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Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide with Enhanced Gas Recovery-CaseStudy Altmark, North German Basin

Description: Geologic carbon dioxide storage is one strategy for reducingCO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Depleted natural gas reservoirs are anobvious target for CO2 storage due to their proven record of gascontainment. Germany has both large industrial sources of CO2 anddepleting gas reservoirs. The purpose of this report is to describe theanalysis and modeling performed to investigate the feasibility ofinjecting CO2 into nearly depleted gas reservoirs in the Altmark area inNorth Germany for geologic CO2 storage with enhanced gasrecovery.
Date: October 12, 2005
Creator: Rebscher, Dorothee & Oldenburg, Curtis M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Report: "Large-Eddy Simulation of Anisotropic MHD Turbulence"

Description: To acquire better understanding of turbulence in flows of liquid metals and other electrically conducting fluids in the presence of steady magnetic fields and to develop an accurate and physically adequate LES (large-eddy simulation) model for such flows. The scientific objectives formulated in the project proposal have been fully completed. Several new directions were initiated and advanced in the course of work. Particular achievements include a detailed study of transformation of turbulence caused by the imposed magnetic field, development of an LES model that accurately reproduces this transformation, and solution of several fundamental questions of the interaction between the magnetic field and fluid flows. Eight papers have been published in respected peer-reviewed journals, with two more papers currently undergoing review, and one in preparation for submission. A post-doctoral researcher and a graduate student have been trained in the areas of MHD, turbulence research, and computational methods. Close collaboration ties have been established with the MHD research centers in Germany and Belgium.
Date: June 23, 2008
Creator: Zikanov, Oleg
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary of sessions B and F: High intensity linacs and frontend & proton drivers

Description: This paper summarizes the sessions B&F of the 33rd ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop on High Intensity & High Brightness Hadron Beams held in Bensheim, Germany. It covers high intensity linacs, front ends and proton driver topics.
Date: January 1, 2005
Creator: Ferdinand, R.; /Saclay; Chou, W.; /Fermilab; Galambos, J. & Ridge, /Oak
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results from ORNL Characterization of Archive German Particles

Description: This document is a compilation of the characterization data obtained on a sample of TRISO-coated 500 {micro}m UO{sub 2} produced by the Germans and obtained by the AGR program for use as a reference material. This sample came from the EUO 2358-2365 composite studied by General Atomics (GA) and referenced in GA document No.910852 'Acceptance Test report for German Fuel Particles'. The ORNL designation for the material characterized was AGR-06.
Date: April 1, 2004
Creator: Hunn, John D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Environmental management of contaminated lands is a complex process requiring a wide variety of decisions encompassing different technical, social, and political questions. Decision support for contaminated land management is an emerging field. Currently, a consensus for the best approach for using decision support does not exist. A special session on decision support was conducted at the NATO/CCMS meeting held in Wiesbaden Germany in June 2000. The NATO/CCMS Pilot Study on Remedial Action Technologies For Contaminated Soil and Groundwater Phase 3 is a multi-national forum for the exchange of information on emerging remediation technologies and technology demonstration. The Pilot Study is an activity of NATO Committee on Challenges for Modern Society (Web site: http://www.nato.int/ccms/info.htm). During the special session two guided discussion sessions were conducted and one set of questions to the conference participants was prepared. The discussion sections focused on obtaining information on the uses of decision support tools and the strengths and limitations of these tools. The questionnaire focused on gathering information on the use of decision support in the different countries participating in the meeting. This paper summarizes the findings of this information gathering exercise.
Date: June 1, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ideas and concepts for diagnosis of performance and evaluation of data reliability based upon ARSA state-of-health (SOH) data

Description: At the current time, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) prototype for the Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) automatically transmits, on a daily basis, a subset of all state-of-health (SOH) data in an e-mail data file to a limited number of recipients. These variables represent what were considered the most critical physical parameters for the ARSA's operation at the beginning of the field demonstration in Freiburg, Germany. Operators at PNNL perform a daily review of the information in the data file for anomalous operational conditions as evidenced by sensor readings. The initial review is easily implemented by plotting the various sensor data versus time and looking for gross deviations in the periodicity of the variables compared to previous sample sensor data. After viewing the 24-hr graphical plots, if necessary, a review is conducted of the tabular data of specific sensor anomalies. In most cases, the experience has been that when there is an ARSA operational problem the data file will have multiple sensor readings that reflect some aspect of the problem.
Date: April 27, 2000
Creator: Abel, KH; Bowyer, TW; Hayes, JC; Heimbigner, TR; Panisko, ME; McIntyre, JI et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sequestration of CO2 in the Altmark natural gas field, Germany:Mobility control to extend enhanced gas recovery

Description: We are investigating the technical feasibility of injecting CO2 for carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery (CSEGR) in the depleted Altmark natural gas reservoir, Germany. Our approach is numerical simulation using TOUGH2/EOS7C. Our earlier simulation studies have shown early CO2 breakthrough due to fast-flow through the high-permeability sand layers. In order to extend the period of enhanced CH4 recovery, we propose the preinjection of gelling fluids for the purpose of limiting the mobility of injected CO2 and thereby improving CO2 sweep and delaying CO2 breakthrough. We have implemented a simple gel model into EOS7C and simulated gel injection followed by CSEGR.Preliminary simulations to date show minimal improvements in CSEGR with breakthrough times delayed by only a few months to a year. While mobility control using pre-injected gelling fluids appears to be a promising strategy in controlling early breakthrough, more work is needed to design and simulate an effective procedure.
Date: April 21, 2006
Creator: Rebscher, D.; May, F. & Oldenburg, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Public Opinion of Conscription in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1954-1956

Description: In 1955, barely ten years after the end of the most devastating war in Modern German history, a new German military was established in the Federal Republic, the Bundeswehr. In order properly fill the ranks of this new military the government, under the leadership of Konrad Adenauer, believed that it would have to draft men from the West German population into military service. For the government in Bonn conscription was a double-edged sword, it would not only ensure that the Bundeswehr would receive the required number of recruits but it was also believed that conscription would guarantee that the Bundeswehr would be more democratic and therefore in tune with the policies of the new West German state. What this study seeks to explore is what the West German population thought of conscription. It will investigate who was for or against the draft and seek to determine the various socioeconomic factors that contributed to these decisions. Furthermore this study will examine the effect that the public opinion had on federal policy.
Date: May 2009
Creator: Donnelly, Jared
Partner: UNT Libraries

Energy R and D in Germany

Description: Germany's total national (i.e., combined public and private sector) funding for R&D stood at $42 billion in 1997. The private sector accounted for nearly 62% ($24 billion) of the total, while the public sector accounted for approximately 38%. Since the late 1970s, when the public and private sectors each funded roughly half of Germany's R&D, the private sector has steadily assumed a larger and larger role as the dominant supporter of R&D activity, while overall government funding has remained essentially flat for much of the past two decades. In addition to declining relative to private R&D expenditures, public R&D expenditures in Germany declined by 4% in real terms between 1991 and 1997, to approximately $15 billion. The reduction in R&D investments in the public sector can be attributed in large part to the financial challenges associated with German reunification and related shifts in social priorities including efforts to address high unemployment and to rebuild basic infrastructure in the eastern states. R&D expenditures have also declined as a percentage of the total public budget, from a peak of 3.4% in 1985 to 2.7% in 1996. Energy R&D has been the hardest hit of all major socioeconomic areas of R&D expenditure funded by the German government. Between 1981 and 1997, public energy R&D fell from approximately $1.6 billion to $400 million--a 75% real decline. The $850 million reduction in Germany's fission R&D budget (which constituted two-thirds of government R&D investment in 1985) explains some 90% of the funding decline. Negative public perceptions regarding the safety and environmental impacts of nuclear energy have reduced nuclear power's viability as a long-term energy option for Germany. Discussions of a complete nuclear phaseout are now under way. At the same time, the German government has slashed its investments in fossil energy R&D by more than 90%. ...
Date: November 1, 1999
Creator: Runci, PJ
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Numerical relativity in a distributed environment.

Description: We have found that the hardware and software infrastructure exists to simulate general relativity problems in a distributed computational environment, at some cost in performance. We examine two different issues for running the Cactus code in such a distributed environment The first issue is running a Cactus simulation on multiple parallel computer systems. Our objective is to perform larger simulations than are currently possible on a single parallel computer. We distribute Cactus simulations across multiple supercomputers using the mechanisms provided by the Globus toolkit. In particular, we use Globus mechanisms for authentication, access to remote computer systems, file transfer, and communication. The Cactus code uses MPI for communication and makes use of an MPI implementation layered atop Globus communication mechanisms. These communication mechanisms allow a MPI application to be executed on distributed resources. We find that without performing any code optimizations, our simulations ran 48% to 100% slower when using an Origin at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and an Onyx2 at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). We also ran simulations between Cray T3Es in Germany and a T3E at the San Diego Supercomputing Center (SDSC). Running between the T3Es in Germany resulted in an increase in execution time of 79% to 133%, and running between a German T3E and a T3E at the San Diego Supercomputing Center resulted in an execution time increase of 114% to 186%. We are very encouraged that we are able to run simulations on parallel computers that are geographically distributed, and we have identified several areas to investigate to improve the performance of Cactus simulations in this environment. The second issue we examine here is remote visualization and steering of the Cactus code. Cactus is a modular framework and we have implemented a module for this task. This module performs isosurfacing operations on ...
Date: February 8, 1999
Creator: Benger, W.; Foster, I.; Novotny, J.; Seidel, E.; Shalf, J.; Smith, W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of national compliance legislation under the chemical weapons convention

Description: The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is unique among multilateral arms control agreements in requiring national compliance legislation. This paper discusses the compliance legislation enacted by Australia, Germany, Norway, South Africa, and Sweden in anticipation of this agreement entering into force. It compares how these five nations addressed the requirement for legislation to penalize violations of the Convention, as well as how they have developed legal mechanisms to acquire the information about dual-use chemicals that must be declared to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. This analysis shows that although different options exist to meet these treaty requirements, areas of consistency between nations are emerging that will encourage universal compliance as the regime matures.
Date: March 3, 1995
Creator: Tanzman, E. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IEA Agreement on the Production and utilization of hydrogen: 1998 annual report

Description: The annual report includes an overview of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement, including its guiding principles. The Chairman's report section includes highlights of the agreement for 1998. Annex reports are given on various tasks: Task 10, Photoproduction of Hydrogen, Task 11, Integrated Systems, and Task 12, Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage. Lastly, a feature article by Karsten Wurr, E3M Material Consulting, GmbH, Hamburg Germany, is included titled 'Hydrogen in Material Science and Technology: State of the Art and New Tendencies'.
Date: January 31, 1999
Creator: Elam, Carolyn C. (National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO (US)) (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status and progress of the RERTR program in the year 2000.

Description: This paper describes the progress achieved by the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program in collaboration with its many international partners during the year 2000 and discusses the main activities planned for the year 2001. The past year was characterized by important accomplishments and events for the RERTR program. Four additional shipments containing 503 spent fuel assemblies from foreign research reactors were accepted by the U.S. Altogether, 3,740 spent fuel assemblies from foreign research reactors have been received by the U.S. under the acceptance policy. Postirradiation examinations of three batches of microplates have continued to reveal excellent irradiation behavior of U-MO dispersion fuels in a variety of compositions and irradiating conditions. h-radiation of two new batches of miniplates of greater sizes is in progress in the ATR to investigate me swelling behavior of these fuels under prototypic conditions. These materials hold the promise of achieving the program goal of developing LEU research reactor fuels with uranium densities in the 8-9 g /cm{sup 3} range. Qualification of the U-MO dispersion fuels is proceeding on schedule. Test fuel elements with 6 gU/cm{sup 3} are being fabricated by BWXT and are scheduled to begin undergoing irradiation in the HFR-Petten in the spring of 2001, with a goal of qualifying this fuel by the end of 2003. U-Mo with 8-9 gU/cm{sup 3} is planned to be qualified by the end of 2005. Joint LEU conversion feasibility studies were completed for HFR-Petten and for SAFARI-1. Significant improvements were made in the design of LEU metal-foil annular targets that would allow efficient production of fission {sup 99}Mo. Irradiations in the RAS-GAS reactor showed that these targets can formed from aluminum tubes, and that the yield and purity of their product from the acidic process were at least as good as those from the ...
Date: September 28, 2000
Creator: Travelli, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary studies of thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction

Description: In recent years, actual and potential contamination of air, soil and groundwater by organic compounds has become a field of increasing environmental interest in Germany. The main concern is the huge number of abandoned landfill sites, where organic liquids often infiltrate the unsaturated zone. Since non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) - for example mineral oil or chlorinated hydrocarbons - are rather immobile if the NAPL-content of the soil is less than 10%, contaminant spills with NAPL remain long term contaminant sources. They dissolve in groundwater and evaporate into the soil gas, and will be transported by diffusion into the atmosphere. For remediation the traditional ``pump and treat`` methods are inefficient because NAPL solubility in groundwater is small and because sorption and vaporization of the contaminant can be rate-limited processes. With the aim of developing remediation technologies, the experimental VEGAS research facility for subsurface remediation was built at the Institute of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Stuttgart/Germany. The objective of VEGAS is to test and optimize existing techniques and to develop new approaches for in-situ remediation of contaminated aquifers and soils. VEGAS focusses on methods for determining the mobility of contaminants in the subsurface and for improving the assessment of contaminated sites. Furthermore, methods for determining the overall mass and distribution of contaminants in the subsurface, and techniques for identifying physical and chemical subsurface properties are to be developed and improved as well. This includes further development of finite element techniques for simulating 3-phase fluid and heat flow.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Emmert, M.; Helmig, R. & Pruess, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conditioning of BWR Control - Elements Using the New MOSAIK 80T/SWR-SE Cask - Concept

Description: During the operation of Boiling Water Reactors, Control - Elements are used to control the neutron flux inside the reactor vessel. After the end of the lifetime, the Control - Elements are usually stored in the fuel - elements - pool of the reactor. Up to now, in Germany no conditioning of Control - Elements has been done in a BWR under operation.
Date: February 27, 2002
Creator: Oldiges, O.; Blenski, H.-J.; Engelage, H.; Behrens, W.; Majunke, J.; Schwarz, W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sealing of the Morsleben Repository, Germany

Description: In the context of the closure of the LILW-Repository Morsleben (ERAM) 26 drift seals must be erected. Being situated in the access drifts to the disposal areas these drift seals are of relevance to long-term repository safety. Their adequate hydraulic resistance has to be proved. The hydraulic resistance of drift seals depends on three main elements, the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) of the drift, the sealing body and the contact zone between sealing body and the surrounding salt. To assess the hydraulic resistance of the EDZ and the sealing body a reliable data basis is already available. The data are given in this paper. An adequate data basis is not available yet to rate the contact zone, however. To overcome this problem in situ tests are planned investigating the contact zone of the ten-year-old Asse seal. Additionally, laboratory tests will be performed using core samples from the Asse seal. The test program is described in this paper.
Date: February 24, 2003
Creator: Ellers, G.; Mauke, R.; Glass, R.; Preus, J; BfS; Fischle, W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A survey of environmental needs and innovative technologies in Germany

Description: The International Technology Program (IT?), formerly the international Technology Exchange Program (ITEP), of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is responsible for promoting: (1) the import of innovative technologies to better address EM`s needs; and (2) the export of US services into foreign markets to enhance US competitiveness. Under this program: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany was evaluated, including the description of the general types of environmental problems, the environmental regulations, and specific selected contaminated sites; and (2) potentially innovative environmental restoration technologies, either commercially available or under development in Germany, were identified, described and evaluated. It was found that: (1) the environmental restoration market in Germany is very large, on the order of several billion US dollars per year, with a significant portion possibly available to US businesses; and (2) a large number (54) of innovative environmental restoration technologies, which are either commercially available or under development in Germany, may have some benefit to the DOE EM program and should be considered for transfer to the US.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Voss, C.F. & Roberds, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility/treatability studies for removal of heavy metals from training range soils at the Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany

Description: A feasibility/treatability study was performed to investigate the leaching potential of heavy metals (particularly lead) from soils at the Grafenw6hr Training Area (GTA) in Germany. The study included an evaluation of the effectiveness of chelant extraction to remediate the heavy-metal-contarninated soils. Batch shaker tests indicated that ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (0.01M) was more effective than citric acid (0.01M) at removing cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. EDTA and citric acid were equally effective in mobilizing chromium and barium from the soil. The batch shaker technique with chelant extraction offers promise as a remediation technique for heavy-metal-contaninated soil at the GTA. Columnar flooding tests conducted as part of the study revealed that deionized water was the least effective leaching solution for mobilization of the heavy metals; the maximum solubilization obtained was 3.72% for cadmium. EDTA (0.05M) achieved the greatest removal of lead (average removal of 17.6%). The difficulty of extraction using deionized water indicates that all of the heavy metals are very tightly bound to the soil; therefore, they are very stable in the GTA soils and do not pose a serious threat to the groundwater system. Columnar flooding probably does not represent a viable remediation technique for in-situ cleanup of heavy-metal-contaminated soils at the GTA.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Peters, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Fermilab data storage infrastructure

Description: Fermilab, in collaboration with the DESY laboratory in Hamburg, Germany, has created a petabyte scale data storage infrastructure to meet the requirements of experiments to store and access large data sets. The Fermilab data storage infrastructure consists of the following major storage and data transfer components: Enstore mass storage system, DCache distributed data cache, ftp and Grid ftp for primarily external data transfers. This infrastructure provides a data throughput sufficient for transferring data from experiments' data acquisition systems. It also allows access to data in the Grid framework.
Date: February 6, 2003
Creator: Bakken, Jon A.; Berman, Eileen; Huang, Chih-Hao; Moibenko, Alexander; Petravick, Donald & Zalokar, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced manufacturing: Technology and international competitiveness

Description: Dramatic changes in the competitiveness of German and Japanese manufacturing have been most evident since 1988. All three countries are now facing similar challenges, and these challenges are clearly observed in human capital issues. Our comparison of human capital issues in German, Japanese, and US manufacturing leads us to the following key judgments: Manufacturing workforces are undergoing significant changes due to advanced manufacturing technologies. As companies are forced to develop and apply these technologies, the constituency of the manufacturing workforce (especially educational requirements, contingent labor, job content, and continuing knowledge development) is being dramatically and irreversibly altered. The new workforce requirements which result due to advanced manufacturing require a higher level of worker sophistication and responsibility.
Date: February 1, 1995
Creator: Tesar, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI) has proposed a large expansion of the existing facility in Darmstadt, Germany. The proposal includes an accelerator, SIS200, with rigidity of 200 Tam that utilizes 4 T superconducting dipoles ramped at 1 T/s. An R&D program including both the superconductor and the magnet is directed at achieving the desired ramp rate with minimal energy loss. The RHIC arc dipoles, with 8 cm aperture, possess adequate aperture and field strength but are ramped at only 1/20 of the desired rate. However, for reasons of speed and economy, the RHIC dipole is being used as the basis for this work. The superconductor R&D has progressed far enough to permit the manufacture of an initial cable with satisfactory properties. This cable has been used in the construction of a I m model magnet, appropriately modified from the RHIC design. The magnet has been tested successfully at 2 T/s to 4.38 T.
Date: May 12, 2003
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP)

Description: The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) is designed to allow study and intercomparison of multi-model simulations of present-day and future climate. The latter are represented by idealized forcing of compounded 1% per year CO2 increase to the time of CO2 doubling near year 70 in simulations with global coupled models that contain, typically, components representing atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and land surface. Results from CMIP diagnostic subprojects were presented at the Second CMIP Workshop held at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany, in September, 2003. Significant progress in diagnosing and understanding results from global coupled models has been made since the First CMIP Workshop in Melbourne, Australia in 1998. For example, the issue of flux adjustment is slowly fading as more and more models obtain stable multi-century surface climates without them. El Nino variability, usually about half the observed amplitude in the previous generation of coupled models, is now more accurately simulated in the present generation of global coupled models, though there are still biases in simulating the patterns of maximum variability. Typical resolutions of atmospheric component models contained in coupled models is now usually around 2.5 degrees latitude-longitude, with the ocean components often having about twice the atmospheric model resolution, with even higher resolution in the equatorial tropics. Some new-generation coupled models have atmospheric model resolutions of around 1.5 degrees latitude-longitude. Modeling groups now routinely run the CMIP control and 1% CO2 simulations in addition to 20th and 21st century climate simulations with a variety of forcings (e.g. volcanoes, solar variability, anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, ozone, and greenhouse gases (GHGs), with the anthropogenic forcings for future climate as well). However, persistent systematic errors noted in previous generations of global coupled models still are present in the present generation (e.g. over-extensive equatorial Pacific cold tongue, double ITCZ). This ...
Date: August 5, 2004
Creator: Meehl, G A; Covey, C; McAvaney, B; Latif, M & Stouffer, R J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department