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Testing of explosives mixed with clay to determine maximum explosive content of non-reactive mixtures

Description: This report contains a detailed description of the experiments conducted to demonstrate that debris from explosives testing in a shot tank that contains 4 weight percent or less of explosive is non-reactive under the specified testing protocol in the Code of Federal Regulations. As such it is a companion report to UCRL-ID-128999, "Program for Certification of Waste from Contained Firing Facility - Establishment of Waste as Non-Reactive and Discussion of Potential Waste Generation Problems."
Date: July 21, 1998
Creator: Garza, R; Green, L; Maienschein, J & Pruneda, C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydro schemes and reactive flow in 1-d and 2-d

Description: The behavior of the implementation of Craig Tarver's reactive flow model for high explosives in a hydro code is investigated. The model produces the correct shock propagation rates. The effects of geometry, zoning and artificial viscosity are compared in one (1D) and two (2D) dimensions. Sensitivities to the solution scheme of the hydro equations are also investigated. A comparison with an experimentally verified, analytic theory is presented for the speed of spherically diverging reactive flow fronts. We show that for LX-14 the reactive flow results obey that theory and a lag of about 1.5 to 2.0 mm is produced in a spherical system in about 5 cm of travel from the origin compared to programmed burn. Reactive flow is shown to produce a more strongly developed Mach stem than does conventional, programmed lighting assisted by beta burn. The reactive flow results appear to be close to convergence for zone sizes of 1/16 mm. Several numerical anomalies in code/model behavior are shown and their limited effects are discussed. Some one-dimensional results for LX-17 are also briefly discussed.
Date: June 30, 1998
Creator: Morgan, D L & Sinz, K
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bigplate: an oblique angle explosive EOS test

Description: Bigplate is an advanced explosive equation of state (EOS) test. It consists of a point detonator driving a large disc (100 mm radius) of explosive, which pushes a 0.5 mm thick copper or tantalum plate. The plate is observed by a five-beam Fabry-Perot interferometer, which has beams at 0, 10, 20,40 and 80 mm on the plate. A short Fabry gives the jump-off to high accuracy; a long Fabry runs out to I0-15 microsec. A detailed error analysis is given, with the final velocity measurements considered good to ±0.066 mm/microsec. Jump-offs are measured to 0.01-0.02 microsec. Spall is seen in all shots, which creates a time delay on both the first and second velocity plateaus. A 0.1 microsec delay in jump-off of unknown origin is also seen at 80 mm. In order of decreasing explosive ideality, the explosives tired have been LX-14, LX-04 and LX-17. To partially negate the time delays, the data and code runs are overlaid at each radial position between the first and second plateaus. Traditional JWL's model LX-14 and LX-04 within accuracy, but not so for LX-17. The spall may be partly modeled using the pmin model but high resolution zoning is required. At longer times, spall does not appear to affect the explosive energetics. Because it includes diagonal zone crossing, Bigplate occupies a location between simple plate and cylinder tests and truly complex geometries. Hence, an EOS that fails Bigplate is not likely to move on to more complex issues. Bigplate is an excellent test bed for radically new EOS's, and the initial LX-17 runs done with Equilibrium and KINETIC CHEETAH are promising.
Date: April 16, 1998
Creator: Anderson, S; Avara, R; Fried, L; Janzen, J; McGuire, E; Souers, P C et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compaction Waves in Granular HMX

Description: Piston driven compaction waves in granular HMX are simulated with a two-dimensional continuum mechanics code in which individual grains are resolved. The constitutive properties of the grains are modeled with a hydrostatic pressure and a simple elastic-plastic model for the shear stress. Parameters are chosen to correspond to inert HMX. For a tightly packed random grain distribution (with initial porosity of 19%) we varied the piston velocity to obtain weak partly compacted waves and stronger fully compacted waves. The average stress and wave speed are compatible with the porous Hugoniot locus for uni- axial strain. However, the heterogeneities give rise to stress concentrations, which lead to localized plastic flow. For weak waves, plastic deformation is the dominant dissipative mechanism and leads to dispersed waves that spread out in time. In addition to dispersion, the granular heterogeneities give rise to subgrain spatial variation in the thermodynamic variables. The peaks in the temperature fluctuations, known as hot spots, are in the range such that they are the critical factor for initiation sensitivity.
Date: January 1, 1999
Creator: Kober, E. & Menikoff, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Questions on NEA program for OMB budget presentation

Description: The questions asked and answered include: Why was the program renamed from PNE (Peaceful Nuclear Explosives) to NEA? Why are storage cavities needed? Why can`t existing caves and mines be used? Isn`t a mined cavity safer for radioactive disposal? Why can`t one tolerate asymmetry between the US and USSR PNE capability? Why do we need PNE execution capability to support verification capability? Why shouldn`t the money go directly to verification? What is the priority of PNE research compared to other energy technology research? What is the US obligation under Article V of the NPT if it is determined that PNE`s are not worthwhile? What new information is available which shows that PNE`s will be politically acceptable? How much has been spent to develop PNE`s to date? What viable technology has resulted? The remainder of the paper discusses research programs being carried out on nuclear explosion technology and one technology that has resulted from the PNE program, namely, stimulation of oil and gas extraction.
Date: October 30, 1975
Creator: Hodges, A.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project Rio Blanco definition plan. Additional formation evaluation and production testing

Description: Since the multiple Rio Blanco detonation three reentry wells have been drilled for test purposes: RB-E-01 (Emplacement Well); RB-AR-2 (Alternate Reentry Well); and RB-U-4 (Formation Evaluation Well). Additional testing in all these wells is now required to resolve some remaining technical questions. A plan describing the procedures, methods, responsibilities, and scheduling of the field operations is presented. (TFD)
Date: September 1, 1975
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rulison Site groundwater monitoring report, third quarter 1996

Description: Project Rulison, a joint AEC and Austral experiment, was conducted under the AEC`s Plowshare Program to evaluate the feasibility of using a nuclear device to stimulate natural gas production in low-permeability, gas-producing geologic formations. The experiment was conducted on September 10, 1969, and consisted of detonating a 40-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2,568 m below ground surface. Natural gas production testing was conducted in 1970 and 1971. This report summarizes the results of the third quarter 1996 groundwater sampling event for the Rulison Site, which is located approximately 65 kilometers northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. The sampling was performed as part of a quarterly groundwater monitoring program implemented by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to monitor the effectiveness of remediation of a drilling effluent pond located at the site. The effluent pond was used for the storage of drilling mud during drilling of the emplacement hole for a 1969 gas stimulation test.
Date: February 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rulison Site groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter, October 1997--December 1997

Description: This report summarizes the results of the fourth quarter 1997 groundwater sampling event for the Rulison Site, which is located approximately 65 kilometers (km) (40 miles [mi]) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. This is the eighth and final sampling event of a quarterly groundwater monitoring program implemented by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This program monitored the effectiveness of remediation of a drilling effluent pond that had been used to store drilling mud during drilling of the emplacement hole for a 1969 gas stimulation test conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) (the predecessor agency to the DOE) and Austral Oil Company (Austral).
Date: February 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rulison Site groundwater monitoring report fourth quarter, 1996. Revision 4

Description: Project Rulison, a joint US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and Austral Oil Company (Austral) experiment, was conducted under the AEC`s Plowshare Program to evaluate the feasibility of using a nuclear device to stimulate natural gas production in low-permeability, gas-producing geologic formations. The experiment was conducted on September 10, 1969, and consisted of detonating a 40-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2,568 m below ground surface. This report summarizes the results of the fourth quarter 1996 groundwater sampling event for the Rulison Site, which is located approximately 65 kilometers (km) (40 miles [mi]) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. The sampling was performed as part of a quarterly groundwater monitoring program implemented by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to monitor the effectiveness of remediation of a drilling effluent pond located at the site. The effluent pond was used for the storage of drilling mud during drilling of the emplacement hole for a 1969 gas stimulation test.
Date: April 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GEOFRAC: an explosives stimulation technique for a geothermal well

Description: The first known use of explosives for stimulating a geothermal well was successfully conducted in December 1981 with a process called GEOFRAC. The 260/sup 0/C well was located at the Union Oil Company's Geysers Field in northern California. For the initial test, 364 kg of a new explosive called HITEX II was placed at a depth of 2256 meters and detonated to verify techniques. The explosive was contained in an aluminum canister to separate it from the well fluids. In the second test, 5000 kg of explosive was used representing a column length of approximately 191 meters. The explosive was detonated at a depth of 1697 meters in the same well. The results of these tests show that HITEX II can be safely emplaced and successfully detonated in a hot geothermal well without causing damage to the well bore or casing.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Mumma, D.M.; McCullough, F. Jr.; Schmidt, E.W.; Pye, D.S.; Allen, W.C.; Pyle, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Explosive stimulation of a geothermal well: GEOFRAC

Description: This paper describes the first known explosive stimulation successfully conducted in a geothermal well. Two tests were performed in a 2690-meter-(8826-ft.) deep Union Oil well at the Geysers field in Northern California in December 1981. The heat-resistant process, called GEOFRAC, uses a new unique, explosive HITEX 2, which is a nondetonable solid at room temperature. Upon melting at a temperature of 177[degrees]C (350[degrees]F), the HITEX 2 liquid becomes an explosive that can be safely heated to temperatures greater than 260[degrees]C (500[degrees]F). These unique properties of the explosive were exploited in the GEOFRAC process through the cooperative efforts of Physics International Company (PI), Rocket Research Company (RRC), Union oil Company (UO), and the university of California Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL).
Date: July 1, 1982
Creator: Mumma, D.M. (Physics International Co., San Leandro, CA (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rulison: radiation contamination clearance report

Description: Under contract with Austral Oil Company, Eberline Instrument Corporation provided supervision and technicians to radiologically support the well plugging and site abandonment activities at the Project Rulison site during the period September 1, 1976 through October 12, 1976. The purpose of the support was to identify and prepare for removal of all radioactively contaminated materials remaining on site. The emplacement and reentry wells were successfully plugged without a serious radiological incident. There was no measurable radiation exposure above natural background to participating personnel. Decontamination and monitoring procedures assured that no equipment or material was improperly released to unrestricted use. A review of the history of project operations, the conduct of comprehensive sampling programs, and an extensive final survey, ensures that the extent of radioactivity on the site is identified and that such activity is well below established guide lines. Except for appropriate restrictions regarding deep drilling, the radiological condition of the Project Rulison site permits its return to unrestricted use.
Date: June 1, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project Rulison: post-shot plans and evaluations

Description: Project Rulison post-shot plans and evaluations are discussed and include physical characteristics of the Rulison cavity; pressure and temperature expected in the cavity; amount, nature, and distribution of radioactivity in the cavity; reentry plan; radioactive species which may be encountered during reentry; public safety considerations arising from release of radioactivity; procedures to assure public safety; and the radiological safety plan. Maximum hypothetical accidents and ecological considerations are discussed in the appendices.
Date: December 1, 1969
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rio Blanco massive hydraulic fracture

Description: The Piceance Basin in Colorado contains an estimated 600 trillion cu ft of natural gas in place. Both the Rulison and Rio Blanco events have been detonated to determine the feasibility of nuclear fracturing to stimulate natural gas production in this basin. A demonstration program to test the relative effectiveness of massive hydraulic fracturing (MHF) to achieve natural gas production stimulation from the same gas reservoir is presented. Details are included on MHF design parameters, including surface and subsurface equipment, pumping requirements, evaluation of fracturing results, and all associated test programs; site characteristics and preparation; proposal for gas utilization program; environmental surveillance and comparative analysis of environmental aspects of MHF and nuclear stimulation; gas delivery estimates; project administration; and costs and scheduling.
Date: January 1, 1973
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department