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Plastic Flow During Extrusion of Tubing

Description: Abstract: "A study of plastic flow during the extrusion of tubing was made by extruding colored Plasticine billets in a small-scale extrusion press. Decreasing the included angle of the conical die and tapering the ram end of the billet decreased the amount of coextrusion of the backer block into the tubing, lubricating the billet also decreased coextrusion."
Date: July 26, 1955
Creator: Saller, Henry A.; Keeler, John R. & Cuddy, Lee J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Extrusion of Beryllium

Description: Abstract: "A method for the extrusion of beryllium into rods and tubing has been developed. The operation is carried out between 1500 and 1900 F and the billet is clad in a layer of soft iron to prevent contact between it and the die steals. Extruded beryllium has much more strength and ductility than cast metal due to the crystal refinement which occurs as a result of the fabrication operation."
Date: 1950
Creator: Creutz, Edward Chester, {}
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Study of Fabricating Beryllia by Cold Compaction and Extrusion Techniques

Description: From introduction: "This report presents the results of the preliminary studies of two fabrication methods aimed at producing high density beryllia shapes more economically. The method were cold compaction and sintering, and extrusion and sintering."
Date: July 1958
Creator: Harkulich, Theodore M. & Higbie, Kenneth B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interparticle movement and the mechanical behavior of extruded powder aluminum at elevated temperature

Description: This paper proposes a model and mechanism, based on relative motion of the extruded aluminum particles, to explain these effects. Quantitative stereology is used to support the concept. Stress-strain relations are derived for the uniaxial and biaxial behavior of powder aluminum and they are seen to fit the data from a number of uniaxial and tension-torsion test specimens. Implications of the model for forming of extruded powder metal products are discussed
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Peacock, H.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Fe(sub 3)Al-Based Alloy Tubes: Application Specific Development for the Power Generation Industry

Description: A detailed and comprehensive research and development methodology is being prescribed to produce Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS)-Fe3Al thin walled tubes, using powder extrusion methodologies, for eventual use at operating temperatures of up to 1100C in the power generation industry. A particular 'in service application' anomaly of Fe3Al-based alloys is that the environmental resistance is maintained up to 1200C, well beyond where such alloys retain sufficient mechanical strength. Grain boundary creep processes at such high temperatures are anticipated to be the dominant failure mechanism.
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Kad, B.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plant-Wide Assessment Report for Shaw Industries, Plant #78; Aiken, SC

Description: A plant-wide energy assessment sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy was conducted at Shaw Industries Group, plant #78 in Aiken, SC. The assessment team consisted of Georgia Tech faculty from the Energy & Environmental Management Center and Shaw personnel from plant #78 and the corporate energy group. The purpose of this assessment was to uncover as many opportunities for saving energy usage and costs using techniques that have been established as best practices in the energy engineering field. In addition, these findings are to be shared with similar plants in Shaw Industries Group to multiply the lessons learned. The findings from this assessment are included in this report.
Date: April 10, 2006
Creator: Michael Brown PE, CEM; Soderlund, Matt; PE, Bill Meffert; Baldisserotto, Paolo & Jerry Zolkowski PE, CEM
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multilayer co-extrusion technique for developing high energy density organic devices.

Description: The purpose of this project is to develop multi-layered co-extrusion (MLCE) capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories to produce multifunctional polymeric structures. Multi-layered structures containing layers of alternating electrical, mechanical, optical, or structural properties can be applied to a variety of potential applications including energy storage, optics, sensors, mechanical, and barrier applications relevant to the internal and external community. To obtain the desired properties, fillers must be added to the polymer materials that are much smaller than the end layer thickness. We developed two filled polymer systems, one for conductive layers and one for dielectric layers and demonstrated the potential for using MLCE to manufacture capacitors. We also developed numerical models to help determine the material and processing parameters that impact processing and layer stability.
Date: November 1, 2009
Creator: Spangler, Scott W.; Schroeder, John Lee; Mrozek, Randy (Army Research Lab, Adelphi, MD); Bieg, Lothar Franz; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (Army Research Lab, Adelphi, MD) et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scale-up and Technology Transfer of Protein-based Plastic Products

Description: Over the last number of years researchers at ISU have been developing protein based plastics from soybeans, funded by Soy Works Corporation. These materials have been characterized and the processing of these materials into prototype products has been demonstrated. A wide range of net-shape forming processes, including but not limited to extrusion, injection molding and compression molding have been studied. Issues, including technology transfer, re-formulation and product consistency, have been addressed partially during this contract. Also, commercial-scale processing parameters for protein based plastic products were designed, but not yet applicable in the industry. Support in the trouble shooting processing and the manufacturing of protein based plastic products was provided by Iowa State University during the one year contract.
Date: December 8, 2008
Creator: Grewell, David
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Casting Uranium Bars as a Substitute for the Extrusion Process

Description: The usual method of producing uranium slugs for the reaction pile is to cast the metal into billets which are extruded into rod about 1.45 inches in diameter. Slugs are then machined from this to the final size of 1.359 inches in diameter by 8 inches long. Extrusion is done in the gamma range at a temperature of about 1000 C, where the metal is soft enough to be extruded at relatively low pressures. This operation is difficult and expensive and the product is not entirely satisfactory. The billets must be protected from oxidation during heating and extruding and the extruded rod must likewise be protected during cooling. Loss of metal due to oxidation is appreciable and a relatively large amount of scrap is produced. The production of dies suitable for use at the high temperatures involved is troublesome. The extruded rod must be straightened before machining and frequently contains stringers of oxide and voids or other internal defects.
Date: January 1, 1945
Creator: Lindlief, W. Earl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Normal Process and Single Process (XC) Uranium

Description: Certain difficulties have been encountered in attempts to substitute a 'one-step' casting process, developed at Iowa State College, for the 'normal' process generally used for the production of extrusion billets. In the 'one-step' process molten metal is delivered from the reduction bomb to the billet mold instead of allowing the metal to solidify in the bomb with subsequent vacuum remelting of the biscuit metal before casting in the billet mold. Routine analyses had failed to establish significant differences in the composition of normal and one-step metal. The one-step billets had been extruded satisfactorily, and finished slugs were prepared and subjected to the usual canning operation. In subsequent tests however, it was found that a large percentage of the canned slugs were badly defective. An investigation was requested to determine the differences in composition or structure of the X-C and normal metal which would account for the failure of the X-C slugs. Samples of the failed slugs and of metal from various stages of both the one-step and normal processes were supplied by Madison Square Area, for comparison on the basis of analyses, microstructure, or such other tests as seemed desirable.
Date: October 7, 1946
Creator: Cleaves, H. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The development of the fabrication process and preparation of 144 coextruded fuel elements for the TransPlutonium Program are described. The fuel elements were in the form of coextruded rods, 0.94 in. in diameter and 60 in. in length. The cladding was aluminum (X-8001 alloy) and was 0.040 to 0.120 in. thick. The fuel cores were aluminum-7.35 wt.% plutonium alloy. The fuel elements were coextruded in an extrusion press which was mounted in a plutonium- contaminated glove box. The extruded elements were easily decontaminated. The cast fuel cores for the coextrusion billets were machined only on one end. The fuel elements are currently under irradiation. (auth)
Date: December 1, 1959
Creator: Bailey, W.J.; Bloomster, C.H.; Katayama, Y.B. & Ross, W.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Urania rods 6-in. long and 0.475-in. in diameter were extruded and sintered to densities exceeding 94% of the theoratical urania density. The rods dropped freely through a straight metal tube 8-in. long with an internal diameter 0.004-in. greater than the diameter of the rods. All properties of the extruded and sintered rods relevant to their use as a nuclear fuel material were at least equal to the corresponding properties of pressed and sintered urania pellets. Extruded and sintered urania rods can be produced with standard ceramic-industry machinery. From preliminary estimates it appears that extrusions may be produced more cheaply than pellets. (auth)
Date: January 23, 1961
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Centrifugal-casting techniques were investigated as a method of producing hollow cylindrical extrusion billets of aluminum-35 wt.% uranium. Among the variables evaluated were melt temperature, mold and pouring-spout configurations, mold speed, and method of pouring. With the equipment employed it was found that the best castings were produced utilizing a pouring temperature of 2400 ction prod- , a heavy-walled steel cylinder rotating between 700 and 900 rpm for the mold and a bottom-pouring technique employing a retractable pouring spout. Sound, nonporous billets 26 in. long and 5 in. in diameter were produced with a yield after machining of over 75% of the original charge. The major losses occurred in the pouring spout-and-cup asserably. This loss is relatively unaffected by the casting length; and, therefore, castings of greater length than 26 in. should result in even greater recoveries. (auth)
Date: July 20, 1959
Creator: Daniel, N.E.; Foster, E.L. Jr. & Dickerson, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grain refinement in beryllium by equal channel angular extrusion.

Description: Ultrafine-grained Be is the material of choice for fabrication of the NIF target capsules. One method of producing ultrafine grains in metals is by imposing very large strains. Equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) has been used to achieve these high strains. Previous work has shown that powder-source Be can be successfully processed by ECAE. Pure Be and Be-0.9 at% Cu alleys have been arc melted and cast into billets 5 mm in diameter by 30 mm in length. These billets were enclosed in cans fabricated from commercial purity Ni, with an electron-beam welded end plug. These cans were extruded at 425C in ECAE tooling with a 120' angle between the inlet and outlet channels. The billets were extruded up to 4 times. The microstructures of the powdersource Be and the arc-melted Be and Be-0.9 at% Cu materials will be presented, and the effects of the ECAE processing on the grain size will be discussed.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Alexander, D. J. (David J.); Mauro, M. E. (Michael Ernest); Cooley, J. C. (Jason C.) & Dauelsberg, L. B. (Lawrence B.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) technique has been applied to a P/M source Be alloy. Single and two-pass extrusions have been successfully completed, using two different processing routes, on Ni-canned billets of Be at 400 C. No cracking was observed in the billet and significant grain refinement was achieved. In this paper, microstructural features and dislocation structures are discussed for the single-pass material, including evidence of <c> and <c+a> dislocations. Significant crystallographic texture developed during ECAE, which will be discussed in terms of this unique deformation processing technique and the underlying physical processes which sustained the deformation.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Field, R. D. (Richard D.); Hartwig, K. T.; Necker, C. T. (Carl T.); Bingert, J. F. (John F.) & Agnew, S. R. (Sean R.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication and Properties of Seamless Tungsten Tubing

Description: A process for the production of seamless tungsten tubing is described. The process consists of the extrusion of sintered powder sleeves at elevated temperatures to sizes close to the final dimension. The tubing is finished by warm drawing. A size range of 0.100-in, diameter to 1 1/2-in. diameter has been fabricated. A preliminary evaluation of properties of the extruded tubes is given. (auth)
Date: October 31, 1964
Creator: Loewenstein, P.; Hunt, J. G. & Jenkins, R. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Graphite was prepared by means of hydraulic extrusion, with densities as high as 1.90 gm/cc, in rods of up to 9/4-in. in diam. Densities higher than 1.90 gm/cc can be obtained by impregnating the graphite. It may be possible, by properly controlling the particle size distribution in the feed material, to achieve higher densities without impregnation. Variables studied included die temperature, mixing technique, binder material, baking procedures, some lubricants and additives, and preliminary work on the investigation of the effect of particle size. (auth)
Date: March 13, 1958
Creator: Gibson, W.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department