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Federal Budget Process Reform: Analysis of Five Reform Issues

Description: This report examines several budget process reform options that have received prominent congressional consideration in recent years: an extension of the Budget Enforcement Act; a joint budget resolution; an emergency reserve fund; an automatic continuing resolution; and biennial budgeting. For each reform option, the analysis includes a summary of the procedural issues related to the reform option, the arguments that have been raised for and against the proposal, and the legislative history of past proposals.
Date: July 1, 2002
Creator: Saturno, James V. & Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

Description: This report provides a brief introduction to the federal budget process. Key budget concepts and terminology are defined and explained. The separate procedures that make up the federal budget process are identified and their salient features described. While a complete understanding of federal budgeting probably can be obtained only after much observation and study of the process in operation, broad exposure to its rudiments is a useful first step. Various resources "for additional reading" are identified at the end of this report, which the reader may find helpful in exploring the subject in greater depth.
Date: November 13, 1996
Creator: Keith, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Executive Budget Process Timetable

Description: The executive budget process is a complex set of activities that includes formulation of the President’s budget, interaction with Congress, and execution of the budget. Table 1 provides a timetable of the major steps in the year and a half process. The initial development of the President’s budget begins in the individual federal agencies approximately 10 months before the President submits it to Congress (17 or 18 months before the start of the fiscal year).
Date: July 28, 2003
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

A Brief Introduction to the Federal Budget Process

Description: This report provides a brief introduction to the federal budget process. Key budget concepts and terminology are defined and explained. The separate procedures that make up the federal budget process are identified and their salient features described. While a complete understanding of federal budgeting probably can be obtained only after much observation and study of the process in operation, broad exposure to its rudiments is a useful first step. Various resources “for additional reading” are identified at the end of this report, which the reader may find helpful in exploring the subject in greater depth.
Date: October 20, 1997
Creator: Keith, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Executive Budget Process Timetable

Description: The executive budget process is a complex set of activities that includes formulation of the President’s budget, interaction with Congress, and execution of the budget. Table 1 provides a timetable of the major steps in the year and a half process. The initial development of the President’s budget begins in the individual federal agencies approximately 10 months before the President submits it to Congress (17 or 18 months before the start of the fiscal year).
Date: April 8, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Pay-As-You-Go Rules in the Federal Budget Process

Description: The pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) rules in the federal budget process require that new direct spending and revenue legislation be deficit neutral. The net effect of all such legislation enacted during a session must not cause a net increase in the budget deficit (or a net decrease in the budget surplus). If direct spending or revenue legislation causes an increase in the deficit, it must be offset by an equivalent amount of direct spending reductions, revenue increases, or a combination of both.
Date: February 15, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Federal Funding Gaps: A Brief Overview

Description: This report briefly discusses federal funding gaps. The routine activities of most federal agencies are funded annually by one or more of the 13 regular appropriations bills. When action on the regular appropriations bills is delayed, a continuing resolution (CR) is used to provide interim funding. During the past 48 years, CRs have been enacted for all but four fiscal years (FY1953, 1989, 1995, and 1997). For some fiscal years, a series of as many as six CRs have been enacted.
Date: October 18, 1999
Creator: Keith, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Federal Budget Process Reform: A Brief Overview

Description: Sequestration--the automatic across-the-board cancellation of budgetary resources for the purpose of enforcing budgetary goals--was first established by the 1985 Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act (Title II of P.L. 99-177). Section 254 of this act, as amended, provides a timetable for sequestration actions.
Date: May 11, 2005
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr. & Keith, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Baselines and Scorekeeping in the Federal Budget Process

Description: Baselines and scorekeeping are an integral part of the federal budget process, providing Congress and the President with a framework for making and enforcing budgetary decisions. A baseline serves as a benchmark for federal budget decisions. While the Office of Management and Budget (0MB) and the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) create different baselines, their baselines project federal spending, revenue, and budget surplus or deficit amounts that would occur if existing budget policies were left unchanged. Scorekeeping is the process by which the budgetary impact of proposed and enacted budget policies is measured; it assists Congress and the President in making and enforcing budgetary decisions
Date: February 25, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Federal Budget: Issues for FY2011, FY2012, and Beyond

Description: The federal budget is central to Congress's ability to exercise its "power of the purse." Over the last several fiscal years the imbalance between spending and revenues has grown as a result of the economic downturn and policies enacted in response to financial turmoil. In FY2010, the last completed fiscal year, the U.S. government spent $3,456 billion (23.8% of GDP) and collected $2,162 billion in revenue (14.9% of GDP), resulting in a budget deficit of $1,294 billion (8.9% of GDP).
Date: April 29, 2011
Creator: Levit, Mindy R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Federal Budget: Issues for FY2014 and Beyond

Description: This report provides an overview of federal budget issues, focusing on recent fiscal policy changes. It also discusses the major policy proposals contained in the President's FY2014 budget and the House and Senate budget resolutions.
Date: May 9, 2013
Creator: Levit, Mindy R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Overview of the Executive Budget Process

Description: The executive budget process consists of three main phases: development of the President's budget; interaction with Congress; and execution of the budget. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of each of these phases.
Date: April 26, 1999
Creator: Heniff, Bill, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Federal Budget Process: A Brief Outline

Description: In a sense the term "budget process" is a misnomer when applied to the federal government. Budgeting for the federal government is not a single process; rather it consists of a number of processes that have evolved separately and which occur with varying degrees of coordination. This report, and the accompanying flow chart, attempt to clarify the role played by each of the component parts of the budget process as well as how they operate together.
Date: April 26, 1996
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Earmarks Disclosed by Congress: FY2008 and FY2009 Regular Appropriations Bills

Description: This report provides information on the earmarks disclosed by the House and Senate for the 12 regular, annual appropriations bills for each of FY2008 and FY2009. The report directly analyzes the data in the earmark disclosure lists, without additions or deletions.
Date: December 9, 2009
Creator: Hardy Vincent, Carol & Monke, Jim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The FY2011 Federal Budget

Description: This report examines the federal budgets for the fiscal years 2011 and 2012. It gives an overview of the federal budget, addresses the problems of budgeting in a strained economy, and discusses considerations for Congress, both in the short term and the long term.
Date: June 17, 2010
Creator: Levit, Mindy R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Federal Budget: Issues for FY2013 and Beyond

Description: The federal budget is central to Congress's ability to exercise its "power of the purse." Over the last several fiscal years the imbalance between spending and revenues has grown as a result of the economic downturn and policies enacted in response to financial turmoil. This report discusses how a growing budget deficit will affect the FY2013 budget and government spending.
Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Levit, Mindy R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Federal Budget: Issues for FY2013 and Beyond

Description: The federal budget is central to Congress's ability to exercise its "power of the purse." Over the last several fiscal years the imbalance between spending and revenues has grown as a result of the economic downturn and policies enacted in response to financial turmoil. This report discusses how a growing budget deficit will affect the FY2013 budget and government spending.
Date: March 27, 2012
Creator: Levit, Mindy R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Federal Budget: Issues for FY2013 and Beyond

Description: The federal budget is central to Congress's ability to exercise its “power of the purse.” Over the last several fiscal years the imbalance between spending and revenues has grown as a result of the economic downturn and policies enacted in response to financial turmoil. This report looks at ways in which Congress and the Obama Administration have acted in order to reduce US budgetary issues.
Date: February 17, 2012
Creator: Levit, Mindy R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Federal Budget: Issues for FY2011, FY2012, and Beyond

Description: This report examines the federal budgets for the fiscal years 2011 and 2012. It gives an overview of the federal budget, addresses the problems of budgeting in a strained economy, and discusses considerations for Congress, both in the short term and the long term.
Date: March 11, 2011
Creator: Levit, Mindy R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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