in IVF treatments resulting in successful graft integration of sibling cells, stage-dependent (day 4) blastocysts. E-Cadherin-catenin bonds play an integral role in trophectoderm cell viability and calcium removal, inducing disruption of cell-to-cell bonds at the blastocyst stage was detrimental to continued blastocyst development. One of the leading methods for embryo selection for uterine transfer in human IVF is application of pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) methods such as next generation sequencing (NGS). Female patients <35 y do not benefit from this treatment when outcome is measured by presence of fetal heart beats at 10 weeks of gestation. Patients 35-37 y benefit from PGS with no significant difference of outcome based on form of PGS method utilized. Therefore, small nucleotide polymorphism array (snp-array) or targeted-NGS should be selected for this age range to lessen the financial burden of the patient. Embryos from women >40 y have a higher rate of mosaic cell lines which can be detected by NGS. Therefore NGS is most beneficial for women >40 y. Additionally, ovarian stimulation of the patient during human IVF can notably influence outcome. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a more conducive indicator of blastocysts development per treatment compared to basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Actionable variables included in a decision tree analysis determined a negative influence (0% success, n=11) of high dose gonadotropin use (>3325 IUs) in good prognosis patients (>12 mature follicles at trigger, AMH >3.15 ng/mL). A positive ...
Date: May 2018
Creator: Sadruddin, Sheela
Partner: UNT Libraries

Leaf elemental analysis and growth characteristics of mycorrhizal treated post oak seedlings via particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy.

Description: Growth and element assimilation was investigated in post oak seedlings exposed to four different treatment combinations of fertilization and ectomycorrhizal inoculation. Element concentration in excised leaves was analyzed via particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry with a 1.8 MeV proton macrobeam. Mean growth was significantly different across the treatment groups as well as mean concentration of Mg, Al, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn. The data suggest that fertilization rather than mycorrhizal inoculation had a stronger influence on plant growth and nutrient uptake. A follow up study was conducted with a 3 MeV microbeam. A 850 μm2 scanned area of a post oak leaf produced topographical maps of 11 elements.
Date: May 2006
Creator: Boling, Blake C.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Partially redundant functions of two SET-domain polycomb-group proteins in controlling initiation of seed development in Arabidopsis

Description: In Arabidopsis, a complex of Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins functions in the female gametophyte to control the initiation of seed development. Mutations in the PcG genes, including MEDEA (MEA) and FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT SEED 2 (FIS2), produce autonomous seeds where endosperm proliferation occurs in the absence of fertilization. By using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified MEA and a related protein, SWINGER (SWN), as SET-domain partners of FIS2. Localization data indicated that all three proteins are present in the female gametophyte. Although single-mutant swn plants did not show any defects, swn mutations enhanced the mea mutant phenotype in producing autonomous seeds. Thus, MEA and SWN perform partially redundant functions in controlling the initiation of endosperm development before fertilization in Arabidopsis.
Date: August 29, 2006
Creator: Wang, Dongfang; Tyson, Mark D.; Jackson, Shawn S. & Yadegari, Ramin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimal nitrogen application rates for three intensively-managed hardwood tree species in the southeastern USA.

Description: Forest production can be limited by nutrient and water availability, and tree species are expected to respond differently to fertilization and irrigation. Despite these common expectations, multi-species comparisons are rare, especially ones implementing a range of fertilization rates crossed with irrigation. This study compares the response of three forest hardwood species to numerous nitrogen (N) fertilization levels and water availability using a novel non-replicated technique. A range of N levels was included to determine how N affected the growth response curve, and statistical procedures for comparing these non-linear response functions are presented. We used growth and yield data to calculate the Land Expectation Value (LEV) for these intensive management treatments, and to determine the optimal growing conditions (accounting for tree productivity and grower expenses). To accomplish these objectives, we used a series of cottonwood, sycamore, and sweetgum plots that received a range of N fertilization with or without irrigation. Regression is an economical approach to define treatment responses in large-scale experiments, and we recommend >3 treatment levels so the response of any single plot does not disproportionally influence the line. The non-replicated plots showed a strong positive N response below 150 kg N ha -1 yr -1, beyond which little response was observed. However, different amounts of fertilization were required for the greatest biomass accumulation rate in each tree species. Cottonwood and sycamore growth was optimized with less than 150 kg N ha -1 yr -1 while sweetgum growth was optimized with less than 100 kg N ha -1 yr -1. Results from this experiment should be representative of many of the nutrient-poor soils in the Coastal Plain in the southeastern USA. The LEVs were not positive for any treatment x genotype combination tested when using irrigation or liquid fertilizer, but our analysis showed that several non-irrigated treatments in sycamore ...
Date: April 15, 2013
Creator: Coyle, David; Aubrey, Doug P.; Siry, Jacek P.; Volfovicz-Leon, Roberto R. & Coleman, Mark D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon sequestration by patch fertilization: A comprehensive assessment using coupled physical-ecological-biogeochemical models: FINAL REPORT of grant Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER63726

Description: This final report summarizes research undertaken collaboratively between Princeton University, the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory on the Princeton University campus, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and the University of California, Los Angeles between September 1, 2000, and November 30, 2006, to do fundamental research on ocean iron fertilization as a means to enhance the net oceanic uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere. The approach we proposed was to develop and apply a suite of coupled physical-ecologicalbiogeochemical models in order to (i) determine to what extent enhanced carbon fixation from iron fertilization will lead to an increase in the oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2 and how long this carbon will remain sequestered (efficiency), and (ii) examine the changes in ocean ecology and natural biogeochemical cycles resulting from iron fertilization (consequences). The award was funded in two separate three-year installments: • September 1, 2000 to November 30, 2003, for a project entitled “Ocean carbon sequestration by fertilization: An integrated biogeochemical assessment.” A final report was submitted for this at the end of 2003 and is included here as Appendix 1. • December 1, 2003 to November 30, 2006, for a follow-on project under the same grant number entitled “Carbon sequestration by patch fertilization: A comprehensive assessment using coupled physical-ecological-biogeochemical models.” This report focuses primarily on the progress we made during the second period of funding subsequent to the work reported on in Appendix 1. When we began this project, we were thinking almost exclusively in terms of long-term fertilization over large regions of the ocean such as the Southern Ocean, with much of our focus being on how ocean circulation and biogeochemical cycling would interact to control the response to a given fertilization scenario. Our research on these types of scenarios, which was carried out largely during ...
Date: June 21, 2007
Creator: Sarmiento, Jorge L; Gnanadesikan, Anand & Gruber, Nicolas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coupled hydro-mechanical processes in crytalline rock and ininduratedand plastic clays: A comparative discussion

Description: This paper provides a comparative discussion of coupledhydromechanical processes in three different geological formations:crystalline rock, plastic clay, and indurated clay. First, the importantprocesses and associated property characteristics in the three rock typesare discussed. Then, one particular hydromechanical coupling is broughtup for detailed consideration, that of pore pressure changes in nearbyrock during tunnel excavation. Three field experiments in the three rocktypes are presented and their results are discussed. It is shown that themain physical processes are common to all three rock types, but with verydifferent time constants. The different issues raised by these cases arepointed out, and the transferable lessons learned are identified. Suchcross fertilization and simultaneous understanding of coupled processesin three very different rock types help to greatly enhance confidence inthe state of science in this field.
Date: February 15, 2006
Creator: Tsang, Chin-Fu; Blumling, Peter & Bernier, Frederic
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Impact of Soil Sampling Errors on Variable Rate Fertilization

Description: Variable rate fertilization of an agricultural field is done taking into account spatial variability in the soil’s characteristics. Most often, spatial variability in the soil’s fertility is the primary characteristic used to determine the differences in fertilizers applied from one point to the next. For several years the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) to determine the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field, based on existing soil fertility at the site, predicted yield of the crop that would result (and a predicted harvest-time market price), and the current costs and compositions of the fertilizers to be applied. Typically, soil is sampled at selected points within a field, the soil samples are analyzed in a lab, and the lab-measured soil fertility of the point samples is used for spatial interpolation, in some statistical manner, to determine the soil fertility at all other points in the field. Then a decision tool determines the fertilizers to apply at each point. Our research was conducted to measure the impact on the variable rate fertilization recipe caused by variability in the measurement of the soil’s fertility at the sampling points. The variability could be laboratory analytical errors or errors from variation in the sample collection method. The results show that for many of the fertility parameters, laboratory measurement error variance exceeds the estimated variability of the fertility measure across grid locations. These errors resulted in DSS4Ag fertilizer recipe recommended application rates that differed by up to 138 pounds of urea per acre, with half the field differing by more than 57 pounds of urea per acre. For potash the difference in application rate was up to 895 pounds per acre and over half the field differed ...
Date: July 1, 2004
Creator: Hoskinson, R. L.; Rope, R C.; Blackwood, L G.; Lee, R D. & Fink, R K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantifying the effects of limited CO2 fertilization on future climate

Description: The response of the land biosphere to the ongoing increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} is not fully understood. To evaluate the approximate upper and lower limits of land sequestration of carbon, we performed simulations using a comprehensive carbon-climate model. In one case the land biosphere is vigorously fertilized by added CO{sub 2} and sequesters carbon throughout the 21st century. In a second case, CO{sub 2} fertilization saturates in year 2000; in this case the land becomes an additional source of CO{sub 2} by 2050. The predicted atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration at year 2100 differs by 40% between the two cases. Current uncertainties preclude determination of whether the land biosphere will amplify or damp atmospheric CO{sub 2} increases by the end of the century.
Date: April 6, 2004
Creator: Erickson, D; Govindasamy, B; Caldeira, K; Mirin, A; Thompson, S L; Delire, C et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Occurrence and Impact of Insects in Maximum Growth Plantations

Description: Investigation of the relationships between intensive management practices and insect infestation using maximum growth potential studies of loblolly pine constructed over five years using a hierarchy of cultural treatments-monitoring differences in growth and insect infestation levels related to the increasing management intensities. This study shows that tree fertilization can increase coneworm infestation and demonstrated that tip moth management tree growth, at least initially.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Nowak, J.T. & Berisford, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regional Cost Estimates for Reclamation Practices on Arid and Semiarid Lands

Description: The U.S. Army uses the Integrated Training Area Management program for managing training land. One of the major objectives of the Integrated Training Area Management program has been to develop a method for estimating training land carrying capacity in a sustainable manner. The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology measures training load in terms of Maneuver Impact Miles. One Maneuver Impact Mile is the equivalent impact of an M1A2 tank traveling one mile while participating in an armor battalion field training exercise. The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology is also designed to predict land maintenance costs in terms of dollars per Maneuver Impact Mile. The overall cost factor is calculated using the historical cost of land maintenance practices and the effectiveness of controlling erosion. Because land maintenance costs and effectiveness are influenced by the characteristics of the land, Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity cost factors must be developed for each ecological region of the country. Costs for land maintenance activities are presented here for the semiarid and arid regions of the United States. Five ecoregions are recognized, and average values for reclamation activities are presented. Because there are many variables that can influence costs, ranges for reclamation activities are also presented. Costs are broken down into six major categories: seedbed preparation, fertilization, seeding, planting, mulching, and supplemental erosion control. Costs for most land reclamation practices and materials varied widely within and between ecological provinces. Although regional cost patterns were evident for some practices, the patterns were not consistent between practices. For the purpose of estimating land reclamation costs for the Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology, it may be desirable to use the ''Combined Average'' of all provinces found in the last row of each table to estimate costs for arid ...
Date: February 1, 2002
Creator: Ostler, W. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Loblolly and Longleaf Pone Responses to Litter Raking, Prescribed Burning and Nitrogen Fertilization

Description: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of prescribe burning and litter removal on soil nutrient levels and tree growth. An additional objective was to determine if nitrogen can be replaced with the application of fertilizer. There were no statistically significant changes in the soil nutrient levels of tree growth after six years, but there were significant changes in forest floor weights and nutrient levels.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Ross, Sharon M.; McKee, William H. & Mims, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bioenergy from willow. 1995 Annual report, November 1987--December 1995

Description: Experiments were established at Tully, New York, by the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, in cooperation with the University of Toronto and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, to assess the potential of willows for wood biomass production. Specific objectives included determining the effects of clone type, fertilization, spacing, cutting cycle, and irrigation on biomass production. Production was high, with willow clone SV1 yielding nearly 32 oven dry tons per acre (odt ac{sup -1}) with three-year harvest cycle, irrigation, and fertilization. Clone type, fertilization, spacing, cutting cycle, and irrigation all significantly affected biomass production. Willow clone-site trials planted at Massena, and Tully, NY in 1993 grew well during 1994 and 1995, but some clones in the Massena trial were severely damaged by deer browse. Several new cooperators joined the project, broadening the funding base, and enabling establishment of additional willow plantings. Willow clone-site trials were planted at Himrod, King Ferry, Somerset, and Tully, NY, during 1995. A willow cutting orchard was planted during 1995 at the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Saratoga Tree Nursery in Saratoga, NY. Plans are to begin site preparation for a 100+ acre willow bioenergy demonstration farm in central New York, and additional clone-site trials, in 1996.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: White, E.H. & Abrahamson, L.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department