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VTE Pilot Plant Annual Report for the Period Ending July 1, 1968

Description: From Summary and Conclusions: "After a period of tests at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1966 and 1967, the Vertical Tube Evaporator (VTE) Pilot Plant was moved to the OSW's East Coast Test Station at Wrightsville Beach, N.C. In the summer of 1967 it was installed and was started in upflow operation with seawater feed, using stem and other services provided by the station. The operation of the Pilot Plant at Wrightsville Beach was performed by Stearns-Roger Corporation under subcontract to ORNL. Operation was in the upflow mode during the entire reporting period."
Date: December 1970
Creator: Hill, John W. & Hise, Eugene C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chamber Geometry in Multi-Stage Flash Evaporators

Description: Report regarding "the importance of various parameters on the length of a typical stage in a multi-stage sea water flash evaporator" (p. 1). Parameter values were examined to determine their influence on chamber length.
Date: July 1964
Creator: Richardsons, Westgarth & Co.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaporation of Apples

Description: "While the recent tendency in the apple industry has apparently been to centralize fruit evaporation in distinct commercial establishments having considerable capacity and requiring capital to construct and equip, there sill remain large regions in which there is a considerable surplus of fruit that is unsuitable for packing and shipping in almost every crop year.... Encouragement of evaporating, canning, cider making, and other methods of utilization therefore appears desirable, and of these evaporating is the one that is most applicable at present to a wide range of conditions, and therefore of most importance to the average farmer." -- p. 2. Types of evaporators, methods of preparing and drying fruit, and the marketing and packing of apples are discussed.
Date: 1907
Creator: Gould, H. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Follow-up testing was conducted to better understand the excessive hydrogen generation seen in the initial Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) qualification Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank/Slurry Mix Evaporator (SRAT/SME) simulation in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells. This effort included both radioactive and simulant work. The initial SB4 qualification test produced 0.59 lbs/hr hydrogen in the SRAT, which was just below the DWPF SRAT limit of 0.65 lbs/hr, and the test produced over 0.5 lbs/hr hydrogen in the SME cycle on two separate occasions, which were over the DWPF SME limit of 0.223 lbs/hr.
Date: August 23, 2007
Creator: Pareizs, J; David Koopman, D; Dan Lambert, D & Cj Bannochie, C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document phase 1 assessment report

Description: This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) Phase I Assessment Report for the subject facility, represents the results of an Administrative Assessment to determine whether S/RID requirements are fully addressed by existing policies, plans or procedures. It contains; compliance status, remedial actions, and an implementing manuals report linking S/RID elements to requirement source to implementing manual and section.
Date: September 30, 1996
Creator: Biebesheimer, E., Westinghouse Hanford Co.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaporator Cleaning Studies

Description: Operation of the 242-16H High Level Waste Evaporator proves crucial to liquid waste management in the H-Area Tank Farm. Recent operational history of the Evaporator showed significant solid formation in secondary lines and in the evaporator pot. Additional samples remain necessary to ensure material identity in the evaporator pot. Analysis of these future samples will provide actinide partitioning information and dissolution characteristics of the solid material from the pot to ensure safe chemical cleaning.
Date: April 15, 1999
Creator: Wilmarth, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Evaporator Technology Progress Report FY 1992

Description: This report summarizes the work that was completed in FY 1992 on the program "Technology Development for Concentrating Process Streams." The purpose of this program is to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste and product streams such as those generated by the TRUEX process. Concentrating these streams and minimizing the volume of waste generated can significantly reduce disposal costs; however, equipment to concentrate the streams and recycle the decontaminated condensates must be installed. LICON, Inc., is developing an evaporator that shows a great deal of potential for this application. In this report, concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of an evaporator operated in a radioactive environment are discussed. These concepts include criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. Both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed to design an effective process for concentrating process streams. Therefore, literature surveys were completed and are summarized in this report. A model that is being developed to predict vapor phase compositions is described. A laboratory-scale evaporator was purchased and installed to study the evaporation process and to collect additional data. This unit is described in detail. Two new LICON evaporators are being designed for installation at Argonne-East in FY 1993 to process low-level radioactive waste generated throughout the laboratory. They will also provide operating data from a full-sized evaporator processing radioactive solutions. Details on these evaporators are included in this report.
Date: January 1995
Creator: Chamberlain, D. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Sink Temperature on a Capillary Pumped Loop Employing a Flat Evaporator and Shell and Tube Condenser

Description: An experimental facility for conducting research on capillary pumped loop (CPL) systems was developed. In order to simulate shipboard cooling water encountered at various locations of the ocean, the heat sink temperature of the facility could be varied. A flat plate, CPL evaporator was designed and tested under various heat sink temperatures. The sink temperature ranged from 274.3 to 305.2 K and the heat input varied from 250 to 800 W which corresponds to heat fluxes up to 1.8 W/cm{sup 2}. The CPL flat plate evaporator performed very well under this range of heat input and sink temperatures. The main result obtained showed that a large degree of subcooling developed between the evaporator vapor outlet line and liquid return line. This condensate depression increased with increasing heat input.
Date: June 24, 2002
Creator: Cerza, M.; Herron, R.C. & Harper, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

Description: The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.
Date: November 1, 2011
Creator: Fricke, Brian A & Sharma, Vishaldeep
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of design tradeoffs for diplay case evaporators

Description: A model for simulating a display case evaporator under frosting conditions has been developed, using a quasi-steady and finite-volume approach and a Newton-Raphson based solution algorithm. It is capable of simulating evaporators with multiple modules having different geometries, e.g. tube and fin thicknesses and pitch. The model was validated against data taken at two-minute intervals from a well-instrumented medium-temperature vertical display case, for two evaporators having very different configurations. The data from these experiments provided both the input data for the model and also the data to compare the modeling results. The validated model has been used to generate some general guidelines for coil design. Effects of various geometrical parameters were quantified, and compressor performance data were used to express the results in terms of total power consumption. Using these general guidelines, a new prototype evaporator was designed for the subject display case, keeping in mind the current packaging restrictions, tube and fin availabilities. It is an optimum coil for the given external load conditions. Subsequently, the validated model was used in a more extensive analysis to design prototype coils with some of the current tube and fin spacing restrictions removed. A new microchannel based suction line heat exchanger was installed in the display case system. The performance of this suction line heat exchanger is reported.
Date: August 11, 2004
Creator: Bullard, CLARK
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Qualification of a Carbon Analyzer to Support the Defense Waste Processing Facility

Description: The I-O Model 1030 carbon analyzer has been qualified for use at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The qualification was a side-by-side comparison of the Model 1030 system with the currently used Model 1010 Analyzer. This recommendation is based on side-by-side comparisons of the new unit to the currently used Model 1010 analyzer that are presented in this report. The side-by-side testing included standards and process samples. The standards, which were used for instrument calibration verifications in the measurement of total inorganic carbon (TIC) and of total organic carbon (TOC), were traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The process samples included TIC analyses of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank samples and TOC analyses for Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples. After the Model 1030 has been used for production reporting, DWPF should consider an investigation into the uncertainties associated with the TOC measurements to determine how far below the 18,916 ppm limit DWPF must control the average of the measurements for a set of SME samples to account for the uncertainties of the measurements from this new analyzer. Based upon the results presented in this report, it is recommended that the Model 1030 carbon analyzer is qualified for use. This recommendation is based on side-by-side comparisons of the new unit to the currently used Model 1010 analyzer that are presented in this report. The side-by-side testing included standards for instrument calibration verifications for TIC and TOC, and process samples. The standards were traceable back to NIST. The process samples included TIC analyses of SRAT Receipt samples and TOC analyses for SME samples. At some point in the future, after the Model 1030 has been used for production reporting, DWPF should consider an investigation into the uncertainties associated with the TOC measurements to determine how far below ...
Date: July 5, 2011
Creator: Edwards, T. & Feller, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Simulations of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Processing Cell vessels were performed with the primary purpose of producing melter feeds for the beaded frit program plus obtaining samples of simulated slurries containing high concentrations of noble metals for off-site analytical studies for the hydrogen program. Eight pairs of 22-L simulations were performed of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles. These sixteen simulations did not contain mercury. Six pairs were trimmed with a single noble metal (Ag, Pd, Rh, or Ru). One pair had all four noble metals, and one pair had no noble metals. One supporting 4-L simulation was completed with Ru and Hg. Several other 4-L supporting tests with mercury have not yet been performed. This report covers the calculations performed on SRNL analytical and process data related to the noble metals and hydrogen generation. It was originally envisioned as a supporting document for the off-site analytical studies. Significant new findings were made, and many previous hypotheses and findings were given additional support as summarized below. The timing of hydrogen generation events was reproduced very well within each of the eight pairs of runs, e.g. the onset of hydrogen, peak in hydrogen, etc. occurred at nearly identical times. Peak generation rates and total SRAT masses of CO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen were reproduced well. Comparable measures for hydrogen were reproduced with more variability, but still reasonably well. The extent of the reproducibility of the results validates the conclusions that were drawn from the data.
Date: June 25, 2008
Creator: Koopman, D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Heat pipe transient response approximation.

Description: A simple and concise routine that approximates the response of an alkali metal heat pipe to changes in evaporator heat transfer rate is described. This analytically based routine is compared with data from a cylindrical heat pipe with a crescent-annular wick that undergoes gradual (quasi-steady) transitions through the viscous and condenser boundary heat transfer limits. The sonic heat transfer limit can also be incorporated into this routine for heat pipes with more closely coupled condensers. The advantages and obvious limitations of this approach are discussed. For reference, a source code listing for the approximation appears at the end of this paper.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Reid, R. S. (Robert Stowers)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Engineering Evaluation of the Long-Tube Vertical Falling-Film Distillation Process

Description: Report issued by the Office of Saline Water over engineering studies on the long-tube vertical falling-film distillation process. As stated in the introduction, "it is the objective of this report to study the falling-film distillation and to prepare an engineering evaluation of the process and the design of major items of equipment, with particular emphasis upon improving production and operational reliability and upon reducing product cost" (p. 1). This report includes tables, and illustrations.
Date: February 1965
Creator: Dow Chemical Company
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress Report on Waste Concentration Studies: Engineering Results on the BNL Semi-Works Vapor Filtration Vapor Compression Evaporator

Description: Report issued by the Brookhaven National Laboratory discussing progress of waste concentration studies. As stated in the introduction, "the present report covers all experimental hot runs up to the time the still was turned over to the Waste Control Section for intermediate handling of laboratory D waste" (p. 1). This report includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: August 15, 1951
Creator: Horrigan, R. V.; Fried, H. M.; Manowitz, B.; Kuhl, O.; Baranosky, J. A.; Bellanca, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summaries of Hanford Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies in FY 2000

Description: This report is a collection of summary articles on FY 2000 studies of slurry transport and salt-well pumping related to Hanford tank waste transfers. These studies are concerned with the stability (steady, uninterrupted flow) of tank waste transfers, a subset of the Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Tank (TFA) Waste Chemistry effort. This work is a collaborative effort of AEA Technology plc, the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory at Mississippi State University (DIAL-MSU), the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology at Florida International University (HCET-FIU), Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of this report is to provide, in a single document, an overview of these studies to help the reader identify contacts and resources for obtaining more detailed information and to help promote useful interchanges between researchers and users. Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.
Date: July 8, 2002
Creator: Welch, T. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

242-A campaign 95-1 post run document

Description: The 242-A Evaporator Campaign 95-1 was started on June 6, 1995 and finished July 27, 1995. An overall Waste Volume Reduction (WVR) of 8.18 million liters (2.16 mGAL OR 87.6% WVRF) was achieved from 9.35 million liters (2.47 Mgal) of processable waste contained in 108-AP, 107-AP, 106-AW and 102-AW. Slurry generated from Campaign 95-1 consisted of 1.05 million liters (278,000 gal) of dilute double-shell slurry feed (DDSSF) with a SpG of approximately 1.34. Total process condensate discharged to LERF was 10.3 million liters (2.72 Mgal), achieving a condensate/WVR efficiency ratio of 1.26. Total throughout for Campaign 95-1 was 18.1 million liters (4.79 Mgal). B Pond discharges from steam condensate and cooling water were 15.8 and 583 million liters (4.17 and 154 Mgal) respectively. Based on 145 hours of unplanned downtime, the 242-A Evaporator maintained an operating efficiency of 86% during the 49 day campaign.
Date: February 12, 1996
Creator: Guthrie, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1998 interim 242-A Evaporator tank system integrity assessment report

Description: This Integrity Assessment Report (IAR) is prepared by Fluor Daniel Northwest (FDNW) under contract to Lockheed-Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) for Waste Management Hanford (WMH), the 242-A Evaporator (facility) operations contractor for Fluor Daniel Hanford, and the US Department of Energy, the system owner. The contract specifies that FDNW perform an interim (5 year) integrity assessment of the facility and prepare a written IAR in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640. The WAC 173-303 defines a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility tank system as the ``dangerous waste storage or treatment tank and its ancillary equipment and containment.`` This integrity assessment evaluates the two tank systems at the facility: the evaporator vessel, C-A-1 (also called the vapor-liquid separator), and the condensate collection tank, TK-C-100. This IAR evaluates the 242-A facility tank systems up to, but not including, the last valve or flanged connection inside the facility perimeter. The initial integrity assessment performed on the facility evaluated certain subsystems not directly in contact with dangerous waste, such as the steam condensate and used raw water subsystems, to provide technical information. These subsystems were not evaluated in this IAR. The last major upgrade to the facility was project B-534. The facility modifications, as a result of project B-534, were evaluated in the 1993 facility interim integrity assessment. Since that time, the following upgrades have occurred in the facility: installation of a process condensate recycle system, and installation of a package steam boiler to provide steam for the facility. The package boiler is not within the scope of the facility TSD.
Date: July 2, 1998
Creator: Jensen, C.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Out-of-tank evaporator demonstration: Tanks focus area

Description: Approximately 100 million gal of liquid waste is stored in underground storage tanks (UST)s at the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), and Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This waste is radioactive with a high salt content. The US Department of Energy (DOE) wants to minimize the volume of radioactive liquid waste in USTs by removing the excess water. This procedure conserves tank space; lowers the cost of storage; and reduces the volume of wastes subsequently requiring separation, immobilization, and disposal. The Out-of-Tank Evaporator Demonstration (OTED) was initiated to test a modular, skid-mounted evaporator. A mobile evaporator system manufactured by Delta Thermal Inc. was selected. The evaporator design was routinely used in commercial applications such as concentrating metal-plating wastes for recycle and concentrating ethylene glycol solutions. In FY 1995, the skid-mounted evaporator system was procured and installed in an existing ORNL facility (Building 7877) with temporary shielding and remote controls. The evaporator system was operational in January 1996. The system operated 24 h/day and processed 22,000 gal of Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant. The distillate contained essentially no salts or radionuclides. Upon completion of the demonstration, the evaporator underwent decontamination testing to illustrate the feasibility of hands-on maintenance and potential transport to another DOE facility. This report describes the process and the evaporator, its performance at ORNL, future plans, applications of this technology, cost estimates, regulatory and policy considerations, and lessons learned.
Date: November 1, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Concrete characterization for the 300 Area Solvent Evaporator Closure Site

Description: This report summarizes the sampling activities undertaken and the analytical results obtained in a concrete sampling and analyses study performed for the 300 Area Solvent Evaporator (300 ASE) closure site. The 300 ASE is identified as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) unit that will be closed in accordance with the applicable laws and regulations. No constituents of concern were found in concentrations indicating contamination of the concrete by 300 ASE operations.
Date: February 21, 1995
Creator: Prignano, A.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department