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Application of teleoperator expertise to robotics

Description: This paper will briefly describe the evolution of Monitor remote handling system and its present capabilities and accomplishments. It will also suggest that the equipment and operational expertise can be applied to robotic systems in radioactive and other hostile environments. The Monitor methods of operation, tooling devised and employed, and the applications of these methods to robotic systems will be described.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Grisham, D.L. & Lambert, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Robotic design analysis based on teleoperated manipulator data collection

Description: Extensive data collection was performed on a servomanipulator system (TeleOperator Systems SM-229) to determine the motion range and mechanical power usage of the manipulator under direct human control. More than 50 hours of various manipulation operations were performed while joint positions and motor currents were recorded. Reduction of these data yielded histograms of the manipulator usage patterns revealing areas where future manipulator motion ranges and drive systems could be optimized. This report develops a graphical representation of mechanical power usage that relates torque and velocity to the total usage time. Methods of interpreting this representation are discussed and generalized for use in analyzing robotic systems. The resulting technique will allow designers to reevaluate an operating system and determine how to improve that system's design.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Stoughton, R.S. & Martin, H.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Joining teleoperation with robotics for advanced manipulation in hostile environments

Description: Manipulators have been used for many years to perform remote handling tasks in hazardous environments. The development history of teleoperators is reviewed, and applications around the world are summarized. The effect of computer supervisory control is discussed, and similarities between robots and teleoperator research activities are delineated. With improved control strategies and system designs, combination of positive attributes of robots with teleoperators will lead to advanced machines capable of autonomy in unstructured environments. This concept of a telerobot is introduced as a goal for future activities.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Martin, H.L. & Hamel, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of a teleoperator system with redundancy based on passivity conditions

Description: The purpose of this paper is to examine how a stiffness controller can be used to control a teleoperator system having a redundant degree-of-freedom (dof) slave manipulator and a dissimilar master. No path planning was allowed because the uncertainty of the environment and computational limitations. The proposed controller was implemented on the 7-dof Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research Manipulator (CESARm) slave manipulator with a 6-dof Kraft master manipulator. The overall performance of this scheme and future directions are discussed. 21 refs., 3 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Jansen, J. F. & Kress, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Decommissioning of DMA equipment at Richland. Quarterly status report for period ending June 30, 1974

Description: The project is progressing under the authorizing November 12, 1973, TWX from AL to RL. It provides for removal of the retired equipment in the 234-5 Building, its packaging and burial suitable for 20-year retrieval. The building area affected will be decontaminated and made available for other purposes. Work is progressing on removal of the inspection equipment in Room 192 with two hoods having been detached from the conveyor head. No contamination exterior to the hoods has occurred. Document, Vitro-R-286 and its addendum are attached. They provide the sequence for removal of the inspection line equipment and the special procedure for removal of Hood HI-74. Twelve steel burial boxes have been received and 30 fiberglass burial boxes are in transit from Rocky Flats. No unusual problems have been encountered.
Date: July 1, 1974
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Robotics-related technology in the nuclear industry

Description: Teleoperated manipulators have been used for many years to perform tasks within hazardous environments. There are many similarities between teleoperators and robots, and these likenesses are delineated and reviewed. Applications and development activities in teleoperated systems are summarized on a worldwide basis. Teleoperator developments are examined for outer space, under water, and other hazardous environments. The unification of a robot and a teleoperator system into an autonomous, flexible machine is envisioned as the goal of future telerobotic research.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Hamel, W.R. & Martin, H.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The implications of force reflection for teleoperation in space

Description: This paper reviews previous research on teleoperator force feedback and reports results of a testing program which assessed the impact of force reflection on teleoperator task performance. Force reflection is a type of force feedback in which the forces acting on the remote portion of the teleoperator are displayed to the operator by back-driving the master controller. The testing program compared three force reflection levels: 4 to 1 (four units of force on the slave produce one unit of force at the master controller), 1 to 1, and infinity to 1 (no force reflection). Time required to complete tasks, rate of occurrence of errors, the maximum force applied to tasks components, and variability in forces applied to components during completion of representative remote handling tasks were used as dependent variables. Operators exhibited lower error rates, lower peak forces, and more consistent application of forces using force reflection than they did without it. These data support the hypothesis that force reflection provides useful information for teleoperator users. The earlier literature and the results of the experiment are discussed in terms of their implications for space-based teleoperator systems. The discussion describes the impact of force reflection on task completion performance and task strategies, as suggested by the literature. It is important to understand the trade-offs involved in using telerobotic systems with and without force reflection. Force-reflecting systems are typically more expensive (in mass, volume, and price per unit), but they reduce mean time to repair and may be safer to use, compared to systems without force reflection.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Draper, J.V.; Herndon, J.N. & Moore, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Selection of the reference concept for the surface examination stations in the fuels and materials examination facility

Description: The prototype surface examination station for the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) will use closed circuit television (CCTV) for routine modes of operation along with a nuclear periscope for special examination needs. The CCTV and the nuclear periscope were evaluated against prescribed station requirements and compared in a side-by-side demonstration. A quantitative evaluation of their outputs showed that both systems were capable of meeting surface anomaly detection requirements. The CCTV system was superior in its ability to collect, suppress and present data into a more useful form for the experimenters.
Date: September 15, 1978
Creator: Frandsen, G. B. & Nash, C. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Traction-drive seven degrees-of-freedom telerobot arm: A concept for manipulation in space

Description: As man seeks to expand his dominion into new environments, the demand increases for machines that perform useful functions in remote locations. This new concept for manipulation in space is based on knowledge and experience gained from manipulator systems developed to meet the needs of remote nuclear applications. It merges the best characteristics of teleoperation and robotic technologies. This paper summarizes the report of a study performed for NASA Langley Research Center. The design goals for the telerobot, a mechanical description, and technology areas that must be addressed for successful implementation will be presented and discussed. The concept incorporates mechanical traction drives, redundant kinematics, and modular arm subelements to provide a backlash-free manipulator capable of obstacle avoidance. Further development of this arm is in progress at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Kuban, D. P. & Williams, D. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rigid hoist articulated grapple system development for enhanced remote maintenance

Description: Remote maintenance and repair within nuclear environments have become more demanding of remote manipulation equipment in the last few years. A deficiency exists in the array of tools available for dexterous operations of loads in the 180-kg range. The development of a manipulation system with enhanced operator controls is discussed. This system is a six-degree-of-freedom manipulator with bilateral servo control. It is to be attached to a mobile support boom in order to operate throughout the nuclear cell. The manipulator is intended to work in conjunction with light duty servomanipulators, overhead crane systems, and through-the-wall mechanical master slaves.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Witham, C.; White, P. & Garin, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A control structure for fault-tolerant operation of robotic manipulators

Description: Failure of any component of a robotic system during operation is a matter of concern. This work investigates internal shock phenomena due to the failure of joint actuation, and a recovery algorithm for both serial and parallel mechanisms under such circumstances. A control algorithm is studied that consists of a model reference algorithm and computed torque method in the feedforward process, and a simple PID controller in the feedback process. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of this recovery algorithm which attempts to reduce the internal shock when failure occurs, and accomplish the tracking of the given end-effector trajectory. The outlined recovery algorithms. which include two stages of robot control, path planning and path tracking, are expected to be applied not only to a case where some joint is fully failed, but also to cases where some joints experience partial failure.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Ting, Yung; Tosunoglu, S. & Tesar, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bag-out material-handling system

Description: A bagging device for transferring material from a first chamber through an opening in a wall to a second chamber includes an outer housing communicating with the opening and having proximal and distal ends relative to the wall. An inner housing having proximal and distal ends corresponding to those of the outer housing is mounted in a concentrically spaced, sealed manner with respect to the distal end of the outer housing. The inner and outer housings and mounting means therebetween define an annular chamber, closed at its distal end and open at its proximal end, in which a pliable tube is slidably positioned in sealed engagement with the housings. The pliable tube includes a sealed end positioned adjacent the proximal end of the inner housing so as to maintain isolation between the first and second chambers. Displacement of the material to be bagged from the first chamber along the inner housing so as to contact the sealed portion of the pliable bag allows the material to be positioned within the pliable bag in the second chamber. The bag is then sealed and severed between where the material is positioned therein and the wall in providing a sealed container for handling the material. The pliable tube when substantially depleted slides onto a narrow portion of the inner housing to allow a new pliable tube to be positioned over the old pliable tube. Remnants of the old pliable tube are then discharged into the new pliable tube with the bagging and removal of additional material.
Date: February 26, 1982
Creator: Brak, Stephen B. & Milek, Henry F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Future of remote handling

Description: The field of remote handling started in the late 1940's and early 1950's with the invention of mechanical master-slave and electromechanical manipulators. That field now consists of three major divisions: (1) conventional remote handling in fixed facilities with shielding windows and mechanical manipulators; (2) large area remote handling using portable equipment, electric master-slave manipulators, and television for viewing; and (3) the field of robotics which is beginning to be applied to repetitive operations on toxic and dangerous materials. All three divisions will continue to develop and evolve over the next decade.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Grisham, D. L. & Lambert, J. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Portable vacuum object handling device

Description: The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuable to apply the vacuum to lift the object.
Date: July 30, 1981
Creator: Anderson, G.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Closed circuit television welding alignment system

Description: Closed circuit television (CCTV) weld targeting systems were developed to provide accurate and repeatable positioning of the electrode of an electronic arc welder with respect to the parts being joined. A sliding mirror electrode holder was developed for use with closed circuit television equipment on existing weld fixturing. A complete motorized CCTV weld alignment system was developed to provide weld targeting for even the most critical positioning requirements.
Date: September 1, 1976
Creator: Darner, G. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Volumetric reach comparison of possible end-effectors for the articulated transporter and manipulator system

Description: The goal of this research was to investigate the performance of the Articulated Transporter and Manipulator System (ATMS) during various tasks relative to the choice of wrist/end-effector configuration. The approach taken was to generate computer graphics-aided three-dimensional interactive application (CATIA) system-based models of four wrist/end-effector combinations and consider the volumetric reach of each of these configurations based on the capacity of the ATMS. The results indicate that a simple, lightweight end-effector provides a greater volumetric reach. The greatest variation presented herein is {approximately}40% when comparing a 7-degree-of-freedom (DOF) dexterous arm with a simple 3-DOF arm; however, the benefit of increasing volumetric reach by only 40% by using a simple arm may be outweighed by the loss of dexterity. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Kress, R.L.; Babcock, S.M.; Hamel, W.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)) & Bills, K.C. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Whole-arm obstacle avoidance system conceptual design

Description: Whole-arm obstacle avoidance is needed for a variety of robotic applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER WM) Program. Typical industrial applications of robotics involve well-defined workspaces, allowing a predetermined knowledge of collision-free paths for manipulator motion. In the unstructured or poorly defined hazardous environments of the ER WM Program, the potential for significant problems resulting from collisions between manipulators and the environment in which they are utilized is great. The conceptual design for a sensing system that will provide protection against such collisions is described herein. The whole-arm obstacle avoidance system consists of a set of sensor bracelets,'' which cover the surface area of the manipulator links to the maximum extent practical, and a host processor. The host processor accepts commands from the robot control system, controls the operation of the sensors, manipulates data received from the bracelets, and makes the data available to the manipulator control system. The bracelets consist of a subset of the sensors, associated sensor interface electronics, and a bracelet interface. Redundant communications links between the host processor and the bracelets are provided, allowing single-point failure protection. The system allows reporting of 8-bit data from up to 1000 sensors at a minimum of 50 Hz. While the initial prototype implementation of the system utilizes capacitance proximity sensor, the system concept allows multiple types of sensors. These sensors are uniquely addressable, allowing remote calibration, thresholding at the bracelet, and correlation of a sensor measurement with the associated sensor and its location on the manipulator. Variable resolution allows high-speed, single-bit sensing as well as lower-speed higher-resolution sensing, which is necessary for sensor calibration and potentially useful in control.
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Wintenberg, A. L.; Butler, P. L.; Babcock, S. M.; Ericson, M. N. & Britton, C. L., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control and analysis of a single-link flexible beam with experimental verification

Description: The objective of this report is to ascertain the general conditions for the avoidance and reduction of residual vibration in a flexible manipulator. Conventional manipulators usually have a 1.5 to 2-m reach, and their associated dynamic models typically are composed of lumped parameter elements; the major compliance emanates from the drive trains because of torsional loading effects. The energy storage of the drive system is predominantly potential energy because of the low inertia in the drive train; thus simple spring models have been adequate. A long-reach manipulator with a large aspect ratio (length to diameter) is a fundamentally different problem. Energy storage for this type of manipulator is distributive by nature because of the potential energy resulting from bending and the kinetic energy due to deflection rates. Instead of ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations are required to describe this system, making the analysis more difficult. The general flexibility problem associated with a distributive dynamic system, with specific emphasis on flexible manipulator, will be addressed in this report. Furthermore, three control schemes will be discussed and demonstrated on a single flexible manipulator to determine their general merits.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Jansen, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electromechanical three-axis development for remote handling in the Hot Experimental Facility

Description: A three-axis closed-loop position control system has been designed and installed on an overhead bridge, carriage, tube hoist for automotive positioning of manipulation at a remotely maintained work site. The system provides accurate (within 3 min) and repeatable three-axis positioning of the manipulator. The position control system has been interfaced to a supervisory minicomputer system that provides teach-playback capability of manipulator positioning and color graphic display of the three-axis system position.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Garin, J.; Bolfing, B.J.; Satterlee, P.E. & Babcock, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Contact Sensing Palm for the Salisbury Robot Hand

Description: This report summarizes work performed on Tasks 5 and 6 under Sandia Contract Number 75-2608. Task 5 involves the design and development of a palm for the Salisbury robot hand and Task 6 is an investigation and incorporation of contact sensors into the palm design. 19 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.
Date: July 18, 1990
Creator: Brock, David L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research on a Reconfigurable Modular Manipulator System

Description: Research has been conducted on developing the theoretical basis and the technology for a Reconfigurable Modular Manipulation System (RMMS). Unlike a conventional manipulator which has a fixed configuration, the RMMS consists of a set of interchangeable modules that can be rapidly assembled into a system of manipulators with appropriate configurations depending on the specific task requirement. For effective development and use of such a versatile and flexible system a program of theoretical and experimental research has been pursued aimed at developing the basis for next generation of autonomous manipulator systems. The RMMS concept extends the idea of autonomy from sensor-based to configuration based autonomy. One of the important components is the development of design methodologies for mapping tasks into manipulator configurations and for automatic generation of manipulator specific algorithms (e.g., kinematics and dynamics) in order to make the hardware transparent to the user.(JDB)
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Khosla, P. K. & Kanade, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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