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Design and Feasibility Study of a Pebble Bed Reactor-Steam Power Plant

Description: Originally issued as S and P 1963A, Parts I and II. This report covers a design and feasibility study of a pebble bed reactor-steam power plant of 125 megawatt electrical output. The reactor design which evolved from this study is a two-region thermal breeder, operating on the uranium-thorium cycle, in which all core structural materials are graphite. Fuel is in the form of unclad spherical elements of graphite, containing fissile and fertile material. The primary loop consists of the reactor plus three steam generators and blowers in parallel. Plant design and system analysis including cost analysis and capital cost summary are given.
Date: May 1, 1958
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility study for analyzing plasma-aerodynamic effects

Description: The purpose of this feasibility study was to conduct preliminary modeling to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the effects observed in the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) shock tube experiment. It was assumed that the plasma is simply a region of gas in the shock tube that has a higher gas temperature. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations were performed to simulate the propagation of a shock wave through the tube, using the same parameters in the experiment. Both 1- D and 3-D CFD calculations were performed to determine which effects can be explained simply by axial temperature gradients and which effects require the presence of radial temperature gradients. Discharge plasma physics calculations of a longitudinal glow discharge were then used to establish if the electrical currents used in the experiment are consistent with the gas temperature distributions that are necessary to explain the observed effects.
Date: May 7, 1999
Creator: Penetrante, B & Sherohman, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Screening of Potential Remediation Methods for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site

Description: A screening-level evaluation of potential remediation methods for application to the contaminants of concern (COC) in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site was conducted based on the methods outlined in the Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies under CERCLA Interim Final. The scope of this screening was to identify the most promising remediation methods for use in the more detailed analysis of remediation alternatives that will be conducted as part of the full feasibility study. The screening evaluation was conducted for the primary COC (potential major risk drivers). COC with similar properties were grouped for the screening evaluation. The screening evaluation was conducted in two primary steps. The initial screening step evaluated potential remediation methods based on whether they can be effectively applied within the environmental setting of the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit for the specified contaminants. In the second step, potential remediation methods were screened using scoping calculations to estimate the scale of infrastructure, overall quantities of reagents, and conceptual approach for applying the method for each defined grouping of COC. Based on these estimates, each method was screened with respect to effectiveness, implementability, and relative cost categories of the CERCLA feasibility study screening process defined in EPA guidance.
Date: August 7, 2006
Creator: Truex, Michael J.; Nimmons, Michael J.; Johnson, Christian D.; Dresel, P EVAN. & Murray, Christopher J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Insitu-Impregnated Capacitor for Pulse-Discharge Applications

Description: Capacitor designs for DOE and/or DoD applications are now driven by two major factors; first, the need to reduce component volumes (attain higher energy density) to permit inclusion of additional components and/ or sensors in systems and second, the continuing budget constraints. The reduced volume and cost must be achieved with no sacrifices in functionality, reliability and safety. Since this study was initiated, we have seen a general, continuous increase in resulting short-time breakdown (STB) values, with particular improvements noted on thermal cycled capacitors. Process and results support our prediction that a 50Y0-650A volume reduction can be achieved with no reduction in performance and reliability.
Date: January 15, 1999
Creator: Brooks, R.A.; Harris, J.O. & Pollard, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis of Ozone at Atmospheric Pressure by a Quenched Induction-Coupled Plasma Torch

Description: The technical feasibility of using an induction-coupled plasma (ICP) torch to synthesize ozone at atmospheric pressure is explored. Ozone concentrations up to ~250 ppm were produced using a thermal plasma reactor system based on an ICP torch operating at 2.5 MHz and ~11 kVA with an argon/oxygen mixture as the plasma-forming gas. A gaseous oxygen quench formed ozone by rapid mixing of molecular oxygen with atomic oxygen produced by the torch. The ozone concentration in the reaction chamber was measured by Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy over a wide range of experimental configurations. The geometry of the quench gas flow, the quench flow velocity, and the quench flow rate played important roles in determining the ozone concentration. The ozone concentration was sensitive to the torch RF power, but was insensitive to the torch gas flow rates. These observations are interpreted within the framework of a simple model of ozone synthesis.
Date: January 1, 1998
Creator: Blutke, A.; Stratton, B.C.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Vavruska, J. & Knight, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

Description: This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent ...
Date: October 31, 1998
Creator: ORTIZ, A. LOPEZ; HARRISON, D.P.; GROVES, F.R.; WHITE, J.D.; ZHANG, S.; HUANG, W.-N. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

Description: The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Wing, N.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

C02 Huff-n-Puff Process in a Light Oil Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir

Description: The principal objective of this CO2 Huf-n-Puff (H-n-P) project is to determine the feasibility and practicality of the technology in a waterflooded shallow shelf carbonate environment. The results of parametric simulation of the CO2 H-n-P process, coupled with reservoir characterization components are to be used to determine if this process is technically and economically feasible for field implementation. The technology transfer objective of the project is to disseminate the knowledge gained through an innovative plan of increasing oil production and deferring abandonment of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs.
Date: January 31, 1998
Creator: Kovar, Mark & Wehner, Scott
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of U.S. Neutrino Factory Studies

Description: We summarize the status of the two U.S. feasibility studies carried out by the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC) along with recent improvements to Neutrino Factory design developed during the American Physical Society (APS) Neutrino Physics Study. Suggested accelerator topics for the International Scoping Study (ISS) are also indicated.
Date: August 23, 2005
Creator: Zisman, Michael S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IMPROVING THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL DRUM TYPEPACKAGES BY USING HEAT PIPES

Description: This paper presents a feasibility study to improve thermal loading of existing radioactive material packages by using heat pipes. The concept could be used to channel heat in certain directions and dissipate to the environment. The concept is applied to a drum type package because the drum type packages are stored and transported in an upright position. This orientation is suitable for heat pipe operation that could facilitate the heat pipe implementation in the existing well proven package designs or in new designs where thermal loading is high. In this position, heat pipes utilize gravity very effectively to enhance heat flow in the upward direction Heat pipes have extremely high effective thermal conductivity that is several magnitudes higher than the most heat conducting metals. In addition, heat pipes are highly unidirectional so that the effective conductivity for heat transfer in the reverse direction is greatly reduced. The concept is applied to the 9977 package that is currently going through the DOE certification review. The paper presents computer simulations using typical off-the-shelf heat pipe available configurations and performance data for the 9977 package. A path forward is outlined for implementing the concepts for further study and prototype testing.
Date: March 6, 2007
Creator: Gupta, N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility of Large-Scale Ocean CO2 Sequestration

Description: The project accomplishments in 2005 have been exceptional, and have seen radical new techniques successfully devised and implemented. At the outset the goal set was to create a system dubbed FOCE--Free Ocean CO{sub 2} Enrichment--for investigating the impact of rapidly growing ocean CO{sub 2} levels from passive absorption by the surface ocean. A paper describing progress in this area is included with this report. On June 29, 2005 the P.I. presented a seminar on this work at NETL, and after discussion with Program Officers it was suggested that a return to the original project focus of investigating direct disposal techniques, rather than passive disposal effects, should be undertaken. This suggestion was rapidly acted upon, and in November 2005 a major field breakthrough was accomplished in collaboration with colleagues from NETL, MIT, and AIST (Japan). In this effort the real time three-dimensional acoustic detection of a freely released small-scale CO{sub 2} plume was accomplished. In addition we have successfully field tested the theoretical model of Zeebe and Wolf-Gladrow for CO{sub 2} system kinetics at depth, thus leading to more accurate prediction of the local pH perturbations of a CO{sub 2} plume.
Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Brewer, Peter G. & Barry, James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

System Cost Analysis for an Interior Permanent Magnet Motor

Description: The objective of this program is to provide an assessment of the cost structure for an interior permanent magnet ('IPM') motor which is designed to meet the 2010 FreedomCAR specification. The program is to evaluate the range of viable permanent magnet materials for an IPM motor, including sintered and bonded grades of rare earth magnets. The study considers the benefits of key processing steps, alternative magnet shapes and their assembly methods into the rotor (including magnetization), and any mechanical stress or temperature limits. The motor's costs are estimated for an annual production quantity of 200,000 units, and are broken out into such major components as magnetic raw materials, processing and manufacturing. But this is essentially a feasibility study of the motor's electromagnetic design, and is not intended to include mechanical or thermal studies as would be done to work up a selected design for production.
Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Campbell, Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Screening of Potential Remediation Methods for the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site

Description: A screening-level evaluation of potential remediation methods for application to the contaminants of concern (COC) in the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site was conducted based on the methods outlined in the Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies under CERCLA Interim Final (EPA 1988). The scope of this screening was to identify the most promising remediation methods for use in the more detailed analysis of remediation alternatives that will be conducted as part of the full feasibility study. The screening evaluation was conducted for the primary COC (potential major risk drivers) identified in the groundwater sampling and analysis plan for the operable unit (DOE/RL-2001-49, Rev. 1) with additions.
Date: September 21, 2006
Creator: Truex, Michael J.; Dresel, P. EVAN; Nimmons, Michael J. & Johnson, Christian D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lower Brule Sioux Tribe Wind-Pump Storage Feasibility Study Project

Description: The Lower Brule Sioux Tribe is a federally recognized Indian tribe organized pursuant to the 1934 Wheeler-Howard Act (“Indian Reorganization Act”). The Lower Brule Sioux Indian Reservation lies along the west bank of Lake Francis Case and Lake Sharpe, which were created by the Fort Randall and Big Bend dams of the Missouri River pursuant to the Pick Sloan Act. The grid accessible at the Big Bend Dam facility operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is less than one mile of the wind farm contemplated by the Tribe in this response. The low-head hydroelectric turbines further being studied would be placed below the dam and would be turned by the water released from the dam itself. The riverbed at this place is within the exterior boundaries of the reservation. The low-head turbines in the tailrace would be evaluated to determine if enough renewable energy could be developed to pump water to a reservoir 500 feet above the river.
Date: April 20, 2007
Creator: LaRoche, Shawn A.; LeBeau, Tracey & Innovation Investments, LLC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reestablish Safe Access into Tributaries of the Yakima Subbasin, Progress Report 2002-2003.

Description: Safe Access work has concentrated on the lower portions of five drainages in the Upper Yakima Basin. Streams in the Kittitas Valley include Wilson Creek, Naneum and Little Naneum Creeks, Reecer and Currier Creeks, and Manastash Creek. Tucker Creek is tributary to the Yakima River near Easton, Washington to the northwest. For numerous reasons delays in project implementation have occurred. Unclear water rights have resulted in long delays; however, permitting delays, general landowner reluctance to commit to any deviation from past practices, and lengthy legal review have all been factors. Realistic work windows are short and do not coincide well with fiscal year planning and contract renewals. The following is a summary of the projects anticipated under Safe Access that the Yakama Nation thought would be funded by BPA via carry-forward/over monies. Preparatory work toward construction in 03 was done for projects in the Wilson, Naneum and Tucker Creek systems; feasibility studies were done in the Manastash and Reecer systems by Montgomery Watson Harza (MWH) relative to screening and passage options and associated costs.
Date: March 1, 2003
Creator: Fraser, Hank
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Smart sensor technology for joint test assembly flights.

Description: The world relies on sensors to perform a variety of tasks from the mundane to sophisticated. Currently, processors associated with these sensors are sufficient only to handle rudimentary logic tasks. Though multiple sensors are often present in such devices, there is insufficient processing power for situational understanding. Until recently, no processors that met the electrical power constraints for embedded systems were powerful enough to perform sophisticated computations. Sandia performs many expensive tests using sensor arrays. Improving the efficacy, reliability and information content resulting from these sensor arrays is of critical importance. With the advent of powerful commodity processors for embedded use, a new opportunity to do just that has presented itself. This report describes work completed under Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project 26514, Task 1. The goal of the project was to demonstrate the feasibility of using embedded processors to increase the amount of useable information derived from sensor arrays while improving the believability of the data. The focus was on a system of importance to Sandia: Joint Test Assemblies for ICBM warheads. Topics discussed include: (1) two electromechanical systems to provide data, (2) sensors used to monitor those systems, (3) the processors that provide decision-making capability and data manipulation, (4) the use of artificial intelligence and other decision-making software, and (5) a computer model for the training of artificial intelligence software.
Date: September 1, 2003
Creator: Berry, Nina M.; Sheaffer, Donald A.; Bierbaum, Rene Lynn; Dimkoff, Jason L.; Walsh, Edward J.; Deyle, Travis Jay (University of Nebraska-Lincoln, (Omaha Campus)) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of NSLS-II High Order Multipole Correctors

Description: Feasibility studies for two families of corrector magnets for NSLS-II are presented. The first family of magnets are generalizations of figure eight quadrupoles using rotationally symmetric breaks in the return yoke to fit in available space. Properties specific to figure eight magnet are identified. The second type of magnet is a combined sextupole/dipole trim.
Date: May 4, 2009
Creator: Rehak,M.; Danby, G.; Bengtsson, Jo; Jackson, J.; Skaritka, J. & Spataro, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HPSS in the Extreme Scale Era: Report to DOE Office of Science on HPSS in 2018-2022

Description: This paper is a product for the Department of Energy?s (DOE) Office of Science (OS) reporting on the feasibility of using HPSS into the Extreme Scale era of storage (2018 -2022). The initial sections provide a summary of the systems environment and expected archival storage requirements extracted from other Extreme Scale workshopreports conducted since 2007 by various applications and programs within the DOE OS. These high level requirements aid in identifying long-term data storage system features that support Extreme Scale science. Participants also separately forecasted data growth in established long-term data storage systems through 2018 - 2022 to get a picture of the amount of data that systems will need to manage. The report concludes that HPSS is well positioned to meet the requirements projected for the Extreme Scale era and provides recommendations from the HPSS Collaboration to the DOE Office of Science for ensuring that HPSS can meet these extreme scale storage requirements of 2018 - 2022.
Date: July 15, 2009
Creator: Collaboration, HPSS; Hick, Jason; Watson, Dick; Cook, Danny; Minton, Jim; Newman, Henry et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and Testing of CO2 Compression Using Supersonic Shockware Technology

Description: Documentation of work performed by Ramgen and subcontractors in pursuit of design and construction of a 10 MW supersonic CO{sub 2} compressor and supporting facility. The compressor will demonstrate application of Ramgen's supersonic compression technology at an industrial scale using CO{sub 2} in a closed-loop. The report includes details of early feasibility studies, CFD validation and comparison to experimental data, static test experimental results, compressor and facility design and analyses, and development of aero tools.
Date: August 31, 2010
Creator: Williams, Joe; Aarnio, Michael; Lupkes, Kirk & Deniz, Sabri
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department