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Crater Measurements

Description: From abstract: Based upon the results of Project Pre-Schooner new cratering curves for basalt have been developed. The deepest detonation Charlie, produced a mound of broken rock and earth that had a crater-like depression in its center entirely above the preshot ground surface.
Date: March 1965
Creator: Spruill, Joseph L. & Paul, Roger A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering Properties of Nuclear Craters, Report 3: Review and Analysis of Available Information on Slopes Excavated in Weak Shales

Description: This report provides information about slope stability problems which will arise if a new canal is excavated through the types of weak shale encountered along the present Panama Canal. It includes a discussion about the general problem and possible approaches, a review of previous experience, and a description of the new study.
Date: August 1965
Creator: Hirschfeld, R. C.; Whitman, Robert V. & Wolfskill, Lyle Anthony
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project Scooter: Final Report, October 1963

Description: From abstract: This report includes results of studies of crater dimension, throwout material distribution, ground motion, dust cloud growth, and long-range air blast.
Date: October 1963
Creator: Perret, William R.; Chabai, Albert J.; Reed, Jack W. & Vortman, Luke J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project Dugout: Apparent Crater Studies

Description: From abstract: This report analyzes the dimensions and geometry of the Dugout crater, produced by the detonation of a row of five 18,144 kg nitromethane charges in basalt, were analyzed.
Date: August 3, 1965
Creator: Spruill, Joseph L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project Trinidad: explosive excavation of railroad cuts 2 and 3 by mounding and directed blasting. Final technical report

Description: The objectives, design, and results of two explosive excavation experiments performed as the final phase of Project Trinidad, a comprehensive series of tests to determine the cratering properties of interbedded sandstones and shales, are summarized. The experiments were performed in September 1971 by the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station Explosive Excavation Research Laboratory. These final experiments were designed to excavate through- cuts for relocation of the Colorado and Wyoming Railroad at the Trinidad Dam and Lake Project. The first of the two experiments tested a charge array designed to break up material within a 19,000-yd/sup 3/ cut to facilitate later removal of the material by mechanical means. The concept tested was mounding, a blasting technique in which charges are positioned with respect to the horizontal ground surface rather than a vertical bench face. The results from this experiment confirmed the applicability of empirical scaling methods to the design of an array of deeply buried charges. The second experiment was a directed blasting detonation that was designed to produce a 30.000-yd/sup 3/ throughcut by cratering. This experiment tested a charge array design that had been developed by a combination of empirical scaling and kinematical methods. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1973
Creator: Lattery, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Scale-Model Experiment of the Crater Produced Through Terrain of Randomly Varying Elevation by Row Charges

Description: Abstract: "A scale-model experiment was made to check the application of charge spacing rules developed from earlier studies to terrain of randomly varying elevation. Since a prominent possible peacetime use of nuclear explosives is the excavation of a trans-Isthmian canal, the model used was a portion of such a route. The experiment resulted in nearly the desired linear crater dimensions; the spacing rules developed for level trerain give a satisfactory channel when applied to terrain with elevations varying in random fashion."
Date: November 1962
Creator: Vortman, Luke J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geologic Study of the Sedan Nuclear Crater

Description: From introduction: The purpose of this study was to map the geology of the (Sedan) crater shell and relate the information gained to shell configuration and cratering mechanics. Hopefully, the data presented will be of use in planning future nuclear cratering experiments.
Date: May 1964
Creator: Richards, William D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project Drum Inlet: explosive excavation in saturated sand

Description: Seasonal storms during February of 1971 completely closed the Drum Inlet navigation channel through the Outer Banks off the North Carolina coast. This channel is highly useful to commercial and sport fishing industries in the Carteret County vicinity of North Carolina, and is vital to maintenance of the ecological balance in the inland Core Sound waters. To reopen Drum Inlet, an alignment about 2.1 miles south of the original location was selected. A contract dredge excavated a channel from the inland Core Sound waterway to and part way through the Outer Banks. The final 385-ft-long section of sand separating the Core Sound from the Atlantic Ocean was excavated with large explosive charges, This report describes the explosive excavation of that portion of the channel. Twenty-two separate canisters, each containing 1 ton of aluminized ammonium-nitrate slurry blasting agent, were emplaced in two rows. All charges were detonated simultaneously at 1327 hours, 23 Decembcr 1971. The detonation successfully removed the sand barrier, forming a continuous channel over 80 ft in width. This channel subsequently washed out to a width of about 1000 ft and was used:is an access route to the Raleigh Bay fishing grounds. The Drum Inlet project demonstrated the practicality of explosive channel excavation in saturated sand under the special conditions encountered at this site. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1973
Creator: Snell, C. M. & Gillespie, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2003 - June 2004

Description: This report contains an assessment of the geotechnical status of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). During the excavation of the principal underground access and experimental areas, the status was reported quarterly. Since 1987, when the initial construction phase was completed, reports have been published annually. This report presents and analyzes data collected from July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2004.
Date: March 20, 2005
Creator: Washington TRU Solutions, LLC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Construction of a Sea-Level, Transisthmian Canal Using Nuclear Explosives

Description: Partial abstract: "This report is based: (1) on information developed in earlier high explosive experiments which determined the optimum spacing and burial depth of charges in a row to produce a channel uniformly wide and deep, and (2) on the Sedan and Danny Boy experiments, which provided data on dimensions of nuclear craters in both soil and basalt rock. This information has been combined with the 1947 route surveys of the Panama Canal company, and estimates have been made not only of the number and yield of nuclear explosives required to excavate a Transisthmian canal with nuclear explosives, but also of the cost of the explosives and the cost of their replacement."
Date: February 1964
Creator: Vortman, Luke J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Close-in Air Blast from a Row Charge in Basalt

Description: From abstract: Close-in air blast measurements were made on the Dugout shot. Major constituents of the blast wave were the ground-shock-induced pulse and the pulse from venting gases. The ground-shock-induced pulse was the dominant one at all stations.
Date: August 4, 1965
Creator: Vortman, Luke J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Total Cloud Activity Measurements

Description: Abstract: Gamma radiation detectors in three fixed ground stations and in a helicopter were used in an attempt to measure the total radioactivity as a function of time for the dust cloud produced by the Sulky event. Large plastic s cintillators, photomultiplier tubes, and crudely collimated lead shields were the basic components of the detectors. A constant- current, variable -voltage regulator circuit enabled the detectors to operate in very high as well as in low radiation fields. Because the Sulky event did not crater as expected, there was no large radioactive dust cloud for the detectors to observe. Instead a small dust cloud of relatively low activity was produced, followed immediately by a continuous stream of much more radioactive gas which flowed from the resulting pile of rubble for a considerable length of time.
Date: May 1965
Creator: Gaines, Jerry L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Soil Desiccation for Vadose Zone Remediation: Report for Fiscal Year 2007

Description: Apart from source excavation, the options available for the remediation of vadose zone metal and radionuclide contaminants beyond the practical excavation depth (0 to 15 m) are quite limited. Of the available technologies, very few are applicable to the deep vadose zone with the top-ranked candidate being soil desiccation. An expert panel review of the work on infiltration control and supplemental technologies identified a number of knowledge gaps that would need to be overcome before soil desiccation could be deployed. The report documents some of the research conducted in the last year to fill these knowledge gaps. This work included 1) performing intermediate-scale laboratory flow cell experiments to demonstrate the desiccation process, 2) implementing a scalable version of Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases–Water-Air-Energy (STOMP-WAE), and 3) performing numerical experiments to identify the factors controlling the performance of a desiccation system.
Date: February 4, 2008
Creator: Ward, Andy L.; Oostrom, Mart & Bacon, Diana H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Project Dugout: Technical Director's Summary Report

Description: From abstract: Project Dugout was a chemical explosive row charge cratering experiment in hard rock conducted at the AEC Nevada Test Site as part of the Plowshare Program for development of nuclear excavation technology.
Date: May 10, 1965
Creator: Nordyke, M. D.; Terhune, R. W.; Rohrer, R. F.; Cauthen, L. J. & Spruill, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analyses of coupled hydrological-mechanical effects during drilling of the FEBEX tunnel at Grimsel

Description: This paper presents analyses of coupled hydrological-mechanical (HM) processes during drilling of the FEBEX tunnel, located in fractured granite at Grimsel, Switzerland. Two and three-dimensional transient finite-element simulations were performed to investigate HM-induced fluid-pressure pulses, observed in the vicinity of the FEBEX tunnel during its excavation in 1995. The results show that fluid-pressure responses observed in the rock mass during TBM drilling of the FEBEX tunnel could not be captured using current estimates of regional stress. It was also shown that the measured pressure responses can be captured in both two and three-dimensional simulations if the stress field is rotated such that contraction (compressive strain rate) and corresponding increases in mean stress occur on the side of the drift, where increased fluid pressure spikes were observed.
Date: September 2, 2003
Creator: Rutqvist, J.; Rejeb, A.; Tijani, M. & Tsang, C.-F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stability evaluation of the Panel 1 rooms and the E140 drift at WIPP

Description: WIPP, intended for underground permanent disposal of defense transuranic waste, is located 40 km east of Carlsbad at a depth of 655 m in the salt beds of the 600-m thick Permian Salado Formation. It will consist of 56 ``rooms`` each 91.5 m long, 10 m wide, and 4 m high, grouped in 8 ``panels`` of 7 rooms each. About 7.5 km of access drifts will also be provided. Excavation began in 1982 and surface/access/test facilities and one panel were completed by 1988, many years before it could be used. Current plans are to start emplacing waste in WIPP in 1998 and continue for 35 years. The north- south drift E140 is the widest (25 ft) of the four main north-south drifts and is the main north-south passage. Plans to conduct experiments with waste in 1993 were abandoned, and the plan now is to use panel 1 for permanent disposal of waste starting in 1998. The stability evaluation resulted in the conclusion that, while it would be possible to safely use portions of panel 1 for waste emplacement, it would be best to abandon panel 1 and mine a new panel after the decision has been made to use WIPP as a repository and the necessary permits obtained.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Maleki, H. & Chaturvedi, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Floodplain/wetlands assessment for the borrow areas for the restoration of the Weldon Spring Quarry, Weldon Spring Site, Missouri

Description: The US Department of Energy proposes to develop two soil borrow areas, 8.1 ha (20 acres) and 1.3 ha (3.1 acres) in size, near the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri. One wetland and portions of four others would be excavated during development of the borrow areas. These wetlands include palustrine emergent and palustrine forested wetland types and total 0.98 ha (2.4 acres). Hydrology and biotic communities may be altered in several wetlands located near the borrow areas. No long-term adverse impacts to floodplains are expected.
Date: December 15, 1999
Creator: Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department