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Revealing Charge Density Wave Formation in the LaTe2 System byAngle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

Description: We present the first direct study of charge density wave(CDW) formation in quasi-2D single layer LaTe2 using high-resolutionangle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and low energy electrondiffraction (LEED). CDW formation is driven by Fermi surface (FS)nesting, however characterized by a surprisingly smaller gap (~;50 meV)than seen in the double layer RTe3 compounds, extending over the entireFS. This establishes LaTe2 as the first reported semiconducting 2D CDWsystem where the CDW phase is FS nesting driven. In addition, the layerdependence of this phase in the tellurides and the possible transitionfrom a stripe to a checkerboard phase is discussed.
Date: November 15, 2006
Creator: Garcia, D. R.; Gweon, G.-H.; Zhou, S. Y.; Graf, J.; Jozwiak, C. M.; Jung, M. H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Magnetoconductance of Independently Tunable Tunnel-Coupled Double Quantum Wires

Description: The authors report on their recent experimental studies of vertically-coupled quantum point contacts subject to in-plane magnetic fields. Using a novel flip-chip technique, mutually aligned split gates on both sides of a sub micron thick double quantum well heterostructure define a closely-coupled pair of ballistic one-dimensional (1D) constrictions. They observe quantized conductance steps due to each quantum well and demonstrate independent control of each ID constriction width. In addition, a novel magnetoconductance feature at {approximately}6 T is observed when a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to both the current and growth directions. This conductance dip is observed only when 1D subbands are populated in both the top and bottom constrictions. This data is consistent with a counting model whereby the number of subbands crossing the Fermi level changes with field due to the formation of an anticrossing in each pair of 1D subbands.
Date: July 13, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Disentangling the Mn moments on different sublattices in the half-metallic ferrimagnet Mn3?xCoxGa

Description: Ferrimagnetic Mn{sub 3-x}Co{sub x}Ga compounds have been investigated by magnetic circular dichroism in x-ray absorption (XMCD). Compounds with x > 0.5 crystallize in the CuHg{sub 2}Ti structure. A tetragonal distortion of the cubic structure occurs for x {le} 0.5. For the cubic phase, magnetometry reveals a linearly increasing magnetization of 2x Bohr magnetons per formula unit obeying the generalized Slater-Pauling rule. XMCD confirms the ferrimagnetic character with Mn atoms occupying two different sublattices with antiparallel spin orientation and different degrees of spin localization and identifies the region 0.6 < x {le} 0.8 as most promising for a high spin polarization at the Fermi level. Individual Mn moments on inequivalent sites are compared to theoretical predictions.
Date: May 3, 2011
Creator: Klaer, P.; Jenkins, C.A.; Alijani, V.; Winterlik, J.; Balke, B.; Felser, C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exceptional Electron Transport Properties of In-rich InGaN

Description: Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in the narrow band gap end of the InGaN alloy system, particularly in InN. The existence of surface electron accumulation and a tendency for n-type conductivity have been well-established and are explained by an extremely large electron affinity and the location of the Fermi level stabilization energy (E{sub FS}) high in the conduction band [1]. These characteristics pose significant challenges to the integration of In-rich InGaN into devices and demonstrate the need for a better understanding of the relationship between native defects and electronic transport in the alloy system. It has been previously shown that high-energy particle irradiation can predictably control the electronic properties of In-rich InGaN [1]. With increasing irradiation dose, the electron concentration (n) increases and the electron mobility ({mu}) decreases until the Fermi level reaches E{sub FS}, which is the saturation point. The value of n at saturation decreases with decreasing In fraction, due to the raising of the conduction band edge with respect to E{sub FS}.
Date: October 22, 2006
Creator: Jones, R.E.; van Genuchten, H.C.M.; Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Li, S.X.; Liliental-Weber, Z. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Common Origin of the Circular-dichroism Pattern in ARPES of SrTiO3 and CuxBi2Se3

Description: We investigate circular dichroism in the angular distribution (CDAD) of photoelectrons from SrTiO{sub 3}:Nb and Cu{sub x}Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} recorded by 7-eV laser ARPES. In addition to the well-known node that occurs in CDAD when the incidence plane matches the mirror plane of the crystal, we show that another type of node occurs when the mirror plane of the crystal is vertical to the incidence plane and the electronic state is two dimensional. The flower-shaped CDAD's occurring around the Fermi level of SrTiO{sub 3}:Nb and around the Dirac point of Cu{sub x}Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} are explained on equal footings. A surface-state-to-surface-resonance transition is indicated for the topological state of Cu{sub x}Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}.
Date: August 19, 2011
Creator: Bell, Christopher
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anomalous Fermi-Surface Dependent Pairing in a Self-Doped High-Tc Superconductor

Description: We report the discovery of a self-doped multi-layer high T{sub c} superconductor Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}O{sub 8}F{sub 2} (F0234) which contains distinctly different superconducting gap magnitudes along its two Fermi surface(FS) sheets. While formal valence counting would imply this material to be an undoped insulator, it is a self-doped superconductor with a T{sub c} of 60K, possessing simultaneously both electron- and hole-doped FS sheets. Intriguingly, the FS sheet characterized by the much larger gap is the electron-doped one, which has a shape disfavoring two electronic features considered to be important for the pairing mechanism: the van Hove singularity and the antiferromagnetic ({pi}/a, {pi}/a) scattering.
Date: May 3, 2010
Creator: Chen, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Doping evolution of the electronic structure in the single-layer cuprates Bi2Sr2&#8722xLaxCuO6 delta: Comparison with other single-layer cuprates

Description: We have performed angle-resolved photoemission and core-level x-ray photoemission studies of the single-layer cuprate Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2-x}La{sub x}CuO{sub 6+{delta}} (Bi2201) and revealed the doping evolution of the electronic structure from the lightly-doped to optimally-doped regions. We have observed the formation of the dispersive quasi-particle band, evolution of the Fermi 'arc' into the Fermi surface and the shift of the chemical potential with hole doping as in other cuprates. The doping evolution in Bi2201 is similar to that in Ca{sub 2-x}Na{sub x}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} (Na-CCOC), where a rapid chemical potential shift toward the lower Hubbard band of the parent insulator has been observed, but is quite different from that in La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (LSCO), where the chemical potential does not shift, yet the dispersive band and the Fermi arc/surface are formed around the Fermi level already in the lightly-doped region. The (underlying) Fermi surface shape and band dispersions are quantitatively analyzed using tightbinding fit, and the deduced next-nearest-neighbor hopping integral t also confirm the similarity to Na-CCOC and the difference from LSCO.
Date: April 30, 2010
Creator: Hashimoto, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Doping Evolution of the Underlying Fermi Surface in La_2&#8722xSr_xCuO_4

Description: We have performed a systematic doping dependent study of La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (LSCO) (0.03 {le} x {le} 0.3) by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. In the entire doping range, the underlying 'Fermi surface' determined from the low energy spectral weight approximately satisfies Luttinger's theorem, even down to the lightly-doped region. This is in strong contrast to the result on Ca{sub 2-x}Na{sub x}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} (Na-CCOC), which shows a strong deviation from Luttinger's theorem. The differences between LSCO and Na-CCOC are correlated with the different behaviors of the chemical potential shift and spectral weight transfer induced by hole doping.
Date: May 3, 2010
Creator: Yoshida, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Half Metallic Digital Ferromagnetic Heterostructure Composed of a (Delta)-doped Layer of Mn in Si

Description: The authors propose and investigate the properties of a digital ferromagnetic heterostructure (DFH) consisting of a {delta}-doped layer of Mn in Si, using ab initio electronic-structure methods. They find that (1) ferromagnetic order of the Mn layer is energetically favorable relative to antiferromagnetic, and (2) the heterostructure is a two-dimensional half metallic system. The metallic behavior is contributed by three majority-spin bands originating from hybridized Mn-d and nearest-neighbor Si-p states, and the corresponding carriers are responsible for the ferromagnetic order in the Mn layer. The minority-spin channel has a calculated semiconducting gap of 0.25 eV. Analysis of the total and partial densities of states, band structure, Fermi surfaces and associated charge density reveals the marked two-dimensional nature of the half metallicity. The band lineup is found to be favorable for retaining the half metal character to near the Curie temperature (T{sub C}). Being Si based and possibly having a high T{sub C} as suggested by an experiment on dilutely doped Mn in Si, the heterostructure may be of special interest for integration into mature Si technologies for spintronic applications.
Date: May 30, 2006
Creator: Qian, M C; Fong, C Y; Liu, K; Pickett, W E; Pask, J E & Yang, L H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: First-principles total-energy calculations were performed for the trigonal shear elastic constant (C{sub 44}) of vanadium and niobium. A mechanical instability in C{sub 44} is found for vanadium at pressures {approx} 2 Mbar which also shows softening in niobium at pressures {approx} 0.5 Mbar. We argue that the pressure-induced shear instability (softening) of vanadium (niobium) is due to the intraband nesting of the Fermi surface.
Date: December 21, 2005
Creator: Landa, A; Klepeis, J; Soderlind, P; Naumov, I; Velikokhatnyi, O; Vitos, L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: First-principles total energy calculation based on the exact muffin-tin orbital and full potential linear muffin-tin orbital methods were used to calculate the equation of state and shear elastic constants of bcc V, Nb, and the V{sub 95}Nb{sub 05} disordered alloy as a function of pressure up to 6 Mbar. We found a mechanical instability in C{sub 44} and a corresponding softening in C at pressures {approx} 2 Mbar for V. Both shear elastic constants show softening at pressures {approx} 0.5 Mbar for Nb. Substitution of 5 at. % of V with Nb removes the instability of V with respect to trigonal distortions in the vicinity of 2 Mbar pressure, but still leaves the softening of C{sub 44} in this pressure region. We argue that the pressure induced shear instability (softening) of V (Nb) originates from the electronic system and can be explained by a combination of the Fermi surface nesting, electronic topological transition, and band Jahn-Teller effect.
Date: May 2, 2005
Creator: Landa, A; Klepeis, J; Soderlind, P; Naumov, I; Velikokhatnyi, O; Vitos, L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Density-functional theory previously used to describe phase equilibria in U-Zr alloys [A. Landa, P. Soederlind, P.E.A. Turchi, J. Alloys Comp. 478 (2009) 103-110] is extended to investigate the ground-state properties of U-Mo solid solutions. We discuss how the heat of formation in both alloys correlates with the charge transfer between the alloy components, and how the specific behavior of the density of states in the vicinity of the Fermi level promotes the stabilization of the U{sub 2}Mo compound. Our calculations prove that, due to the existence of a single {gamma}-phase over the typical fuel operation temperatures, {gamma}-U-Mo alloys should indeed have much lower constituent redistribution than {gamma}-U-Zr alloys for which binodal decomposition causes a high degree of constituent redistribution.
Date: November 1, 2010
Creator: Landa, A; Soderlind, P & Turchi, P A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ARPES study of the evolution of band structure and charge density wave properties in RTe3 ( R=Y , La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb, and Dy)

Description: We present a detailed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) investigation of the RTe3 family, which sets this system as an ideal"textbook" example for the formation of a nesting driven charge density wave (CDW). This family indeed exhibits the full range of phenomena that can be associated to CDWinstabilities, from the opening of large gaps on the best nested parts of Fermi surface (up to 0.4 eV), to the existence of residual metallic pockets. ARPES is the best suited technique to characterize these features, thanks to its unique ability to resolve the electronic structure in k space. An additional advantage of RTe3 is that theband structure can be very accurately described by a simple two dimensional tight-binding (TB) model, which allows one to understand and easily reproduce many characteristics of the CDW. In this paper, we first establish the main features of the electronic structure by comparing our ARPES measurements with the linear muffin-tinorbital band calculations. We use this to define the validity and limits of the TB model. We then present a complete description of the CDW properties and of their strong evolution as a function of R. Using simple models, we are able to reproduce perfectly the evolution of gaps in k space, the evolution of the CDW wave vector with R, and the shape of the residual metallic pockets. Finally, we give an estimation of the CDWinteraction parameters and find that the change in the electronic density of states n (EF), due to lattice expansion when different R ions are inserted, has the correct order of magnitude to explain the evolution of the CDW properties.
Date: January 16, 2008
Creator: Hussain, Zahid; Brouet, Veronique; Yang, Wanli; Zhou, Xingjiang; Hussain, Zahid; Moore, R.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Abrupt onset of a second energy gap at the superconducting transition of underdoped Bi2212

Description: he superconducting gap--an energy scale tied to the superconducting phenomena--opens on the Fermi surface at the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) in conventional BCS superconductors. In underdoped high-Tc superconducting copper oxides, a pseudogap (whose relation to the superconducting gap remains a mystery) develops well above Tc (refs 1, 2). Whether the pseudogap is a distinct phenomenon or the incoherent continuation of the superconducting gap above Tc is one of the central questions in high-Tc research3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Although some experimental evidence suggests that the two gaps are distinct9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, this issue is still under intense debate. A crucial piece of evidence to firmly establish this two-gap picture is still missing: a direct and unambiguous observation of a single-particle gap tied to the superconducting transition as function of temperature. Here we report the discovery of such an energy gap in underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta in the momentum space region overlooked in previous measurements. Near the diagonal of Cu?O bond direction (nodal direction), we found a gap that opens at Tc and has a canonical (BCS-like) temperature dependence accompanied by the appearance of the so-called Bogoliubov quasi-particles, a classical signature of superconductivity. This is in sharp contrast to the pseudogap near the Cu?O bond direction (antinodal region) measured in earlier experiments19, 20, 21.
Date: May 26, 2007
Creator: Hussain, Zahid; Lee, W.S.; Vishik, I.M.; Tanaka, K.; Lu, D.H.; Sasagawa, T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spin-polarized ballistic transport channel in a thin superlattice composed of zincblende half-metallic compounds

Description: The authors examine theoretically conduction processes near the Fermi energy of thin layers of zincblende structure half metals, using as an example a superlattice consisting of monolayers of GaAs and MnAs, a bilayer of CrAs, and a bilayer of GaAs. By artificially separating bilayers, they show that non-fourfold coordinated Cr states thwart half metallicity. However, capping the metal-As bilayers restores half metallicity and ballistic conduction of electrons around 0.3 eV above the Fermi level will give nearly 100% spin-polarized transmission in the direction of the thin superlattice. Recent developments suggest atomic layer epitaxy can be used to produce such thin layers for spintronics applications.
Date: May 11, 2004
Creator: Qian, M C; Fong, C Y; Pickett, W E; Yang, L H; Pask, J E & Dag, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical Properties of the Charge-Density-Wave Polychalcogenide Compounds R2Te5 (R=Nd, Sm and Gd)

Description: We investigate the rare-earth polychalcogenide R{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (R = Nd, Sm and Gd) charge-density-wave (CDW) compounds by optical methods. From the absorption spectrum we extract the excitation energy of the CDW gap and estimate the fraction of the Fermi surface which is gapped by the formation of the CDW condensate. In analogy to previous findings on the related RTe{sub n} (n = 2 and 3) families, we establish the progressive closing of the CDW gap and the moderate enhancement of the metallic component upon chemically compressing the lattice.
Date: February 15, 2010
Creator: Pfuner, F.; Degiorgi, L.; /Zurich, ETH; Shin, K.Y.; Fisher, I.R. & /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fundamental Curie temperature limit in ferromagnetic Ga1-xMnxAs

Description: We provide unambiguous experimental evidence that the upper limit of {approx}110 K commonly observed for the Curie temperature TC of Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As is caused by the Fermi-level-induced hole saturation. This conclusion is based on parallel studies of the location of Mn in the lattice, the effectiveness of acceptor center, and ferromagnetism on a series of Ga{sub 1-x-y}Mn{sub x}Be{sub y}As layers, in which the concentration of magnetic moments and of free holes can be independently controlled by the Mn and Be contents. Ion channeling and magnetization measurements show a dramatic increase of the concentration of Mn interstitials accompanied by a reduction of T{sub C} with increasing Be concentration. At the same time the free hole concentration remains relatively constant at {approx}5 x 10{sup 20}cm{sup -3}. These results indicate that the concentrations of free holes as well as of ferromagnetically active Mn spins are governed by the position of the Fermi level, which controls the formation energy of compensating interstitial Mn donors. Based on these results, we propose to use heavy n-type counter-doping of Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As (by, e.g., Te) to suppress the formation of Mn interstitials at high x, and thus improve the T{sub C} of the alloy system.
Date: September 24, 2002
Creator: Yu, K. M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Wojtowicz, T.; Lim, W. L.; Liu, X.; Bindley, U. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Helical spin-density wave in Fe/Cr trilayers with perfect interfaces

Description: Despite the presence of only collinear, commensurate (C) and incommensurate (I) spin-density waves (SDW`s) in bulk Cr, the interfacial steps in Fe/Cr multilayers are now believed to stabilize a helical (H) SDW within the Cr spacer. Yet H SDW`s were first predicted in an Fe/Cr trilayer with perfect interfaces when the orientation of the Fe moments does not favor C ordering: if the number of Cr monolayers is even (odd) and the Fe moments are pointing in the same (opposite) direction, then a C SDW does not gain any coupling energy. Under these circumstances, a simple model verifies that H ordering is indeed favored over 1 ordering provided that the Fermi surface mismatch is sufficiently small or the temperature sufficiently high.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Fishman, R.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Existence and consequences of Coulomb pairing of electrons in a solid

Description: It is shown from first principles that, in the periodic potential of a crystalline solid, short-range (i.e., screened) binary Coulomb interactions can lead to a two-electron bound state. It is further suggested that these composite bosonic states (charge -2e, and typically spin zero) could mediate an effectively attractive interaction between pairs of conduction electrons close to the Fermi level. This necessarily short range attractive interaction, which is crucially dependent on the band structure of the solid, and is complementary to the phonon-mediated one, may provide a source for the existence and properties of short correlation-length electron pairs (analogous to but distinct from Cooper pairs) needed to understand high temperature superconductivity. Several distinctive and observable characteristics of the proposed pairing scheme are discussed.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Mahajan, S.M. & Thyagaraja, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two-dimensional magnetic quantum oscillations observed in an organic metal

Description: The de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) signal of the organic superconductor {beta}{double_prime}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3} shows an inverse-sawtooth wave form which proves the existence of an ideal two-dimensional (2D) Fermi surface. The dHvA wave shape can almost perfectly be described by a 2D theory assuming a constant chemical potential. This either implies the existence of the predicted quasi-one-dimensional band with an exceptionally large density of states or the chemical potential may be pinned due to localized states near the Fermi energy.
Date: July 24, 2000
Creator: Hagel, J.; Wanka, S.; Wosnitza, J.; Balthes, E.; Schlueter, J. A.; Kini, A. M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Back Contact Effects on the Electro-Optical Properties of CdTe/CdS Solar Cells

Description: Studies of junction photoluminescence (PL) in CdTe/CdS solar cells reveal that back-contact application produces a dramatic qualitative change in the junction picosecond-PL spectrum. Prior to contact application, the spectrum has two peaks at energies of 1.501 eV and 1.457 eV, corresponding to recombination in regions of CdTeS alloy with 2% and 12% sulfur content, respectively. After contact application, the spectrum consists of a single broad peak at 1.48 eV. Previous studies have shown that the nitric-phosphoric (NP) etch used in the contact procedure produces a layer of elemental tellurium (Te) on the CdTe surface. We postulate that the change in the near-junction PL spectrum is caused by a grain-boundary field effect due to perturbations of the grain-boundary conductivity and Fermi level.
Date: October 15, 1998
Creator: Levi, D. H.; Albin, D. S.; Gessert, T. A. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) & Woods, L. M. (Department of Electrical Engineering, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fermiology of the organic superconductor {beta}''-(ET){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3}.

Description: We present a detailed Fermi-surface (FS) investigation of the quasi two-dimensional (2D) organic superconductor (T{sub c} {approx} 4.5 K) {beta}{double_prime}(ET){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3}. In line with previous investigations, de Haas-van Alphen measurements in pulsed fields up to 60 T show a single oscillation frequency, F{sub 0} = 200 T, which corresponds to a FS size of about 5% of the first Brillouin zone. Angular dependent magnetoresistance oscillations (AMROs) are utilized for the exact determination of the in-plane FS, which is found to be a strongly elongated ellipsoid with an axes ratio of about 1:9. Transport measurements in static fields up to 33 T show an unusual temperature dependence of the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) signal, i.e., a decrease of the SdH amplitude with decreasing temperature.
Date: July 29, 1998
Creator: Wosnitza, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

{ital Ab Initio} Pseudopotential calculations of dopant diffusion in Si

Description: The ab initio pseudopotential method is used to study transient-enhanced-diffusion (TED) related processes. The electronic degrees of freedom are included explicitly, together with the fully self-consistent treatment of the electron charge density. A large supercell and a fine k-point mesh are used to ensure numerical convergence. Such method has been demonstrated to give quantitative description of defect energetic. We will show that boron diffusion is significantly enhanced in the presence of the Si interstitial due to the substantial lowering of the migrational barrier through a kick-out mechanism. The resulting mobile boron can also be trapped by another substitutional boron, forming an immobile and elect rically inactive two-boron pair. Similarly, carbon diffusion is also enhanced significantly due to the pairing with Si interstitial. However, carbon binds to Si interstitial much more strongly than boron does, taking away most Si interstitial from boron at sufficiently large carbon concentration, which causes the suppression of the boron TED. We will also show that Fermi level effect plays an important role in both Si interstitial and boron diffusion.
Date: April 28, 1997
Creator: Zhu, J., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electronic effects at interfaces in Cu - Cr, Mo, Ta, Re Multilayers

Description: In this study we characterize electronic effects in short-period ({approx}20 {angstrom}) metallic multilayer films in which 40% of the atoms are at an interface using near-edge (L{sub 3,2}) x-ray absorption. This study investigates Cu/TM where TM = Cr, MO, W, Ta, Re. These immiscible elemental pairs are ideal to study as they form no compounds and exhibit terminal solid solubility. An interest in the charge transfer between elements in alloys and compounds has led to studies using x-ray absorption as described above. Near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), a technique used for analyzing x-ray absorption near the absorption edge of the element, is especially suited to study the amount of unoccupied states in the conduction band of a metal. The d-metals spectra show large peaks at the absorption edges called ''white lines.'' These are due to the unoccupied d-states just above the Fermi level in these metals. A study of the white lines in the 3d metals show that as the d-band is increasingly occupied the white lines decrease in intensity. Starting with Ti (3d{sup 2} 4s{sup 2}), which has an almost empty d-band and shows strong white lines, the white-line intensities decrease across the Periodic Chart to Cu (3d{sup 10} 4s{sup 1}), which has a full d-band and no white lines. Systematic measurement of the L{sub 3,2} absorption spectra of bulk elemental Cu and Cu in the Cu/TM multilayers enabled measurement of the charge transfer. NEXAFS on metallic multilayers has received less attention than alloys because of the difficulty in synthesizing multilayers with controllability up to the monolayer level and because there is little difference between the signal from the bulk and from longer period (> 30 {angstrom}) multilayers. For high-quality short period multilayers, however, the difference is clear. This is highlighted in a study of short period ...
Date: June 28, 1999
Creator: Barbee, T. W.; Bello, A. F.; Klepeis, J. E. & Van Buuren, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department