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Summary of geothermal exploration activity in the state of Washington from 1978 to 1983

Description: During the course of conducting the statewide reconnaissance study of Washington's potential geothermal resources, several specific areas and broader regions have been identified as targets which warrant a more concentrated effort. Over the past three years, the program has continued to identify new sites, but has concentrated on better defining the resource potential of the best areas. The locations of these geothermal areas are shown, and the level of progress for each area is shown, expressed as a percentage of completion for the various exploration tasks. Descriptions of the geothermal target areas are presented.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Korosec, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sensitivity analysis of conservation opportunities in the irrigated agriculture sector of the Pacific Northwest

Description: This report summarizes the results of a sensitivity analysis of the cost effectiveness and energy-savings potential of conservation measures in the irrigation sector of the Pacific Northwest. This study examines the sensitivity of estimates of the cost effectiveness and energy-savings potential of conservation measures in the irrigation sector generated in a previous study (Harrer et al. 1985c) to changes in various types of input data parameters: reductions in purchase, installation and operating/maintenance costs for irrigation-sector conservation measures. Increases in the amounts of irrigation pumping head savings that would result from the use of the measures were also implemented in the sensitivity analysis. The assumptions used in the sensitivity analysis cause the analysis to represent a ''best-case'' scenario for the amount of energy that can potentially be saved through the implementation of irrigation-sector conservation measures in the Pacific Northwest and the costs per kWh saved for obtaining these savings. Under these ''best-case'' assumptions, it is estimated that approximately 207 average megawatts of electricity can potentially be saved by the year 2003 through the implementation of low-pressure irrigation, pump fittings redesign, increases in mainline size, and improved irrigation scheduling on new and existing irrigated acres. The majority of these savings (70%) can be obtained for a cost of 20 mills per kWh saved or less.
Date: July 1, 1985
Creator: Harrer, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential conservation opportunities from the use of improved irrigation scheduling in the Pacific Northwest region

Description: This report documents research to identify the potential energy savings and the costs per kWh saved from using systematic rather than traditional irrigation scheduling to reduce water usage in the irrigated agricultural sector of the Pacific Northwest. This research is part of an overall project aimed at developing a computer model and data base that will allow for estimation of the potential energy savings and cost effectiveness of a number of conservation technologies that are available for use in irrigated agriculture.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Harrer, B J & Lezberg, A J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioluminescent lighting for Alaskan runway lighting and marking

Description: Alaska and other far northern areas have special logistical, environmental, and economic problems that make radioluminescent (RL) lighting applications, especially in the area of airport lighting, an attractive alternative to electrical systems and flare pots. Tests and demonstrations of prototype systems conducted in Alaska over the past two years have proved the basic technological worth of RL airport lighting systems for civilian and military use. If regulatory issues and other factors identified during these tests can be favorably resolved and if the system and its components can be refined through production engineering, attractive applications for RL airfield lighting systems in Alaska and other remote locations could result.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Jensen, G.A. & Leonard, L.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC) environmental data base review, evaluation, and upgrade

Description: This report summarizes the principal issues of public concern, the adequacy of the environmental data base to answer the issues of concern, and the additional data collection required to support a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review of the proposed Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC). The report is based on a review of the readily available environmental literature and a site visit. Representatives of local, state, and federal agencies were also interviewed for their personal insights and concerns not discovered during the literature review.
Date: April 1, 1986
Creator: Strand, J.A.; Skalski, J.R.; Faulkner, L.L.; Rodman, C.W.; Carlile, D.W.; Ecker, R.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New method for evaluating composite reservoir systems

Description: A simple new technique has been developed for evaluating interference test data in radially symmetric composite reservoirs. The technique is based on the realization that systematic variations in the apparent storage coefficient (calculated from semi-log analysis of the late-time data are indicative of a two-mobility (k/..mu..) reservoir. By analyzing variations in the apparent storage coefficient, both the mobility and size of the inner region can be calculated. The technique is particularly useful for evaluating heterogeneous geothermal systems where the intersection of several faults, or hydrothermal alteration has created a high permeability region in the center of the geothermal field. The technique is applied to an extensive interference test in the geothermal reservoir at Klamath Falls, Oregon. 7 refs., 7 figs.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Benson, S.M. & Lai, C.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Financing residential energy conservation investment in the Northwest, 1985

Description: Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has analyzed how households in the Pacific Northwest financed their investments in energy conservation measures during the 1983-85 period, how they would finance their likely future investments, and related topics regarding conservation investments and financing. The information was collected through a stratified random telephone survey of householders conducted in October/November 1985 in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area in Idaho, Oregon, Washington and Western Montana. This information will be used by BPA to facilitate the planning, design, and implementation of relevant conservation programs such as the Residential Weatherization Program, and potential programs of bank and utility loans.
Date: May 1, 1987
Creator: Fang, J.M.; Hattrup, M.P.; Nordi,, R.T. & Ivey, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geologic map of the Mount Adams Quadrangle, Washington

Description: This report is comprised of a 1:100,000 scale geologic map and accompanying text. The text consists of unit descriptions, a table of age dates, a table of major element geochemistry, correlation diagram, and a source of mapping diagram. (ACR)
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Korosec, M.A. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1985 consumer segmentation: Assessment of the market for conservation in the Northwest: Phase 2

Description: This report presents information on consumer attitudes toward conservation, past and intended conservation behaviors, and utility-sponsored conservation program participation levels. The information was collected by means of random telephone surveys of households in Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and Western Montana. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted analyses of the survey results for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to obtain a better understanding of consumer attitudes and behaviors and to facilitate conservation program planning, design, and marketing.
Date: May 1, 1987
Creator: Bailey, B.M.; Hattrup, M.P.; Nordi, R.T.; Shankle, S.A. & Ivey, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications

Description: This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications.
Date: May 1, 1987
Creator: Uherka, K.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual model of the Klamath Falls, Oregon geothermal area

Description: Over the last 50 years significant amounts of data have been obtained from the Klamath Falls geothermal resource. To date, the complexity of the system has stymied researchers, leading to the development of only very generalized hydrogeologic and geothermal models of the area. Recently, the large quantity of available temperature data have been re-evaluated, revealing new information on subsurface heat flow and locations of faults in the system. These inferences are supported by borehole, geochemical, geophysical, and hydrologic data. Based on re-evaluation of all available data, a detailed conceptual model for the Klamath Falls geothermal resource is proposed.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Prucha, R.H.; Benson, S.M. & Witherspoon, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rockburst monitoring at the Sunshine Mine, Kellogg, Idaho

Description: The rockburst monitoring system at the Sunshine Mine has recently been improved to increase the certainty of burst locations and to output location results in a manner amenable to easy interpretation. Three methods of location calculation were used: a computer code provided with the hardware in-place (the MP-250), a code based on the least-squares method (Blake et al, 1974), and a nonlinear iterative code written by the principal author. The more accurate locations are given by the latter two codes, but still are only correct to within about 100 ft. This error is due to uncertainties introduced by the geologic and mining variations versus the assumptions made in the location codes. Software was written to make two-dimensional plots of burst location by level, so management could monitor problems easily. 8 refs., 5 figs.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Van Eeckhout, E.; Jordan, J.; Hollis, J. & Hartmann, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural gas hydrates on the North Slope of Alaska

Description: Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, mainly methane, in which a solid-water lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure, or clathrate. These substances often have been regarded as a potential (unconventional) source of natural gas. Significant quantities of naturally occurring gas hydrates have been detected in many regions of the Arctic including Siberia, the Mackenzie River Delta, and the North Slope of Alaska. On the North Slope, the methane-hydrate stability zone is areally extensive beneath most of the coastal plain province and has thicknesses as great as 1000 meters in the Prudhoe Bay area. Gas hydrates have been identified in 50 exploratory and production wells using well-log responses calibrated to the response of an interval in one well where gas hydrates were recovered in a core by ARCO Alaska and EXXON. Most of these gas hydrates occur in six laterally continuous Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sandstone and conglomerate units; all these gas hydrates are geographically restricted to the area overlying the eastern part of the Kuparuk River Oil Field and the western part of the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field. The volume of gas within these gas hydrates is estimated to be about 1.0 {times} 10{sup 12} to 1.2 {times} 10{sup 12} cubic meters (37 to 44 trillion cubic feet), or about twice the volume of conventional gas in the Prudhoe Bay Field. Geochemical analyses of well samples suggest that the identified hydrates probably contain a mixture of deep-source thermogenic gas and shallow microbial gas that was either directly converted to gas hydrate or first concentrated in existing traps and later converted to gas hydrate. The thermogenic gas probably migrated from deeper reservoirs along the same faults thought to be migration pathways for the large volumes of shallow, heavy oil that occur in this area. ...
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Collett, T.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Description and assessment of the Raft River Lotic system in the vicinity of the Raft River Geothermal Area. Annual report

Description: The Raft River is the only perennial lotic system within this area and one concern has been the impact a spill of geothermal water would have on the biota of the stream. Identification of the structure of these communities is the baseline information which was the objective of this study. The results of the inventory in terms of potential recovery of downstream communities from the impact of geothermal water induced perturbations are discussed.
Date: December 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Site-specific legal and institutional analysis of the barriers to geothermal hydrothermal commercialization present at target prospects in the five Pacific Rim states

Description: The specifics of the permitting process, land access, power plant siting, water law, and other legal or institutional barriers or conflicts are presented for each of the most highly regarded target electric prospects in the five Pacific Rim states: California, Hawaii, Alaska, Oregon, and Wasington. (MHR)
Date: October 20, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Map and table showing distribution of known thermal springs in selected igneous rocks in Central Alaska

Description: Thirty-four thermal springs are known to occur in the central Alaska region covered by this map. These springs of central Alaska are spatially associated with granitic plutons of late Mesozic and early Cenozoic, especially with their contact zones. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Gassaway, J.S. & Abramson, B.S. (comps).
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inversion of Newberry Volcano high-resolution traveltime residuals

Description: Inversion of the 1984 traveltime data from the array at Newberry Crater was accomplished using a variant of the method presented by Aki and others (1973). Five-hundred-sixty-five traveltime observations for Pg and a deeper reflection, weighted by their variance estimates, were included in the inversion. Azimuths from receiver-to-source range from 80 to 280. The initial-velocity model for the inversion has four layers. The top layer, starting at the surface and extending to an elevation of 1300 meters above sea level, had a P-velocity of 2.5 km/s. There are three layers below this one, each 1500-m thick, with P-velocities of 4.0, 4.6, and 5.2 km/s. The predominant feature in the inversion result in the upper two layers (surface to 200-m below sea level), is the ring of high velocities coincident with the caldera ring-fracture system. This high-velocity ring is up to 11% faster than the average for these two layers. In these layers velocities are a few percent slower than average in the center of the caldera and range from 5 to 10% slower outside the caldera to the south, east, and north. In the third layer (-200 to 1700 m elevation), the magnitude of the high-velocity anomaly around the ring-fracture system is reduced, but the bin in the center of the caldera is nearly 9% slower than the layer average.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Stauber, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field geology of the northwest quarter of the Broken Top 15' quadrangle, Deschutes County, Oregon

Description: The report is a compilation of geologic field observations and supporting laboratory data obtained during a study of the eastern slope of the High Cascade Range of Oregon, north of Broken Top volcano. General geologic relationships are summarized, then followed by lithologic descriptions, petrographic characteristics, and stratigraphic information, cross-indexed to tables of chemical analyses of pertinent rock units. The 7.5-minute N.W. Broken Top quadrange is bounded by 44/sup 0/07'30'' and 44/sup 0/15'00'' north latitude and by 121/sup 0/37'30'' and 121/sup 0/45'00'' west longitude, 6 km east of North and Middle Sister volcanoes and 35 km northwest of Bend. The quadrangle is covered by glacial till and calc-alkaline lavas, most of which originated on the adjacent slopes of the High Cascades. Basalt, basaltic andesite, andesite, and rhyodacite are represented in a variety of forms including lava flows, volcanic domes, cinder cones, and a welded ash-flow tuff.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Taylor, E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Generalized structure map of top, middle, and basal tertiary markers with geothermal gradients, eastern north slope petroleum province, Alaska

Description: This map shows structure contours on several markers in the Tertiary rocks in the Prudhoe Bay area and the regional geothermal gradients. Contours of the geothermal gradient (Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists, undated) apparently correlate with other geologic trends. The lower gradients coincide with the deepest part of the Colville basin, and the higher gradients with the thinner section of sediments deposited over the Barrow arch. The inflection of the isograds in the vicinity of Prudhoe Bay may be due to an insulating effect from the hydrocarbon accumulation and(or) a slightly greater proportion of poorly conductive rocks. Heat flow in the area of Prudhoe Bay is essentially the same as other regions in the Arctic (Gold and Lachenbruch, 1973).
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Tailleur, I.L. & Engwicht, S.E. (comps.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department