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Evaluation of the Potential for Agricultural Development at the Hanford Site

Description: By 2050, when cleanup of the Hanford Site is expected to be completed, large worldwide demands to increase the global production of animal and fish protein, food, and fiber are anticipated, despite advancements in crop breeding, genetic engineering, and other technologies. The most likely large areas for expanded irrigation in the Pacific Northwest are the undeveloped East High areas of the Columbia Basin Project and non-restricted areas within the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The area known as the Hanford Site has all the components that favor successful irrigated farming. Constraints to agricultural development of the Hanford Site are political and social, not economic or technical. Obtaining adequate water rights for any irrigated development will be a major issue. Numerous anticipated future advances in irrigation and resource conservation techniques such as precision agriculture techniques, improved irrigation systems, and irrigation system controls will greatly minimize the negative environmental impacts of agricultural activities.
Date: February 25, 2000
Creator: Evans, Robert G.; Hattendorf, Mary J. & Kincaid, Charles T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Impacts of Synthetic Based Drilling Fluids

Description: This report covers the observed environmental impacts of synthetic based drilling fluids (SBF) that are used in deepwater oil drilling. It is found that SBF tends to accumulate in the sediment which tends to exhibit low toxicity and effects the living organisms in various ways.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Neff, J. M.; McKelvie, S. & Ayers, R.C., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated Environment and Safety and Health Management System (ISMS) Implementation Project Plan

Description: The Integrated Environment, Safety and Health Management System (ISMS) Implementation Project Plan serves as the project document to guide the Fluor Hanford, Inc (FHI) and Major Subcontractor (MSC) participants through the steps necessary to complete the integration of environment, safety, and health into management and work practices at all levels.
Date: January 10, 2000
Creator: MITCHELL, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrating Long-Term Avian Studies with Planning and Adaptive Management: Department of Energy Lands as a Case Study.

Description: Long-term bio-monitoring of avian communities have been initiated, but they often lack a management component. Integration of the managers needs at an early stage is suggested as a means to increase the use of the data. Variation in community structure is important in understanding impacts. In addition, reference site must be carefully selected.
Date: October 1, 2000
Creator: Burger, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preoperational Environmental Survey for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities

Description: This document represents the report for environmental sampling of soil, vegetation, litter, cryptograms, and small mammals at the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities located in 100 K and 200 East Areas in support of the preoperational environmental survey.
Date: September 28, 2000
Creator: Mitchell, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Monitoring of the water levels in the wetlands of Fourmile Branch near the F and H Areas of SRS: September 1997 to December 1998

Description: A network of twenty-three piezometers was used to measure hydraulic head in the water-table aquifer along the groundwater outcrop (i.e. seepline) at the F- and H-Area seeplines. The piezometers were installed to assess potential impacts of the F- and H-Area Groundwater Remediation Waste Treatment Units on the riparian wetland system located between the former F- and H-Area seepage basins and Fourmile Branch.
Date: June 16, 2000
Creator: Halverson, N.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal today: 1999 Geothermal Energy Program highlights (Clean energy for the 21st century booklet)

Description: The purpose of this publication is to educate and inform readers about research activities being carried out by the federal Geothermal Energy Program, and its achievements and future goals. This publication should help raise the visibility and awareness of geothermal energy contributions and potential, especially as part of the nation's clean energy technologies portfolio. The message of the publication is that program resources are being well spent and the results are real and tangible. A secondary message is that geothermal energy is a viable generation option with environmental, economic, and other benefits.
Date: May 10, 2000
Creator: Green, B. & Waggoner, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relocation impacts of an H-Separations coil and tube failure

Description: The relocation impacts of an accidental release, scenario 1-RD-2.35, are evaluated for H-Separations. The extent of the area potentially contaminated to a level that would result in doses exceeding the relocation protective action guide (PAG) is calculated. The maximum calculated distance downwind from the accident at which the relocation PAG is exceeded is also determined. The consequences of the release are evaluated using the HOTSPOT model and an EXCEL spreadsheet.
Date: March 6, 2000
Creator: Blanchard, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Groundwater Annual Status Report for Fiscal Year 1999

Description: Groundwater protection activities and hydrogeologic characterization studies are conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory annually. A summary of fiscal year 1999 results and findings shows increased understanding of the hydrogeologic environment beneath the Pajarito Plateau and significant refinement to elements of the LANL. Hydrogeologic Conceptual Model pertaining to areas and sources of recharge to the regional aquifer. Modeling, drilling, monitoring, and data collection activities are proposed for fiscal year 2000.
Date: March 1, 2000
Creator: Nylander, C. L.; Bitner, K. A.; Henning, K.; Johnson, A. S.; Keating, E. H.; Longmire, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ponnequin Wind Energy Project: Reference site avian study, January 1, 1998--December 31, 1998

Description: This report summarizes the results of surveys completed during the period January 1, 1998, through December 31, 1998, at the Ponnequin Wind Energy Project in Weld County, Colorado. The surveys were conducted at two reference sites, and include a pre-construction avian abundance and use survey and raptor nesting, prey, and carcass surveys. The reference sites were situated immediately to the west of the project site in Weld County, Colorado, and 4.8 kilometers to the north of the site in Laramie County, Wyoming. The surveys were conducted along two 800-meter (m) main transects at each site with two 400-m (by 100-m) perpendicular transects. About 30 complete surveys were completed during the year, with a greater frequency of surveys in the late spring and early autumn. The surveys revealed mostly common species, with no endangered or threatened species on the sites. Small numbers of raptors were observed on or near the project and reference areas. During the winter, avian use and abundance was minimal. Prey species consisted primarily of thirteen-lined ground squirrels and northern pocket gophers. Two songbird carcasses were found. The results of these surveys, combined with data from several more months of surveys, will be compared to surveys conducted after construction of the wind farm.
Date: April 5, 2000
Creator: Kerlinger, P.; Curry, R. & Ryder, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

3Q/4Q99 F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Corrective Action Report - Third and Fourth Quarter 1999, Volumes I and II

Description: Savannah River Site (SRS) monitors groundwater quality at the F-Area Hazardous Waste management Facility (HWMF) and provides results of this monitoring to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) semiannually as required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit. SRS also performs monthly sampling of the Wastewater Treatment Unit (WTU) effluent in accordance with Section C of the Underground Injection Control (UIC) application.
Date: May 12, 2000
Creator: Chase, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative multimedia regulatory programs for next-generation refineries

Description: The 25-year-old command-and-control environmental regulatory structure in the US has resulted in significant environmental improvements. Recently, however, its limitations (e.g., rigid application regardless of site-specific conditions, disregard of cross-media and multimedia impacts, limited incentives for new technology development and use) have become increasingly apparent. New regulatory approaches that recognize current and anticipated economic constraints, new knowledge of environmental processes and impacts, and the benefits of new technologies are needed. Such approaches could be especially important for the US petroleum refining industry. This industry operates under thin profit margins, releases chemicals that can produce adverse health and environmental impacts, and must meet the technological challenges of producing more highly refined fuels from poorer quality feedstocks. Under a grant from the Environmental Technology Initiative (ETI), Argonne National Laboratory and its subcontractor, Analytical Services, Inc. developed two alternative environmental regulatory programs for next-generation petroleum refineries. (In this report, next-generation refineries refers to the refineries of today as they operate in the next 20 or more years rather than to fully reengineered future refineries.) The objective of the ETI refinery project was to develop future-oriented regulatory programs for next-generation refineries that will expand the use of innovative technologies, encourage pollution prevention, demonstrate environmental responsibility, and maintain refinery economic performance. Rather than suggesting targeted, short-term modifications to existing media-specific command-and-control regulations, the ETI project suggests the use of new approaches that are broader and more flexible. It recognizes that giving refineries flexibility in meeting environmental protection goals can stimulate new technology development and use. Unlike most US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reinvention efforts, which seek results in 12 to 18 months, this ETI effort assumes a time frame of 20 years or more. It also assumes that existing laws and regulations can be changed. An iterative and interactive process was used by the project team ...
Date: June 22, 2000
Creator: Elcock, D.; Gasper, J.; Arguerro, R. & Emerson, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Department of Energy state energy program: Buildings for the 21st century fact sheet

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy's State Energy Program (SEP) provides leadership to maximize the benefits of energy efficiency and renewable energy through communications/outreach activities, technology deployment, and accessing new partnerships/resources. The State Energy Program operates in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. territories.
Date: April 24, 2000
Creator: International, D and R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The investigation of environmental radiological vulnerabilities at Fermilab

Description: During 1997, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) embarked on a program to investigate locations on the Fermilab site where activation of soil and ground water by accelerator operations has possibly occurred in the past and may occur in the course of planned future operations. A considerable body of data has now emerged from this ongoing process. The results are being applied to planned future accelerator operations, to the environmental monitoring program, and to the methodology employed to design and evaluate environmental radiological shielding. The results are already having a significant impact on the design of future accelerators at Fermilab.
Date: January 27, 2000
Creator: Cossairt, J.D.; Walton, R. & Kesich, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An evaluation of new high resolution image collection and processing techniques for estimating shrub cover and detecting landscape changes associated with military training in arid lands

Description: Research funded by the US Department of Defense, US Department of Energy, and the US Environmental Protection Agency as part of Project CS-1131 of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program evaluated novel techniques for collecting high-resolution images in the Mojave Desert using helicopters, helium-filled blimps, kites, and hand-held telescoping poles at heights from 1 to 150 meters. Several camera types, lens, films, and digital techniques were evaluated on the basis of their ability to correctly estimate canopy cover of shrubs. A high degree of accuracy was obtained with photo scales of 1:4,000 or larger and flatbed scanning rates from films or prints of 300 lines per inch or larger. Smaller scale images were of value in detecting retrospective changes in cover of large shrubs, but failed to detect smaller shrubs. Excellent results were obtained using inexpensive 35-millimeter cameras and new super-fine grain film such as Kodak's Royal Gold{trademark} (ASA 100) film or megapixel digital cameras. New image-processing software, such as SigmaScan Pro{trademark}, makes it possible to accurately measure areas up to 1 hectare in size for total cover and density in 10 minutes compared to several hours or days of field work. In photographs with scales of 1:1,000 and 1:2,000, it was possible to detect cover and density of up to four dominant shrub species. Canopy cover and other parameters such as width, length, feet diameter, and shape factors can be nearly instantaneously measured for each individual shrub yielding size distribution histograms and other statistical data on plant community structure. Use of the technique is being evaluated in a four-year study of military training impacts at Fort Irwin, California, and results compared with image processing using conventional aerial photography and satellite imagery, including the new 1-meter pixel IKONOS images. The technique is a valuable new emerging tool to accurately ...
Date: February 1, 2000
Creator: Hansen, D.J. & Ostler, W.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of soil and water at the Four Mile Creek seepline near the F- and H-Areas of SRS

Description: Several soil and water samples were collected along the Four Mile Creek (FMC) seepline at the F and H Areas of the Savannah River Site. The samples were analyzed for concentrations of metals, radionuclides, and inorganic constituents. The results of the analyses are summarized for the soil and water samples.
Date: May 24, 2000
Creator: Haselow, J.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

Description: This report is the first revision to ``Radiological Performance Assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility, Revision 0'', which was issued in April 1994 and received conditional DOE approval in September 1994. The title of this report has been changed to conform to the current name of the facility. The revision incorporates improved groundwater modeling methodology, which includes a large data base of site specific geotechnical data, and special Analyses on disposal of cement-based wasteforms and naval wastes, issued after publication of Revision 0.
Date: April 11, 2000
Creator: Cook, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Systems Research FY-99 Annual Report

Description: The Environmental Systems Research (ESR) Program, a part of the Environmental Systems Research and Analysis (ESRA) Program, was implemented to enhance and augment the technical capabilities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose for strengthening technical capabilities of the INEEL is to provide the technical base to serve effectively as the Environmental Management Laboratory for the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM). The original portfolio of research activities was assembled after an analysis of the EM technology development and science needs as gathered by the Site Technology Coordination Groups (STCGs) complex-wide. Current EM investments in science and technology throughout the research community were also included in this analysis to avoid duplication of efforts. This is a progress report for the second year of the ESR Program (Fiscal Year 99). A report of activities is presented for the five ESR research investment areas: (a) Transport Aspects of Selective Mass Transport Agents, (b) Chemistry of Environmental Surfaces, (c) Materials Dynamics, (d) Characterization Science, and (e) Computational Simulation of Mechanical and Chemical Systems. In addition to the five technical areas, activities in the Science and Technology Foundations element of the program, e.g., interfaces between ESR and the EM Science Program (EMSP) and the EM Focus Areas, are described.
Date: January 1, 2000
Creator: Miller, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pinon Pine Tree Study, Los Alamos National Laboratory: Source document

Description: One of the dominant tree species growing within and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, lands is the pinon pine (Pinus edulis) tree. Pinon pine is used for firewood, fence posts, and building materials and is a source of nuts for food--the seeds are consumed by a wide variety of animals and are also gathered by people in the area and eaten raw or roasted. This study investigated the (1) concentration of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup tot}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am in soils (0- to 12-in. [31 cm] depth underneath the tree), pinon pine shoots (PPS), and pinon pine nuts (PPN) collected from LANL lands and regional background (BG) locations, (2) concentrations of radionuclides in PPN collected in 1977 to present data, (3) committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) from the ingestion of nuts, and (4) soil to PPS to PPN concentration ratios (CRs). Most radionuclides, with the exception of {sup 3}H in soils, were not significantly higher (p < 0.10) in soils, PPS, and PPN collected from LANL as compared to BG locations, and concentrations of most radionuclides in PPN from LANL have decreased over time. The maximum net CEDE (the CEDE plus two sigma minus BG) at the most conservative ingestion rate (10 lb [4.5 kg]) was 0.0018 mrem (0.018 {micro}Sv). Soil-to-nut CRs for most radionuclides were within the range of default values in the literature for common fruits and vegetables.
Date: January 1, 2000
Creator: Fresquez, P. R.; Huchton, J. D.; Mullen, M. A. & L. Naranjo, Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

Description: The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early ...
Date: January 5, 2000
Creator: Nelson, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CASIM and ground water activation calculations at the A0 abort

Description: The results of CASIM and ground water activation calculations for the A0 abort is presented in this paper. CASIM calculations were done at 150 GeV and 1 TeV for the following transverse beam sizes ({sigma}x{sigma}y): (0.15 x 0.15)mm{sup 2}, (0.15 x 0.15)cm{sup 2}, and (1.5 x 1.5)cm{sup 2}. The results from CASIM were used to calculate the ground water activation using the Concentration Model. The results show that there is only a weak dependence on the transverse beam size and that the maximum number of protons which can be aborted at A0 per year is 7.6 x 10{sup 16} protons/year {at} 150 GeV and 1.7 x 10{sup 16} protons/year {at} 1 TeV.
Date: May 15, 2000
Creator: Tan, Cheng-Yang
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final state of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Weeks Island Mine

Description: This report documents the decommissioning and abandonment activities at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site, Iberia Parish, Louisiana, that were concluded in 1999. These activities required about six years of intense operational, engineering, geotechnical, and management support efforts, following initiation of site abandonment plans in 1994. The Weeks Island SPR mine stored about 72.5 million bbl of crude oil following oil fill in 1980--1982, until November 1995, when the DOE initiated oil drawdown procedures, with brine refill and oil skimming, and numerous plugging and sealing activities. About 98% of the crude oil was recovered and transferred to other SPR facilities in Louisiana and Texas; a small amount was also sold. This document summarizes recent pre- and post-closure: conditions of surface features at the site, including the sinkholes, the freeze wall, surface subsidence measurements and predictions; conditions within the SPR mine, including oil recovery, brine filling, and the Markel Wet Drift; risk assessment evaluations relevant to the decommissioning and long-term potential environmental impacts; continuing environmental monitoring activities at the site; and, an overview on the background and history of the Weeks Island SPR facility.
Date: February 1, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

Description: Previous studies of the safety and environmental (S and E) aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work a set of computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) has been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here the authors consider a severe lost of coolant accident (LOCA) producing simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the containment) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and containment building it self). Even though containment failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product release and transport. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 6 mSv (0.6 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.
Date: February 23, 2000
Creator: Reyes, S; Gomez del Rio, J & Sanz, J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department