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The Effects of a Feedback Package on the Facial Orientation of a Young Girl with Autism During Restricted and Free Operant Conditions

Description: A multiple baseline design across activities and people was used to assess the effectiveness of a feedback package on the facial orientation of a young girl with autism. During baseline, observations indicated low rates of facial orientation and high rates of gaze avoidance during conversation (restricted operant) and play (free operant) conditions. After treatment, facial orientation rates increased and gaze avoidance rates decreased to levels similar to typically-developing peers and maintained at one month follow up. These results suggest that the feedback package was effective in producing durable facial orientation across different environments and people. Possible interpretations, strengths, and limitations are discussed.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Jacobs, Wendy Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries

Should Corrective Feedback Come Before or After Responding to Establish a "New" Behavior?

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal form and timing of feedback to establish a "new" behavior. It examined the relative effectiveness of delivering a corrective feedback immediately before the learner responds to a previously incorrect trial as compared to delivering a corrective feedback immediately after the incorrect response is made. Corrective feedback delivered immediately before the next opportunity to respond produced better learning than corrective feedback delivered immediately after a response. The Feedback Before condition decreased errors during training and increased acquisition rates. Results also indicated an interaction between time of feedback delivery and the complexity of the task. As the task complexity increased, the results were more dramatic in favor of the Feedback Before condition.
Date: December 1997
Creator: Roberts, Pamela J.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Feedback Timing when Teaching a New Task to Children with Autism

Description: The purpose of this experiment was to investigate Tosti's proposal about the timing of feedback. The study examined whether it is better to correct immediately after the error occurs or whether it is better to wait until immediately before the next opportunity to respond. In addition, it aimed to determine whether corrections delivered at different times produced different learner affects. Four children with autism were taught to label two sets of pictures under the two different conditions. Results showed that the timing of the feedback yields similar results in regards to number of correct responses and total trial count. However, in regards to time spent in teaching and learner affect, correcting errors before the next opportunity to respond showed to be the more efficient procedure and produced more favorable affect.
Date: December 2016
Creator: Cochrane, Angela
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Comparison of Focused Feedback Techniques in Individual Counseling

Description: The problem with which this study is concerned is a comparison of the effects of three methods of focused feedback upon selected client behaviors in individual counseling. This study has a twofold purpose. The first is to examine which of three methods of focused feedback (videotape, audiotape, or verbal) is most effective in producing selected behavioral changes in clients seen in individual counseling. The second is to compare the effects of the three methods of focused feedback on individual clients with the effects of a traditional individual counseling approach that did not utilize focused feedback.
Date: August 1972
Creator: Bucur, Raymond Roy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Human Learned Helplessness: Uncontrollable Negative Feedback or Total Amount of Negative Feedback?

Description: To determine if learned helplessness results from lack of control over negative events or simply the number of negative events experienced, 60 university students were assigned to one of five treatments: controllable low negative, uncontrollable low negative, controllable high negative, uncontrollable high negative, and no treatment. Backward digit and letter span tasks served as test tasks. The generally nonsignificant results were discussed as possibly due to a procedural error. Further research on this question is needed.
Date: August 1980
Creator: Martin, Daniel Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Cumulative Consumption Feedback On Demand For Money As A Commodity

Description: Behavioral economic theory describes a relation between response requirement and magnitude of reinforcement, and combines these variables into one independent variable (unit price) affecting operant behavior. This study investigated the relative effects of cumulative feedback on consumption for money as a commodity. Subjects were exposed to ranges of unit prices with or without a cumulative feedback bar on the computer screen indicating monetary earnings. For all participants in this study, consumption of money was a decreasing function of unit prices and the results from the present study are consistent with the behavioral economic prediction that increasing the unit price of a commodity will decrease consumption of that commodity. Analyses of demand curves, elasticity coefficients and response rates suggested differences between Feedback and No Feedback groups, although these were small and not statistically significant. The small differences observed were consistent with a behavior strengthening effect of feedback.
Date: May 2001
Creator: Bailey, Kathleen
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Biofeedback and Verbal Feedback on the Training and Maintenance of Diaphragmatic Breathing

Description: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computer program on the training and maintenance of diaphragmatic breathing. The biofeedback portion was visual computer training and the results were displayed concurrently with participants' breathing responses to monitor display. The verbal feedback portion was praise that was given and recorded when participants responded with predominantly diaphragmatic breathing at the scheduled moment and response instruction that was given when participants responded with predominantly thoracic breathing. The results of this study indicate the computer program's effectiveness needs to be increased by supplementation with verbal feedback.
Date: May 2003
Creator: Armstrong, Earl E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Counting as a Form of Concurrent Feedback on a Seventy-Five-Yard Dash

Description: The use of concurrent Information Feedback (IF) through counting seconds verbally as the subject ran a 75 yard dash was tested. Forty-six ten and eleven year old boys and girls (boys = 20, girls = 26) were given two trials under four IF conditions: No IF; Terminal/Concurrent IF; Terminal IF; IF Removal. The counting occurred under Condition 2 and was combined with a final time given at the end of the dash. Significant main effects were found for sex and for conditions, with interaction effects between sex and conditions, and between conditions and trials, p4 .05. Results supported the combined IF condition with counting as maintaining subjects' level of performance, probably through motivation. Males performed well under Conditions 1, 2, and 3, while girls performed best under Conditions 1 and 2. Trial scores under Conditions 2 and 3 for all subjects were much more similar than under Conditions 1 and 4, indicating more consistent performance when IF was provided,
Date: December 1981
Creator: Parks, Jennifer
Partner: UNT Libraries

Monitoring and Increasing Goal Related Instruction and Engagement in Groups of Children with Autism

Description: A high rate of instructional engagement is important to maximize progress in early intensive behavioral interventions (EIBI). Teachers responsible for eliciting instructional engagement may need additional support to maintain high rates of engagement. Literature suggests that goal setting and feedback is effective in increasing performance. the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether goal setting and group feedback would increase engagement in instructional activities related to the children’s goals. Results indicate that goal setting and group feedback was successful in increasing engagement in instructional activities. the results are discussed in the context of engagement, staff performance, group contingencies and performance feedback.
Date: May 2012
Creator: Rossi, Kathleen Anne
Partner: UNT Libraries

Does the Provision of an Intensive and Highly Focused Indirect Corrective Feedback Lead to Accuracy?

Description: This thesis imparts the outcomes of a seven-week long quasi-experimental study that explored whether or not L2 learners who received intensive and highly focused indirect feedback on one type of treatable error - either the third person singular -s, plural endings -s, or definite article the - eventually become more accurate in the post-test as compared to a control group that did not. The paired-samples t-test comparing the pre-test and post-test scores of both groups demonstrates that the experimental group did no better than the control group after they received indirect corrective feedback. The independent samples t-test measuring the experimental and control group's accuracy shows no significant difference between the two groups. Effect sizes calculated, however, do indicate that, had the sample sizes been bigger, both groups would have eventually become more accurate in the errors targeted, although this would not have been because of the indirect feedback.
Date: May 2010
Creator: Jhowry, Kheerani
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effects of Capturing and Searching on the Acquisition of a Simple Arm Position

Description: The present experiment compared two methods of training a simple arm position using auditory feedback: capture and search. The participants were four right-handed female college students. During capture, auditory feedback was delivered by the experimenter after the participant moved along a single axis into the target position. During search, auditory feedback was produced by the computer after the participant left clicked a mouse inside the target location. The results of a multi-element design showed that participants performed more accurately during capture training than search training. Pre-training and post-training probes, during which no auditory feedback was provided, showed similar fluctuations in accuracy across probe types. A retention check, performed seven days after the final training session, showed higher accuracy scores for search than capture, across all four participants. These findings suggest that TAGteach should incorporate an approach similar to search training to improve training outcomes.
Date: August 2011
Creator: Heth, Travis R.
Partner: UNT Libraries

The Effect of Verbal and Graphic Feedback on Direct Care Trainers' Data-Tecording Behavior

Description: This study investigated the effects of verbal and graphic feedback alone and in combination with praise on the data-recording behavior of 12 direct care trainers (DCTs) who recorded their reinforcer deliveries as they interacted with mentally retarded clients. An additional variable examined was the effect of time of delivering feedback on subsequent data-recording behavior. Feedback was delivered by the experimenter. Correspondence checks were conducted and a three-phase multiple condition experimental design was used. All feedback conditions produced an observable difference in DCT data-recording behavior. Time of delivery of feedback also appeared to have an effect on the amount of data recorded by DCTs.
Date: May 1994
Creator: Morris, Timothy Jewlon
Partner: UNT Libraries

Measurement of Feedback Inhibition In Vivo and Selection of ATCase Feedback Altered Mutants in Salmonella typhimurium

Description: Aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase; encoded by pyrBI genes) is one of the most studied regulatory enzymes in bacteria. It is feedback inhibited by cytidine triphosphate (CTP) and activated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Much is known about the catalytic site of the enzyme, not nearly as much about the regulatory site, to which CTP binds. Until now a positive selection for feedback-modified mutants was not available. The selection we have developed involves the use of a pyrA deletion in S. typhimurium. This strain lacks carbamoylphosphate and requires both a pyrimidine and arginine for growth. In this strain citrulline is used to satisfy the pyrimidine and arginine requirements. The minimal flow through the pyrimidine pathway from the citrulline-produced carbamoylphosphate is exquisitely sensitive to feedback control of ATCase by CTP. By elevating the CTP pool, via exogenous cytidine, in a strain that also contains a cytidine deaminase mutant (cdd) growth can be stopped completely, indicating 100% inhibition. It was therefore possible to measure in vivo feedback inhibition of ATCase among the citrulline users and to isolate a family of ATCase regulatory mutants with either modified or no response to effectors.
Date: August 1989
Creator: Bailey, Andrea J., 1952-
Partner: UNT Libraries

Habitat-Lite: A GSC case study based on free text terms for environmental metadata

Description: There is an urgent need to capture metadata on the rapidly growing number of genomic, metagenomic and related sequences, such as 16S ribosomal genes. This need is a major focus within the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC), and Habitat is a key metadata descriptor in the proposed 'Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence' (MIGS) specification. The goal of the work described here is to provide a light-weight, easy-to-use (small) set of terms ('Habitat-Lite') that captures high-level information about habitat while preserving a mapping to the recently launched Environment Ontology (EnvO). Our motivation for building Habitat-Lite is to meet the needs of multiple users, such as annotators curating these data, database providers hosting the data, and biologists and bioinformaticians alike who need to search and employ such data in comparative analyses. Here, we report a case study based on semi-automated identification of terms from GenBank and GOLD. We estimate that the terms in the initial version of Habitat-Lite would provide useful labels for over 60% of the kinds of information found in the GenBank isolation-source field, and around 85% of the terms in the GOLD habitat field. We present a revised version of Habitat-Lite and invite the community's feedback on its further development in order to provide a minimum list of terms to capture high-level habitat information and to provide classification bins needed for future studies.
Date: April 1, 2008
Creator: Kyrpides, Nikos; Hirschman, Lynette; Clark, Cheryl; Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Mardis, Scott; Luciano, Joanne et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Pursuit of Optimal Performance: The Effect of Mastery- and Ego-Oriented Feedback on Sport Performance, Task Difficulty Selection, Confidence, and Anxiety

Description: Within an achievement motivation theoretical framework, there are factors thought to most heavily influence performance and task difficulty selection. More specifically, motivational climates, feedback, confidence, and anxiety have all been identified as important factors influencing outcomes within performance settings. Much of the literature in the area of achievement motivation has focused on on the effects of mastery- and ego-oriented feedback on performance within academic settings and has received limited attention in the sport psychology literature within an athletic setting. Given the demonstrated effects of mastery- and ego-oriented feedback on performance, the importance of performance within the athletic context, and the scant literature examining the effects of feedback on athletic performance, the influence of feedback on sport performance needed to be empirically examined. The primary aim of this study was to provide a clearer understanding of the relationship of factors influencing athletic performance, with the ultimate goal of moving research toward a greater understanding of how optimal performance is achieved. As a result, this research may prove applicable to researchers, coaches, and athletes working toward optimal performance. In this study, I examined how mastery- and ego-oriented feedback influenced youth athletes' soccer performance, task difficulty selection, confidence, and anxiety. Youth soccer athletes (n = 71) participated in a soccer kicking task consisting of two trials. Between subjects ANCOVA analyses revealed athletes receiving mastery-oriented feedback performed significantly better on the soccer kicking task than athletes receiving ego-oriented feedback. No differences were discovered on task difficulty selection, confidence, or anxiety. Providing athletes mastery-oriented feedback before or after skill execution could be helpful in the development of athletic skill development and performance. Limitations of the present study and questions to examine in future research are also discussed.
Date: August 2016
Creator: Moles, Troy
Partner: UNT Libraries

Synthesis of Phenoxyacyl-Ethanolamides and Their Effects on Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Activity

Description: This article discusses the synthesis of two sets of phenoxyacyl-ethanolamides from natural products, 3-n-pentadecylphenolethanolamide and cardanolethanolamide, with structural similarity to N-Acylethanolamines and characterizes their effects on the hydroltic activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase.
Date: February 20, 2014
Creator: Faure, Lionel; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Hwang, Hyeondo; Montgomery, Christa L.; Khan, Bibi Rafeiza; John, George et al.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

Some Notes on Wideband Feedback Amplifiers

Description: The extension of the passband of wideband amplifiers is a highly important problem to the designer of electronic circuits. Throughout the electronics industry and in many research programs in physics and allied fields where extensive use is made of video amplifiers, the foremost requirement is a passband of maximum width. This is necessary if it is desired to achieve a more faithful reproduction of transient wave forms, a btter time resolution in physical measurements, or perhaps just a wider band gain-frequency response to sine wave signals. The art of electronics is continually faced with this omnipresent amplifier problem. In particular, the instrumentation techniques of nuclear physics require amplifiers with short rise times, a high degree of gain stability, and a linear response to high signal levels. While the distributed amplifier{sup 1} may solve the problems of those seeking only a wide passband, the requirements of stability and linearity necessitate using feedback circuits. This paper considers feedback amplifiers from the standpoint of high-frequency performance. The circuit conditions for optimum steady-state (sinusoidal) and transient response are derived and practical circuits (both interstage and output) are presented which fulfill these conditions. In general, the results obtained may be applied to the low-frequency end. The fundamental limitation in feedback amplifiers arises from the over-all phase shift in the amplifier and in some cases, the feedback circuit as well. As the shift in phase approaches 180 degrees on either side of the mid-band, the feedback becomes positive, resulting in regeneration and possible oscillation. The relationships between attenuation and phase shift necessary for amplifier stability have been formulated and published{sup 2}. It is the phase shift and its attendant difficulties that make feeback over more than three stages impractical for video amplifiers; and while three-tube feedback{sup 3} is feasible on theoretical grounds, it is difficult to ...
Date: March 16, 1949
Creator: Fitch, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Deep Muscle Relaxation Obtained with Analog Electromyographic Information Feedback

Description: The purpose of the research study was to provide improved relaxation training with the use of an electromyography feedback device based on the design of Green et al. (1969). It was intended that this instrument would allow the training of deep muscle relaxation to the point of neuro-muscular silence, while remaining inexpensive enough to be applied in the clinical setting.
Date: May 1973
Creator: Bates, Charles Edward
Partner: UNT Libraries

Slip stacking experiments at Fermilab main injector

Description: In order to achieve an increase in proton intensity, Fermilab Main Injector will use a stacking process called ''slip stacking''. The intensity will be doubled by injecting one train of bunches at a slightly lower energy, another at a slightly higher energy, then bringing them together for the final capture. Beam studies have started for this process and we have already verified that, at least for a low beam intensity, the stacking procedure works as expected. For high intensity operation, development work of the feedback and feedforward systems is under way.
Date: June 2, 2003
Creator: al., Kiyomi Koba et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operations with the digital orbit feedback system in the NSLS x-ray ring

Description: The digital filtering and eigenvector decomposition-based orbit correction is performed by two dedicated HP 742/743 rt micros which communicate with Motorola CPU based orbit-measuring and orbit-correction systems. The correction algorithm in the DFbk was orthogonalized with respect of the analog global harmonic feedback. Operational results concerning improvements in the noise suppression at low frequencies and especially in the dc drift as well as in the orbit stability are shown. Efforts are underway to improve the resolution of the orbit measuing system and the sampling rate using 16 bit 400 kHz ADC`s which will allow orbit sampling with high resolution at 4 kHz frequency.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Bozoki, E.; Rammamorthy, S.; Singh, O.; Tang, Y. & Friedman, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of Solar Two Heliostat Tracking Error Sources

Description: This paper explores the geometrical errors that reduce heliostat tracking accuracy at Solar Two. The basic heliostat control architecture is described. Then, the three dominant error sources are described and their effect on heliostat tracking is visually illustrated. The strategy currently used to minimize, but not truly correct, these error sources is also shown. Finally, a novel approach to minimizing error is presented.
Date: January 28, 1999
Creator: Jones, S.A. & Stone, K.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Narcissism: Reality Testing and the Effect of Negative Feedback

Description: A number of clinicians have reported that narcissists show grandiosity in self-concept, and rage after receiving disconfirming feedback. This is the first empirical study to test these claims. Subjects with differing levels of narcissism and self-esteem were compared on distortion in self-perception and emotional reaction to negative feedback. Ninety-six college students predicted their levels of intelligence, attractiveness, and interpersonal understanding (empathy) as compared to their peers. Objective measures of these characteristics were obtained, and subjects' predictions, with their actual scores held constant, provided measures of reality distortion in selfperception. Subjects were given feedback comparing their predictions to objective measures at the end of the experiment, and reaction to feedback was assessed by comparing subjects' pre- and post-feedback scores on the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist-Revised (Zuckerman & Lubin, 1985). Narcissists were expected to react to negative feedback with greater hostility than nonnarcissists. Narcissists evidenced significant distortion in perceptions of their own intelligence, attractiveness, and interpersonal understanding. This finding provided empirical evidence supporting the clinical phenomenon of grandiosity. Narcissists did not react with greater hostility after negative feedback, but as compared to nonnarcissists, they did react with less depression following negative feedback. This supported Kernberg's (1980) assertion that narcissists do not react to loss with depression. In contrast to the inflated self-image associated with narcissism, self-esteem was associated with a comparatively accurate view of self.
Date: August 1990
Creator: Gabriel, Marsha T. (Marsha Thompson)
Partner: UNT Libraries