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Annotated geothermal bibliography of Utah

Description: The bibliography includes all the Utah geothermal references through 1984. Some 1985 citations are listed. Geological, geophysical, and tectonic maps and reports are included if they cover a high-temperature thermal area. The references are indexed geographically either under (1) United States (national studies), (2) regional - western United States or physiographic province, (3) Utah - statewide and regional, or (4) county. Reports concerning a particular hot spring or thermal area are listed under both the thermal area and the county names.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Budding, K.E. & Bugden, M.H. (comps.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reconnaissance of the hydrothermal resources of Utah

Description: Geologic factors in the Basin and Range province in Utah are more favorable for the occurrence of geothermal resources than in other areas on the Colorado Plateaus or in the Middle Rocky Mountains. These geologic factors are principally crustal extension and crustal thinning during the last 17 million years. Basalts as young as 10,000 years have been mapped in the area. High-silica volcanic and intrusive rocks of Quaternary age can be used to locate hydrothermal convection systems. Drilling for hot, high-silica, buried rock bodies is most promising in the areas of recent volcanic activity. Southwestern Utah has more geothermal potential than other parts of the Basin and Range province in Utah. The Roosevelt Hot Springs area, the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale area, and the area to the north as far as 60 kilometers from them probably have the best potential for geothermal development for generation of electricity. Other areas with estimated reservoir temperatures greater than 150/sup 0/C are Thermo, Monroe, Red Hill (in the Monroe-Joseph Known Geothermal Resource Area), Joseph Hot Springs, and the Newcastle area. The rates of heat and water discharge are high at Crater, Meadow, and Hatton Hot Springs, but estimated reservoir temperatures there are less than 150/sup 0/C. Additional exploration is needed to define the potential in three additional areas in the Escalante Desert. 28 figs., 18 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Rush, F.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical analyses of selected thermal springs and wells in Wyoming

Description: Basic chemical data for 27 selected thermal well and springs in Wyoming are presented. The samples were gathered from 1979 through 1982 in an effort to define geothermal resources in Wyoming. The basic data for the 27 analyzed samples generally include location, temperature, flow, date analyzed, and a description of what the sample is from. The chemical analyses for the sample are listed.
Date: June 1, 1984
Creator: Heasler, H.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bibliography of geothermal reports in Colorado. Bulletin 44

Description: This bibliography comprises all known published and unpublished public reports pertaining to the geothermal resources of Colorado through 1980. The report is in two alphabetical sections, BIBLIOGRAPHY and SUBJECT INDEX. The Bibliography section is a listing of the various authors with key works, while the Subject Index section is a listing of the various authors by subject.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Pearl, R.H.; Zacharakis, T.G.; Repplier, F.N. & McCarthy, K.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Revised heat flow map of Colorado

Description: This present map of Colorado is a revision of the heat flow map published by Pearl and others in 1976. The heat flow values were gathered from previously published reports. The parameters necessary to compute the heat flow values are described. Regionally, Colorado is separated into three heat flow provinces. They are: the Great Plains, the Southern Rocky Mountains, and the Colorado Plateau provinces. The Great Plains province, except for the Raton Basin and Canon City Embayment, indicates normal heat flow. The Southern Rocky Mountain province which encompasses both the Rio Grande Rift and an anomalous zone located near Ouray are the most promising areas for high heat flow. The Colorado Plateau province is considered normal to slightly above normal compared with the regional heat flow of the United States.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Zacharakis, T.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of a detailed gravity survey in the Alamosa Area, Alamosa County, Colorado

Description: A total of 322 stations, centered on the City of Alamosa, were surveyed with a gravimeter during September 1981. These data have shown the Alamosa horst to have an irregular top. This irregularity is thought to be caused by paleovalleys and/or down-dropped fault blocks within the Precambrian horst. The City of Alamosa lies directly over a local gravity low. Volcanic rocks within this low may contain a reservoir for geothermal fluids, as yet unsubstantiated by drilling. Thermal fluids are thought to enter the Alamosa area via aquifers from the west (San Juan Mountains) and/or from the Rio Grande Rift zone with the fluids rising along fractures within and bordering the horst. The most favorable drilling targets appear to be either near the center of the local gravity low or in the fracture zone at the edges of the inferred down-dropped fault blocks.
Date: September 1, 1983
Creator: Mackelprang, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nucla circulating atmospheric fluidized bed demonstration project

Description: Colorado-Ute Electric Association began a study to evaluate options for upgrading and extending the life of its Nucla power station in 1982. Located in southwestern Colorado near the town of Nucla, this station was commissioned in 1959 with a local bituminous coal as its design fuel for three identical stoker-fired units, each rated at 12.6 MW(e). Poor station efficiency, high fuel costs, and spiraling boiler maintenance costs forced the Nucla Station into low priority in the CUEA dispatch order as early as 1981. Among the options CUEA considered was to serve as a host utility to demonstrate Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) technology. The anticipated environmental benefits and apparent attractive economics of a circulating AFBC led to Colorado-Ute's decision to proceed with the design and construction of a demonstration project in 1984 at the Nucla facility.
Date: October 1, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geologic characterization of tight gas reservoirs

Description: The objectives of US Geological Survey (USGS) work during FY 89 were to conduct geologic research characterizing tight gas-bearing sandstone reservoirs and their resources in the western United States. Our research has been regional in scope but, in some basins, our investigations have focused on single wells or small areas containing several wells where a large amount of data is available. The investigations, include structure, stratigraphy, petrography, x-ray mineralogy, source-rock evaluation, formation pressure and temperature, borehole geophysics, thermal maturity mapping, fission-track age dating, fluid-inclusion thermometry, and isotopic geochemistry. The objectives of these investigations are to provide geologic models that can be compared and utilized in tight gas-bearing sequences elsewhere. Nearly all of our work during FY 89 was devoted to developing a computer-based system for the Uinta basin and collecting, analyzing, and storage of data. The data base, when completed will contain various types of stratigraphic, organic chemistry, petrographic, production, engineering, and other information that relate to the petroleum geology of the Uinta basin, and in particular, to the tight gas-bearing strata. 16 refs., 3 figs.
Date: December 1, 1990
Creator: Law, B.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geologic report on the Sand Wash Drilling Project, Moffat and Routt Counties, Colorado

Description: The Sand Wash Basin Drilling Project comprises twenty-seven (27) drill holes located in Moffat and Routt Counties, northwest Colorado, having an aggregate depth of 26,107.5 feet (7957.6 m). The holes penetrate the Browns Park Formation of Miocene age, which is a tuffaceous continental sandstone deposited in fluvial, eolian, and lacustrine environments. Partly based on project drilling results, uranium potential resource estimates for this formation in the $50/lb U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ forward-cost category have been increased by 34,476 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ (35,036 metric tons). Three areas between Maybell and Craig, Colorado, considered favorable for uranium occurrences were verified as favorable by project drilling, and a fourth favorable area northwest of Maybell has been expanded. In addition, project drilling results indicate two new favorable areas, one north and northwest and one south of Steamboat Springs, Colorado. Anomalous radioactivity was detected in drill holes in all six study areas of the project. The most important factor in concentrating significant amounts of uranium in the target formation appears to be the availability of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons and/or hydrogen sulfide gas as reductants. Where subjacent formations supply these reductants to the Browns Park Formation, project drilling encountered 0.05 percent to 0.01 percent uranium concentrations. Potential, though unproven, sources of these reductants are believed to underlie parts of all six project study areas.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Carter, T.E. & Wayland, T.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal potential for commercial and industrial direct heat applications in Salida, Colorado. Final report

Description: The Salida Geothermal Prospect (Poncha Hot Springs) was evaluated for industrial and commercial direct heat applications at Salida, Colorado, which is located approximately five miles east of Poncha Hot Springs. Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd., holds the geothermal leases on the prospect and the right-of-way for the main pipeline to Salida. The Poncha Hot Springs are located at the intersection of two major structural trends, immediately between the Upper Arkansas graben and the Sangre de Cristo uplift. Prominent east-west faulting occurs at the actual location of the hot springs. Preliminary exploration indicates that 1600 gpm of geothermal fluid as hot as 250/sup 0/F is likely to be found at around 1500 feet in depth. The prospective existing endusers were estimated to require 5.02 x 10/sup 10/ Btu per year, but the total annual amount of geothermal energy available for existing and future endusers is 28.14 x 10/sup 10/ Btu. The engineering design for the study assumed that the 1600 gpm would be fully utilized. Some users would be cascaded and the spent fluid would be cooled and discharged to nearby rivers. The economic analysis assumes that two separate businesses, the energy producer and the energy distributor, are participants in the geothermal project. The producer would be an existing limited partnership, with Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd. as one of the partners; the distributor would be a new Colorado corporation without additional income sources. Economic evaluations were performed in full for four cases: the Base Case and three alternate scenarios. Alternate 1 assumes a three-year delay in realizing full production relative to the Base Case; Alternate 2 assumes that the geothermal reservoir is of a higher quality than is assumed for the Base Case; and Alternate 3 assumes a lower quality reservoir. 11 refs., 34 figs., 40 tabs.
Date: October 1, 1982
Creator: Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.; Galloway, M.J.; Gross, J.T.; Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multielement geochemistry of three geothermal wells, Cove Fort-Sulphurdale geothermal area, Utah

Description: Multielement geochemical analysis of drill cuttings from three geothermal wells, Utah State 42-7, Utah State 31-33 and Forminco No. 1, in the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale KGRA, Utah, demonstrates that the distributions of different elements are the result of different chemical processes operating throughout the geologic history of the area. Statistical analysis of geochemical-data distributions confirm the presence of several distinct element associations. Of the 36 elements determined on the samples, 12 (V, Mo, Cd, Ag, Au, Sb, Bi, U, Te, Sn, B and Th) were present in concentrations at or below detection levels. Of the remaining 24 elements, only 3 (Ni, Co and Zr) are lognormally distributed. Distributions for the remaining elements are of aggregate populations which represent background, mineralization or other processes.
Date: September 1, 1982
Creator: Christensen, O. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Colorado: basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in GEOTHERM

Description: GEOTHERM sample file contains 225 records for Colorado. Three computer-generated indexes are found in appendices A, B, and C of this report. The indexes give one line summaries of each GEOTHERM record describing the chemistry of geothermal springs and wells in the sample file for Colorado. Each index is sorted by different variables to assist the user in locating geothermal records describing specific sites. Appendix A is sorted by the county name and the name of the source. Also given are latitude, longitude (both use decimal minutes), township, range, section, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix B is sorted by county, township, range, and section. Also given are name of source, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix C is first sorted into one-degree blocks by latitude, and longitude, and then by name of source. Adjacent one-degree blocks which are published as a 1:250,000 map are combined under the appropriate map name. Also given are GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). A bibliography is given in Appendix D.
Date: May 1, 1983
Creator: Bliss, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Principal facts for gravity stations of the Broadwater geothermal area, Montana

Description: Two complete Bouguer anomaly values were calculated for each of the 67 stations assuming average rock densities of 2.67 g/cm/sup 3/ and 2.45 g/cm/sup 3/. The corrections and anomaly values are listed. A hand contoured Bouguer gravity map is included.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Bankey, V.; Paton, J. & Kleinkopf, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Verification of geological/engineering model in waterflood areas

Description: The construction of a detailed geological/engineering model is the basis for development of the methodology for characterizing reservoir heterogeneity. The NIPER geological/engineering model is the subject of this report. The area selected for geological and production performance studies is a four-section area within the Powder River Basin which includes the Tertiary Incentive Project (TIP) pilot. Log, well test, production, and core data were acquired for construction of the geological model of a barrier island reservoir. In this investigation, emphasis was on the synthesis and quantification of the abundant geological information acquired from the literature and field studies (subsurface and outcrop) by mapping the geological heterogeneities that influence fluid flow. The geological model was verified by comparing it with the exceptionally complete production data available for Bell Creek field. This integration of new and existing information from various geological, geophysical, and engineering disciplines has enabled better definition of the heterogeneities that influence production during different recovery operations. 16 refs., 26 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1988
Creator: Sharma, B.; Szpakiewicz, M.; Honarpour, M.; Schatzinger, R.A. & Tillman, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Verification of hourly forecasts of wind turbine power output

Description: A verification of hourly average wind speed forecasts in terms of hourly average power output of a MOD-2 was performed for four sites. Site-specific probabilistic transformation models were developed to transform the forecast and observed hourly average speeds to the percent probability of exceedance of an hourly average power output. (This transformation model also appears to have value in predicting annual energy production for use in wind energy feasibility studies.) The transformed forecasts were verified in a deterministic sense (i.e., as continuous values) and in a probabilistic sense (based upon the probability of power output falling in a specified category). Since the smoothing effects of time averaging are very pronounced, the 90% probability of exceedance was built into the transformation models. Semiobjective and objective (model output statistics) forecasts were made compared for the four sites. The verification results indicate that the correct category can be forecast an average of 75% of the time over a 24-hour period. Accuracy generally decreases with projection time out to approx. 18 hours and then may increase due to the fairly regular diurnal wind patterns that occur at many sites. The ability to forecast the correct power output category increases with increasing power output because occurrences of high hourly average power output (near rated) are relatively rare and are generally not forecast. The semiobjective forecasts proved superior to model output statistics in forecasting high values of power output and in the shorter time frames (1 to 6 hours). However, model output statistics were slightly more accurate at other power output levels and times. Noticeable differences were observed between deterministic and probabilistic (categorical) forecast verification results.
Date: August 1, 1984
Creator: Wegley, H.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

User Coupled Confirmation Drilling Program case study: City of Alamosa, Colorado, Alamosa No. 1 geothermal test well

Description: A 7118 ft (2170 m) deep geothermal test well was drilled on the south edge of the city of Alamosa, Colorado as part of the Department of Energy's User Coupled Confirmation Drilling Program. The project was selected on the bases of a potential direct heat geothermal resource within the Rio Grande rift graben and resource users in Alamosa. The well site was selected on the hypothesis of a buried horst along which deep thermal fluids might be rising. In addition, there were city wells that were anomalous in temperature and the location was convenient to potential application. The Alamosa No. 1 penetrated 2000 ft (610 m) of fine clastic rocks over 4000 ft (1219 m) of volcaniclastic rock resting on precambrian crystalline rock at a depth of 6370 ft (1942 m). Due to poor hole conditions, geophysical logs were not run. The stabilized bottom hole temperature was 223/sup 0/F (106/sup 0/C) with a gradient of 2.6/sup 0/F/100 ft (47/sup 0/C/km). Limited testing indicated a very low production capacity. 16 refs., 6 figs.
Date: August 1, 1985
Creator: Zeisloft, J. & Sibbett, B.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessing impacts of oil-shale development on the Piceance Basin mule deer herd

Description: Development of energy resources on big game ranges generally negatively impacts these important wildlife resources. Although habitat disturbance is generally important, this impact is overshadowed by the negative impacts due to an increasing human population in the area. Increased human activities particularly stress animals during winter periods when inadequate nutrition levels may have already severely impacted the population. Increased road traffic and poaching causes additional deaths, which a decline in survival rates expected, or at least changes in the cause of mortality. This paper describes the experimental design to monitor and mitigate the impact of oil shale development in northwestern Colorado on the Piceance Basin mule deer herd. Biotelemetry techniques are used to measure changes through time in movements, habitat utilization, and survival rates between control and treatment areas. 2 figures.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: White, G.C. & Garrott, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Participation in the Creede Scientific Drilling Project as on-site Principal Investigator

Description: Scientific questions addressed by the Creede Scientific Drilling Project were as follows (Bethke et al., 1992): (1) Did the lacustrine sedimentary sequence filling the moat of Creede caldera serve as reservoir for the moderately-saline aqueous fluids which scavenged and then transported silver and base metals to ore-depositional sites for the rich epithermal deposits of the Creede mining district (Fig. 1) ; (2) what were the chemical and isotopic compositions of these fluids prior to their entry into the Creede fracture (later vein) system; (3) how did these chemical and isotopic compositions evolve in transit to the ore-depositional site ; (4) how did the Creede caldera form and evolve ; (5) what is the present thermal regime in Creede caldera moat [hor ellipsis]the, paleothermal regime ; (5) what are the hydrologic transport properties of the moat sedimentary rocks ; (6) what diagenetic or hydrothermal veins disrupt the moat sedimentary sequence, and what do their paragenetic relationships, mineralogic compositions, fluid-inclusion characteristics, and stable-isotope systematics reveal about evolution of the Creede hydrothermal system Two Creede caldera moat drill holes were completed for this project.
Date: June 1, 1992
Creator: Hulen, J.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-temperature geothermal assessment of the Santa Clara and Virgin River Valleys, Washington County, Utah

Description: Exploration techniques included the following: (1) a temperature survey of springs, (2) chemical analyses and calculated geothermometer temperatures of water samples collected from selected springs and wells, (3) chemical analyses and calculated geothermometer temperatures of spring and well water samples in the literature, (4) thermal gradients measured in accessible wells, and (5) geology. The highest water temperature recorded in the St. George basin is 42/sup 0/C at Pah Tempe Hot Springs. Additional spring temperatures higher than 20/sup 0/C are at Veyo Hot Spring, Washington hot pot, and Green Spring. The warmest well water in the study area is 40/sup 0/C in Middleton Wash. Additional warm well water (higher than 24.5/sup 0/C) is present north of St. George, north of Washington, southeast of St. George, and in Dameron Valley. The majority of the Na-K-Ca calculated reservoir temperatures range between 30/sup 0/ and 50/sup 0/C. Anomalous geothermometer temperatures were calculated for water from Pah Tempe and a number of locations in St. George and vicinity. In addition to the known thermal areas of Pah Tempe and Veyo Hot Spring, an area north of Washington and St. George is delineated in this study to have possible low-temperature geothermal potential.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Budding, K.E. & Sommer, S.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Temperature profiles from Salt Valley, Utah, thermal conductivity of 10 samples from drill hole DOE 3, and preliminary estimates of heat flow

Description: As part of a thermal study of the Salt Valley anticline, Paradox Basin, Utah, temperature profiles were obtained in nine wells drilled by the Department of Energy. Thermal conductivities were also measured on ten samples judged to be representative of the rocks encountered in the deepest hole (DOE 3) (R. J. Hite, personal communication, November 21, 1980). In this interim report, the temperature profiles and thermal conductivities are presented, together with some preliminary interpretive remarks and some suggestions for additional work.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Sass, J.H.; Lachenbruch, A.H. & Smith, E.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Public acceptance of nuclear electric generation sited in energy centers

Description: What will make an acceptable future for nuclear power. We believe there are four elements: the power must be needed. The plants must be safe. The power must be economical. The disposal of nuclear waste must be assured. And, above all, the public must believe all four are true. We have completed a study in the State of Utah, with DOE support, of building a number of nuclear power plants at one location-the Nuclear Energy Center (NEC) concept. The project would deliver power to the Southwest region over the first half of the next century; in this time frame we believe the power will be needed. The NEC would consist of nine large units of 1250 MWe each arranged in widely-spaced clusters of three on a large site. A 50 sq. mile site on the Green River was chosen, about 15 miles south of the town of Green River, Utah. About 82% of the power would be distributed outside Utah; the largest load would be the Los Angeles area.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Bauman, H.F. & Williams, J.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department