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Establishment of an oil and gas database for increased recovery and characterization of oil and gas carbonate reservoir heterogeneity

Description: The objectives of this project are to augment the National Reservoir Database (TORIS database) and to increase our understanding of geologic heterogeneities that affect the recoveries of oil and gas from carbonate reservoirs in the State of Alabama and to identify those resources that are producible at moderate cost. These objectives will be achieved through detailed geological, engineering, and geostatistical characterization of typical Jurassic Smackover Formation hydrocarbon reservoirs in selected productive fields in the State of Alabama. The results of these studies will be used to develop and test mathematical models for prediction of the effects of reservoir heterogeneities in hydrocarbon production. Work to date has focused on the completion of Subtasks 1, 2, and 3. Subtask 1 included the survey and tabulation of available reservoir engineering and geological data relevant to the Smackover reservoir in southwestern Alabama. Subtask 2 comprises the geological and engineering characterization of Smackover reservoir lithofacies. This has been accomplished through detailed examination and analysis of geophysical well logs, core material, well cuttings, and well-test data from wells penetrating Smackover reservoirs in southwestern Alabama. From these data, reservoir heterogeneities, such as lateral and vertical changes in lithology, porosity, permeability, and diagenetic overprint, have been recognized and used to produce maps, cross sections, graphs, and other graphic representations to aid in interpretation of the geologic parameters that affect these reservoirs. Subtask 3 includes the geologic modeling of reservoir heterogeneities for Smackover reservoirs. This research has been based primarily on the evaluation of key geologic and engineering data from selected Smackover fields. 1 fig.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Mancini, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar hot water systems for the southeastern United States: principles and construction of breadbox water heaters

Description: The use of solar energy to provide hot water is among the easier solar technologies for homeowners to utilize. In the Southeastern United States, because of the mild climate and abundant sunshine, solar energy can be harnessed to provide a household's hot water needs during the non-freezing weather period mid-April and mid-October. This workbook contains detailed plans for building breadbox solar water heaters that can provide up to 65% of your hot water needs during warm weather. If fuel costs continue to rise, the annual savings obtained from a solar water heater will grow dramatically. The designs in this workbook use readily available materials and the construction costs are low. Although these designs may not be as efficient as some commercially available systems, most of a household's hot water needs can be met with them. The description of the breadbox water heater and other types of solar systems will help you make an informed decision between constructing a solar water heater or purchasing one. This workbook is intended for use in the southeastern United States and the designs may not be suitable for use in colder climates.
Date: February 1, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quasi-three-dimensional simulations of deep convection

Description: Simulations of deep convection along the Florida sea-breeze front have previously been carried out in two dimensions using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. These experiments were in good agreement with observations, capturing the propagation of the sea-breeze fronts and the associated convection as well as the eventual collision of the two sea-breeze fronts from opposite shores, leading to more fully developed deep convection. We have extended this simulation by adding enough points in the third dimension to capture the three-dimensional convective cells. We have two goals with this work. First we will use this experiment as a step towards fully three-dimensional simulations of Mesoscale Convective Systems in which interactive-grid nests are used to explicitly simulate convective processes. A second goal is to use the results of these simulations as a synthetic data set. We can then run simulations of the same case using a convective parameterization scheme, compare the results of the parameterization run to the synthetic data set, and use diagnostic analyses to refine the parameterization scheme. 2 refs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Hertenstein, R.F.A.; Cotton, W.R. & Weissbluth, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste not - want not. DOE appropriate technology small grants program

Description: The work reported was to look at various alternatives for local solid waste management and develop an implementation strategy for a resource conservation and recovery plan for the community of Berea, Kentucky. A library on recycling and conservation of resources was compiled, and state and local plans were examined. To get a better understanding of how the community would respond to a waste reduction and recycling program, a series of surveys was conducted. A community recycling project plan is proposed. (LEW)
Date: January 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Coastal zone wind energy. Part I. Potential wind power density fields based on 3-D model simulations of the dominant wind regimes for three east and Gulf coast areas

Description: The results of applying a numerical model of the atmosphere to the problem of locating areas of maximum wind power are presented. Three US coastal regions, of approximately 10/sup 5/ km/sup 2/ area each, are investigated. For each region the spatial distribution of daily average power density (W m/sup -2/) for the lowest 100 m of the atmosphere is given for the three most prevalent weather regimes. These distributions are then combined to form an estimate of the annual average power density for each region. Comparisons with long-term climatological data at stations within each region show good agreement between model estimated and observed wind power density for two of the three regions studied.
Date: April 1, 1980
Creator: Garstang, M.; Pielke, R.A. & Snow, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation into the feasibility of wind as an alternate energy resource at selected North Georgia sites

Description: Anemometers were placed at four selected sites in North Georgia during the period July, 1980, to June, 1982. Regular wind speed readings were taken using accumulating recorders and average daily wind speeds calculated for each location. Three wind speed categories were determined: (a) average below 7 mph; (b) average between 7 and 25 mph; (c) average above 25 mph. One site was abandoned after seven months due to lack of expected wind; another site was closed after 4.5 months due to continuing excessive and damaging winds. Two sites were determined, after 12 to 20 months of data collecting respectively, to have sufficient wind resources in a usable time pattern to merit further investigation.
Date: October 26, 1982
Creator: Brock, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biking to work in Miami. Final technical report

Description: The objective of the project was to produce and distribute a guide to commuting by bicycle in the Miami metropolitan area. The area is uniquely suited to bicycling because of its pleasant year-round climate and relatively flat topography. Persuading even a small percentage of automobile commuters to try biking to work could result in substantial energy savings in Miami as in most other major metropolitan areas. Seven of the largest employment centers in the area were selected as major commuter destinations suitable for bicycle commuters. Safe and scenic ways of commuting to these areas by bicycle were mapped and described in a series of short narratives. Additional material on safe riding techniques and the choice of equipment was developed. The resulting 40 page booklet, Biking to Work in Miami, was printed and distributed by the author to local cycling groups, bicycle interests, and others. Copies were also sent to interested parties outside the Miami area. The initial reception has been very encouraging and a number of favorable reply cards have been received with useful comments and suggestions. A revised version aimed at stimulating bikers to avail of the soon-to-be-opened rapid transit system is being considered. A writer for the Miami Herald is interested in using parts of the Guide for a series in the newspaper.
Date: August 1, 1982
Creator: Kerr, O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Class B monitoring program handbook for southeastern sites with data based on INIT2 software (applicable to heating season)

Description: This document provides reference information on eight residences located in the southern part of the US which are being monitored under the Class B Passive Solar Monitoring Program. This handbook provides reference information on the sites and basic test conditions for the 1982-1983 winter heating season using software which is identified as INIT2. The manual is intended for use in data analysis work but is limited to this period of time because of basic differences in the control software and the related instrumentation system. This document is separated into individual sections for each site. The following information is provided for each site: (a) Site summary providing information on the structure, the passive solar features, the auxiliary heating system, and other related data; (b) Floor layouts with the sensor locations, etc.; (c) The One Time Value Log which records the results of field tests and calculations to determine the thermal characteristics, air infiltration rate, and other reference data; (d) The Analog/Digital Channel Log which provides calibration data; (e) The Status Channel Log which defines various event sensors; and (f) Program listings as used during the specified time periods during the heating season. Appendix A provides a summary of photographs which have been provided separately as part of the site documentation.
Date: July 1, 1983
Creator: Gustashaw, D. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar collector/still for salt-water desalination. Final report

Description: A combined in-line solar collector/still for the desalination of salt water was designed, built, and tested on site in the Florida Keys. During the course of the project the basic configuration was modified, as project funds permitted, to enhance performance. This collector/still utilizes sunlight for the direct heating of water and for the heating of air. The heating air is bubbled through the heated water producing desalinated water vapor which is subsequently collected. The result is non-salted water produced using sunlight.
Date: unknown
Creator: Fonash, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Area recommendation report for the crystalline repository project: An evaluation. [Crystalline Repository Project]

Description: An evaluation is given of DOE's recommendation of the Elk River complex in North Carolina for siting the second repository. Twelve recommendations are made including a strong suggestion that the Cherokee Tribe appeal both through political and legal avenues for inclusion as an affected area primarily due to projected impacts upon economy and public health as a consequence of the potential for reduced tourism.
Date: March 28, 1986
Creator: Beck, J E; Lowe, H & Yurkovich, S P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Probablilistic evaluation of earthquake detection and location capability for Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia

Description: Probabilistic estimations of earthquake detection and location capabilities for the states of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio and West Virginia are presented in this document. The algorithm used in these epicentrality and minimum-magnitude estimations is a version of the program NETWORTH by Wirth, Blandford, and Husted (DARPA Order No. 2551, 1978) which was modified for local array evaluation at the University of Michigan Seismological Observatory. Estimations of earthquake detection capability for the years 1970 and 1980 are presented in four regional minimum m/sub b/ magnitude contour maps. Regional 90% confidence error ellipsoids are included for m/sub b/ magnitude events from 2.0 through 5.0 at 0.5 m/sub b/ unit increments. The close agreement between these predicted epicentral 90% confidence estimates and the calculated error ellipses associated with actual earthquakes within the studied region suggest that these error determinations can be used to estimate the reliability of epicenter location. 8 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Mauk, F.J. & Christensen, D.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small-scale hydroelectric power in Watauga County, North Carolina

Description: We have completed both the installation of the demonstration project and the assessment of the stream flows in Watauga County, North Carolina. The 17 kW, high head (178'), project on Laurel Creek in Watauga County has produced about 60,000 kWh over its first nine months of operation despite some electrical and other problems. It is currently producing 16 to 17 kW on a steady basis and is functioning as a popular site for visits by people who plan to install their own similar plants in areas throughout the Southeast. The stream assessment proved to be less satisfactory than the subsequently developed method for predicting long term stream flows. The latter method has been applied to all western North Carolina and this report presents its general conclusions.
Date: February 22, 1983
Creator: Ayers, H G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Underground Energy Storage Program. 1985 annual summary

Description: Primary activities in seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involved field testing of high-temperature (> 100/sup 0/C (212/sup 0/F)) aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) at St. Paul, monitoring of the University of Alabama Student Recreation Center in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and limited numerical modeling efforts. The first long-cycle test at the University of Minnesota field test facility was completed. It consisted of approximately 59 days of heated water injection, 64 days of storage, and 58 days of heated water recovery. Chemistry of the recovered water was close to what was expected. Limited experimentation was done to characterize physical and chemical processes at the ATES test facility. A chill ATES monitoring project, initiated at the Student Recreation Center on the University of Alabama campus, continued during the reporting period. Numerical modeling efforts were continued at a minimum level to support field studies. The chill ATES facility at the University of Alabama Student Recreation Center was simulated with the Unconfined Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (UCATES) model to examine the effect of different injection/recovery patterns on the system's thermal performance.
Date: August 1, 1986
Creator: Raymond, J.R. & Kannberg, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind profile measurements at the Mod-1 site at Boone, North Carolina

Description: Three components of the wind field, temperature and pressure were measured by means of tethered balloon-borne sondes from the surface to 175 m (577 ft) and by means of a nacelle mounted system, from the surface to hub height of 43 m (140 ft). Measurements were taken over a ten day period at the Mod-1 Site in Boone, NC. Composite wind profiles are presented for different flow and stability regimes. The most extreme shears, on the order of .3 s/sup -1/, were found between 10 m (33 ft) and hub height. Individual profiles of wind and temperature show the effect of nocturnal cooling and accompanying surface stratification on the intensity of thw wind shear. Gustiness measured in terms of departures of one and two standard deviations above and below the mean, occurs at all heights across the rotor of the Mod-1 machine. Most frequent gustiness, however, occurs at and below hub height with periods up to 8 secs. Similar fluctuations are observed in the vertical component of the velocity field and in the direction of the horizontal wind. The depth of the shearing layer is critically related to hub height and rotor radius. The depth of the shearing layer appears to vary most significantly with thermal stratification; strong surface inversions producing shallow intense shearing layers; adiabatic conditions reflecting only topographically induced shear. For a given site and a given generator, hub height should be guided by the depth of the mean shear layer under adiabatic conditions plus the radius of the rotor.
Date: June 18, 1980
Creator: Brown, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Natural gas conservation through throttling: a demonstration study. Final technical report

Description: A total of 12 homes in Lexington, Kentucky participated in a demonstration project to investigate the possible energy savings associated with a gas throttling technique applied to residential gas furnaces. In a prior study, two homes utilized the throttling technique during the winter of 1980-81 and indicated an average savings of 9% attributable to gas throttling. Results from the current demonstration project, conducted during the winter of 1981-82, showed an average savings of 7.2% resulting from the use of throttling. It is therefore, indicated that, on average, use of this simple technique can increase residential gas furnace efficiencies by approximately 8% without any sacrifice in indoor comfort, i.e. without a change in indoor temperature.
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Currens, V C & Edwards, R G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar-energy workshops held at Miami-Dade Public Libraries, 1981-1982. Final report

Description: Over a two year period, the Miami-Dade Public Library System gave 12 free solar energy programs throughout Dade County in its various branches; Solar Water Heater Workshops, where registered participants actually took part in building or putting together a solar water heater. Kick-off programs were also given free-of-charge by a number of local solar companies, to inform the audience about solar energy in general and the solar workshops in particular. Average registered attendance at these workshops was twenty, not including the crowds of onlookers at the outdoor building sessions or the earlier kick-off programs, which often had an audience of sixty or more. A later phone check of ten workshop participants picket at random revealed four who had built or were building their own solar systems, three who were considering the purchase of -or had already bought - a domestic solar water heater, one who was reported to be no longer interested by his son, and two who could not be reached. One of the completed heaters has been donated to a local Girl Scout troop, where it is on permanent exhibit; another will be placed in a new library branch, with appropriate publicity about its source. Florida Power and Light, which formerly viewed our early workshops with suspicion, sent a speaker to our final program to announce financial assistance to those who wanted to buy a solar hot water heater.
Date: January 1, 1982
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Classifying forest productivity at different scales

Description: Spatial scale is an important consideration when evaluating, using, or constructing forest productivity classifications. First, the factors which dominate spatial variability in forest productivity are scale dependent. For example, within a stand, spatial variability in productivity is dominated by microsite differences; within a national forest such as the Cherokee National Forest, spatial variability is dominated by topography and land-use history (e.g., years since harvest); within a large region such as the southeast, spatial variability is dominated by climatic patterns. Second, classifications developed at different spatial scales are often used for different purposes. For example, stand-level classifications are often keys or rules used in the field to judge the quality or potential of a site. National-forest classifications are often presented as maps or tables and may be used in forest land planning. Regional classifications may be maps or tables and may be used to quantify or predict resource availability. These scale-related differences in controlling factors and purposes will affect both the methods and the data used to develop classifications. In this paper, I will illustrate these points by describing and comparing three forest productivity classifications, each developed for a specific purpose at a specific scale. My objective is not to argue for or against any of these particular classifications but rather to heighten awareness of the critical role that spatial scale plays in the use and development of forest productivity classifications. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Graham, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental restoration activities at the US Department of Energy's Pinellas Plant

Description: The Pinellas Plant, located in Largo, Florida, is part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) weapons complex. GE Neutron Devices (GEND) has initiated an extremely aggressive, proactive Environmental Restoration (ER) Program at the Pinellas Plant. The ER program was started by AL to investigate environmental concerns associated with past waste management practices and procedures at DOE weapons installations. The Pinellas Plant has been involved with ER activities since the mid 1980's when the DOE's Pinellas Area Office (PAO) entered a voluntary cleanup agreement with the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation (FDER). The agreement was for the remediation of an adjacent parcel of property previously owned, and used for disposal of drums containing waste solvents and resins. Remediation issues at the Pinellas Plant are equivalent to those experienced by many private industries; for example, limited volatile organic compound (VOC) and heavy metal contamination of the surficial aquifer system and heavy metal contamination of soils. ER activities in progress are aimed toward: confining, repositioning and remedying areas of heavy metal and VOC contaminants found within the surficial aquifer system; consistency with EPA's draft Corrective Action rules which state the corrective action program will be to expedite cleanup results by requiring (taking) sensible early action to control environmental problems;'' protection of a US Department of Interior (DOI) designated national wetland; and to ensure that risk to human health and safety and to the environment posed by the plants past, present and future operations are either eliminated or reduced to acceptable, safe levels. This paper will summarize the progress made and the strategies of the Pinellas Plant ER program as well as implementation of interim remedial actions.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Parker, M.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Groundwater management and protection Madison County, Alabama

Description: Groundwater is extremely important to Madison County as it provides nearly three quarters of the county's drinking water. In recent years, Madison County has increasingly recognized the need to protect its groundwater resource. A supply of usable groundwater is one element of a high quality environment, which can help spur economic development and provide for the needs of a growing population. Without planning protection and understanding of possible consequences, however, economic development and population pressures can cause a gradual degradation of groundwater. In April 1987, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) convened a local groundwater steering group in Madison County. At the first meeting the ground agreed upon these goals: (1) to seek incorporate groundwater protection into the planning and development process for Madison County, (2) to support efforts by Madison County to obtain authority to adopt zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations, and (3) to develop a groundwater management plan for the county. This report provides essential information needed in developing a plan and is based on the following assumptions: the citizens of Madison County value the environment in which they live and wish to protect it from pollution; continued economic development is necessary for a healthy local economy; and a healthy economy can be sustained and nurtured, without degradation of the groundwater resource, through countywide planning, education, and participation.
Date: July 1, 1990
Creator: French, J.H. & Strunk, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low-head tidal power in South Carolina. Feasibility study

Description: This report details the possibilities of extracting tidal power from sites with moderate tides and naturally occurring storage locations (estuaries). The important points covered include: available power, power extraction, and the best locations and techniques to utilize the tides in South Carolina.
Date: December 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of the geothermal/geopressure potential of the Gulf Coastal Plan of Alabama. Final report

Description: Geothermal and geopressure as well as geologic and geophysical data were studied to evaluate the potential for future development of geothermal resources underlying the Alabama Coastal Plain. Wire-line log data compiled and interpreted from more than 1300 oil and gas test wells included maximum recorded temperatures, mud weights, rock resistivities as related to geopressure, formation tops, fault locations, and depths to basement rock. The Alabama Coastal Plain area is underlain by a conduction dominated, deep sedimentary basin where geothermal gradients are low to moderate (1.0 to 1.8/sup 0/F/100 feet). In some areas of southwest Alabama, abnormally high temperatures are found in association with geopressured zones within the Haynesville Formation of Jurassic age; however, rocks of poor reservoir quality dominate this formation, with the exception of a 200-square-mile area centered in southernmost Clarke County where a porous and permeable sand unit is encased within massive salt deposits of the lower Haynesville. The results of a petrograhic study of the Smackover Formation, which underlies the Haynesville, indicate that this carbonate rock unit has sufficient porosity in some areas to be considered a potential geothermal reservoir. Future development of geothermal resources in south Alabama will be restricted to low or moderate temperature, non-electric applications, which constitute a significant potential energy source for applications in space heating and cooling and certain agricultural and industrial processes.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Wilson, G.V.; Wang, G.C.; Mancini, E.A. & Benson, D.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sulfur and ash reduction potential and selected chemical and physical properties of United States coals. [Contains glossary]

Description: This report presents the washability and comprehensive characterization results of 543 raw coal samples collected from the Eastern Region of the United States. This is the first volume of a three-volume report on the coals of the United States. All the data are presented in six appendices. Statistical techniques and definitions are presented in Appendix A, and a glossary of terms is presented in Appendix B. The complete washability data and an in- depth characterization of each sample are presented alphbetically by state in Appendix C. In Appendix D, a statistical evaluation is given for the composited washability data, selected chemical and physical properties, and washability data interpolated at various levels of Btu recovery. This presentation is shown by state, section, and region where four or more samples were collected. Appendix E presents coalbed codes and names for the Eastern Region coals. Graphical summations are presented by state, section, and region showing the effects of crushing on impurity reductions, and the distribution of raw and clean coal samples meeting various levels of SO{sub 2} emissions. 14 refs., 27 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Cavallaro, J.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Fuchs, W. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA)) & Jacobsen, P.S. (Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a farm-firm modelling system for evaluation of herbaceous energy crops

Description: A complete analysis is performed to simulate biomass production incorporated into a realistic whole farm situation, including or replacing a typical crop mix. Representative farms are constructed to accommodate such simulation. Four management systems are simulated for each firm, with each simulation depicting a different crop mix and/or use of different farming technologies and production methods. The first simulation was a base farm plan in which the operator would maintain the historical crop mix for the area, participate in all price support programs, and not participate in either a conservative reserve or a biomass production program. In the second simulation, the operator would again maintain the historical crop mix, would not participate in a conservation reserve or biomass production program, and would be ineligible to participate in any price support system. The third simulation introduced the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and included participation in all price support programs. The fourth simulation introduced a biomass crop production enterprise (switchgrass) as an alternative to enrolling highly erodible cropland in the CRP and allowed participation in price support programs. Simulations were made for three farms, two in West Tennessee and on in South Georgia. Results indicate that erosion is likely to be reduced more by the diversion of cropland to permanent vegetative cover on farms similar to the more highly erodible West Tennessee farms than on the less erodible Tift County, Georgia farm. Equivalent reductions in erosion rates result from entering highly erodible cropland in the CRP and from production of switchgrass as a biomass energy crop. Both switchgrass and CRP farm plans result in decreased net returns from the base plan, although the biomass farm plans are, in general, more profitable than the CRP plans.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: English, B.C.; Alexander, R.R.; Loewen, K.H.; Coady, S.A.; Cole, G.V. & Goodman, W.R. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department