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The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS

Description: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) should be used to assist carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) planners to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and avoid unintended environmental trade-offs. LCA is an analytical framework for determining environmental impacts resulting from processes, products, and services. All life cycle stages are evaluated including raw material sourcing, processing, operation, maintenance, and component end-of-life, as well as intermediate stages such as transportation. In recent years a growing number of LCA studies have analyzed CCS systems. We reviewed 50+ LCA studies, and selected 11 studies that compared the environmental performance of 23 electric power plants with and without CCS. Here we summarize and interpret the findings of these studies. Regarding overall climatemitigation effectiveness of CCS, we distinguish between the capture percentage of carbon in the fuels, the net carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction, and the net GHG emission reduction. We also identify trade-offs between the climate benefits and the potential increased non-climate impacts of CCS. Emissions of non-CO2 flue gases such as NOx may increase due to the greater throughput of fuel, and toxicity issues may arise due to the use of monoethanolamine (MEA) capture solvent, resulting in ecological and human health impacts. We discuss areas where improvements in LCA data or methods are needed. The decision to implement CCS should be based on knowledge of the overall environmental impacts of the technologies, not just their carbon capture effectiveness. LCA will be an important tool in providing that knowledge.
Date: April 20, 2011
Creator: Sathre, Roger; Masanet, Eric; Cain, Jennifer & Chester, Mikhail
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual Design of a 100 MWe Modular Molten Salt Power Tower Plant

Description: A conceptual design of a 100 MWe modular molten salt solar power tower plant has been developed which can provide capacity factors in the range of 35 to 75%. Compared to single tower plants, the modular design provides a higher degree of flexibility in achieving the desired customer's capacity factor and is obtained simply by adjusting the number of standard modules. Each module consists of a standard size heliostat field and receiver system, hence reengineering and associated unacceptable performance uncertainties due to scaling are eliminated. The modular approach with multiple towers also improves plant availability. Heliostat field components, receivers and towers are shop assembled allowing for high quality and minimal field assembly. A centralized thermal-storage system stores hot salt from the receivers, allowing nearly continuous power production, independent of solar energy collection, and improved parity with the grid. A molten salt steam generator converts the stored thermal energy into steam, which powers a steam turbine generator to produce electricity. This paper describes the conceptual design of the plant, the advantages of modularity, expected performance, pathways to cost reductions, and environmental impact.
Date: September 20, 2011
Creator: Pacheco, James E. & Carter Moursund, Dale Rogers, David Wasyluk
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) of Parabolic Trough CSP: Materials Inventory and Embodied GHG Emissions from Two-Tank Indirect and Thermocline Thermal Storage (Presentation)

Description: In the United States, concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the most promising renewable energy (RE) technologies for reduction of electric sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and for rapid capacity expansion. It is also one of the most price-competitive RE technologies, thanks in large measure to decades of field experience and consistent improvements in design. One of the key design features that makes CSP more attractive than many other RE technologies, like solar photovoltaics and wind, is the potential for including relatively low-cost and efficient thermal energy storage (TES), which can smooth the daily fluctuation of electricity production and extend its duration into the evening peak hours or longer. Because operational environmental burdens are typically small for RE technologies, life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as the most appropriate analytical approach for determining their environmental impacts of these technologies, including CSP. An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is undertaking an LCA of modern CSP plants, starting with those of parabolic trough design.
Date: July 20, 2009
Creator: Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.; Decker, T. & Kutscher, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

Description: A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors.
Date: October 20, 2003
Creator: Basher, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Survey Report for the ETTP: Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) Haul Road Corridor, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

Description: This report summarizes the results of environmental surveys conducted within the corridor of a temporary haul road (''Haul Road'') to be constructed from East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) to the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) located just west of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Environmental surveys were conducted by natural resource experts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory who routinely assess the significance of various project activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). ORNL assistance to the Haul Road Project included environmental assessments necessary to determine the best route for minimizing impacts to sensitive resources such as wetlands or rare plants. Once the final route was chosen, environmental surveys were conducted within the corridor to evaluate the impacts to sensitive resources that could not be avoided. The final Haul Road route follows established roads and a power-line corridor to the extent possible (Fig. 1). Detailed explanation regarding the purpose of the Haul Road and the regulatory context associated with its construction is provided in at least two major documents and consequently is not presented here: (1) Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Disposal of Oak Ridge Reservation Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Waste, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (January 2005, DOE/OR/01-2194&D2), and (2) Environmental Monitoring Plan for The ETTP to EMWMF Haul Road for the Disposal of Oak Ridge Reservation Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Waste, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (April 2005, BJC/OR-2152). The focus of this report is a description of the sensitive resources to be impacted by Haul Road construction. Following a short description of the methods used for the environmental surveys, results and observations are presented in the following subsections: (1) General description of the affected environment; (2) Rare plants and vegetation assemblages; (3) Rare wildlife ...
Date: December 20, 2005
Creator: Peterson, M.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of California's geothermal-related legislative and regulatory activity through 1979. Report No. 1116

Description: The findings of the 1977 State Geothermal Resources Task Force are divided into four main categories: well siting, power plant siting; environmental problems; and miscellaneous areas. California's 1978 legislation is described using the same categories. The key difficulties still harassing the state's geothermal industry are described including: control over air quality at the Geysers; powerplant finance; a binary cycle demonstration; federal land use decisions; and miscellaneous concerns. (MHR)
Date: December 20, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tracking federal land management: Report No. 3 on federal land management actions impacting geothermal commecialization at selected target prospects in the five Pacific Rim states

Description: Generic land management actions affecting geothermal commerializtion in Pacific River states are reviewed. Specific federal land management actions affecting geothermal prospects in California and the Pacific Northwest are described. (MHR)
Date: May 20, 1980
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental assessment for a geothermal direct utilization project in Reno, Nevada

Description: The proposed action involves the development of geothermal wells to provide hot water and heat for five users in Reno, Nevada. Data from nearby wells indicate the sufficient hot water is available from the Moana Known Geothermal Resource Area for this action. Construction activities have been planned to minimize or eliminate problems with noise, runoff, and disturbance of biota as well as other potential environmental effects. Disposal of the geothermal fluids via surface water or injection will be determined based on water quality of the geothermal fluids and geologic effects of injection. The affected environment is described by this document and needed mitigation procedures discussed.
Date: August 20, 1980
Creator: Perino, J.V.; McCloskey, M.H.; Wolterink, T.J.; Wallace, R.C.; Baker, D.W.; Harper, D.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of SX farm leak histories -- Historical leak model (HLM)

Description: This report uses readily available historical information to better define the volume, chemical composition, and Cs-137/Sr-90 amounts for leaks that have occurred in the past for tanks SX-108, SX-109, SX-111, and SX-112. In particular a Historical Leak Model (HLM) is developed that is a month by month reconciliation of tank levels, fill records, and calculated boil-off rates for these tanks. The HLM analysis is an independent leak estimate that reconstructs the tank thermal histories thereby deriving each tank`s evaporative volume loss and by difference, its unaccounted losses as well. The HLM analysis was meant to demonstrate the viability of its approach, not necessarily to establish the HLM leak estimates as being definitive. Past leak estimates for these tanks have invariably resorted to soil wetting arguments but the extent of soil contaminated by each leak has always been highly uncertain. There is also a great deal of uncertainty with the HLM that was not quantified in this report, but will be addressed later. These four tanks (among others) were used from 1956 to 1975 for storage of high-level waste from the Redox process at Hanford. During their operation, tank waste temperatures were often as high as 150 C (300 F), but were more typically around 130 C. The primary tank cooling was by evaporation of tank waste and therefore periodic replacement of lost volume with water was necessary to maintain each tank`s inventory. This active reflux of waste resulted in very substantial turnovers in tank inventory as well as significant structural degradation of these tanks. As a result of the loss of structural integrity, each of these tanks leaked during their active periods of operation. Unfortunately, the large turnover in tank volume associated with their reflux cooling has made a determination of leak volumes very difficult. During much of these tanks ...
Date: August 20, 1998
Creator: Fredenburg, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calculation note for an underground leak which remains underground

Description: This calculation note supports the subsurface leak accident scenario which remains subsurface. It is assumed that a single walled pipe carrying waste from tank 106-C ruptures, releasing the liquid waste into the soil. In this scenario, the waste does not form a surface pool, but remains subsurface. However, above the pipe is a berm, 0.762 m (2.5 ft) high and 2.44 m (8 ft) wide, and the liquid released from the leak rises into the berm. The slurry line, which transports a source term of higher activity than the sluice line, leaks into the soil at a rate of 5% of the maximum flow rate of 28.4 L/s (450 gpm) for twelve hours. The dose recipient was placed a perpendicular distance of 100 m from the pipe. Two source terms were considered, mitigated and unmitigated release as described in section 3.4.1 of UANF-SD-WM-BIO-001, Addendum 1. The unmitigated consisted of two parts of AWF liquid and one part AWF solid. The mitigated release consisted of two parts SST liquid, eighteen parts AWF liquid, nine parts SST solid, and one part AWF solid. The isotopic breakdown of the release in these cases is presented. Two geometries were considered in preliminary investigations, disk source, and rectangular source. Since the rectangular source results from the assumption that the contamination is wicked up into the berm, only six inches of shielding from uncontaminated earth is present, while the disk source, which remains six inches below the level of the surface of the land is often shielded by a thick shield due to the slant path to the dose point. For this reason, only the rectangular source was considered in the final analysis. The source model was a rectangle 2.134 m (7 ft) thick, 0.6096 m (2 ft) high, and 130.899 m (131 ft) long. The ...
Date: May 20, 1997
Creator: Goldberg, H.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Assessment Radioactive Source Recovery Program

Description: In a response to potential risks to public health and safety, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is evaluating the recovery of sealed neutron sources under the Radioactive Source Recovery Program (RSRP). This proposed program would enhance the DOE`s and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) joint capabilities in the safe management of commercially held radioactive source materials. Currently there are no federal or commercial options for the recovery, storage, or disposal of sealed neutron sources. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental impacts that would be expected to occur if the DOE were to implement a program for the receipt and recovery at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, New Mexico, of unwanted and excess plutonium-beryllium ({sup 238}Pu-Be) and americium-beryllium ({sup 241}Am-Be) sealed neutron sources. About 1 kg (2.2 lb) plutonium and 3 kg (6.6 lb) americium would be recovered over a 15-year project. Personnel at LANL would receive neutron sources from companies, universities, source brokers, and government agencies across the country. These neutron sources would be temporarily stored in floor holes at the CMR Hot Cell Facility. Recovery reduces the neutron emissions from the source material and refers to a process by which: (1) the stainless steel cladding is removed from the neutron source material, (2) the mixture of the radioactive material (Pu-238 or Am-241) and beryllium that constitutes the neutron source material is chemically separated (recovered), and (3) the recovered Pu-238 or Am-241 is converted to an oxide form ({sup 238}PuO{sub 2} or {sup 241}AmO{sub 2}). The proposed action would include placing the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} or {sup 241}AmO{sub 2} in interim storage in a special nuclear material vault at the LANL Plutonium Facility.
Date: December 20, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Greenhouse gas emission impacts of alternative-fueled vehicles: Near-term vs. long-term technology options

Description: Alternative-fueled vehicle technologies have been promoted and used for reducing petroleum use, urban air pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, greenhouse gas emission impacts of near-term and long-term light-duty alternative-fueled vehicle technologies are evaluated. Near-term technologies, available now, include vehicles fueled with M85 (85% methanol and 15% gasoline by volume), E85 (85% ethanol that is produced from corn and 15% gasoline by volume), compressed natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. Long-term technologies, assumed to be available around the year 2010, include battery-powered electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, vehicles fueled with E85 (ethanol produced from biomass), and fuel-cell vehicles fueled with hydrogen or methanol. The near-term technologies are found to have small to moderate effects on vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, the long-term technologies, especially those using renewable energy (such as biomass and solar energy), have great potential for reducing vehicle greenhouse gas emissions. In order to realize this greenhouse gas emission reduction potential, R and D efforts must continue on the long-term technology options so that they can compete successfully with conventional vehicle technology.
Date: May 20, 1997
Creator: Wang, M.Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Market assessment of environmental issues affecting coal use for Los Alamos National Laboratory

Description: This is a market assessment of environmental issues affecting coal use through 2020. It was prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratories for the Fossil Energy R&D Program. It is based on interviews of representatives of 8 coal, coal technology, electricity and environmental groups concerned with the future of energy and the environment. Interviewees generally agreed that the U.S. and other countries would continue to need to use coal into the middle of the next century. The size of the market for coal would be determined by the ability of coal and coal technologies to meet environmental requirements at costs that would compete with natural gas. Outside the U.S., three interviewees suggested that there is a market for low cost coal technologies that will reduce the environmental impact of coal use, particularly in developing countries that have few alternative sources of energy. The principal environmental concerns mentioned in these interviews were: efficiency and carbon, air toxics, and NO{sub x}. Several also mentioned potential modifications to the SO{sub x} standards, a fine particulate standard, bottom and fly ash, and methane from coalbeds.
Date: March 20, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Emerging energy-efficient technologies for industry

Description: For this study, we identified about 175 emerging energy-efficient technologies in industry, of which we characterized 54 in detail. While many profiles of individual emerging technologies are available, few reports have attempted to impose a standardized approach to the evaluation of the technologies. This study provides a way to review technologies in an independent manner, based on information on energy savings, economic, non-energy benefits, major market barriers, likelihood of success, and suggested next steps to accelerate deployment of each of the analyzed technologies. There are many interesting lessons to be learned from further investigation of technologies identified in our preliminary screening analysis. The detailed assessments of the 54 technologies are useful to evaluate claims made by developers, as well as to evaluate market potentials for the United States or specific regions. In this report we show that many new technologies are ready to enter the market place, or are currently under development, demonstrating that the United States is not running out of technologies to improve energy efficiency and economic and environmental performance, and will not run out in the future. The study shows that many of the technologies have important non-energy benefits, ranging from reduced environmental impact to improved productivity. Several technologies have reduced capital costs compared to the current technology used by those industries. Non-energy benefits such as these are frequently a motivating factor in bringing technologies such as these to market. Further evaluation of the profiled technologies is still needed. In particular, further quantifying the non-energy benefits based on the experience from technology users in the field is important. Interactive effects and inter-technology competition have not been accounted for and ideally should be included in any type of integrated technology scenario, for it may help to better evaluate market opportunities.
Date: March 20, 2001
Creator: Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Price, Lynn; Ruth, Michael; Elliott, Neal; Shipley, Anna et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The approximately 200,000-mile fuel pipeline system in the U.S. operates at flow rates up to 2.5 x 10{sup 6}gallons per hour (GPH). Most commercial technologies only provide on-line leak detection at about 0.3% of flow rate, i.e., about 7,500 GPH or larger. Detection of leaks at about 1 GPH or so is desirable both from a regulatory and leak-prevention standpoint. Brookhaven's commercially-accepted perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology for underground leak detection of utility industry dielectric fluids at leak rates less than 0.1 GPH, with new enhancements, will be able to cost-effectively detect fuel pipeline system leaks to about 1 GPH--3 orders-of-magnitude better than any on-line system. The magnitude of detected leaks would be calculable as well. Proposed mobile surveys (such as those used periodically in the gas pipeline industry) at about 110 to 120 miles per day would allow such small leaks to be detected at 10-ppb tagging levels (less than $1,500 of PFT for a 48-hour tag at the maximum transport rate) under worst-case meteorological dispersion conditions. Smaller leaks could be detected by proportionately larger tagging concentrations. Leaks would be pinpointed by subsequent conventional barholing and vapor analyses. There are no health nor safety issues associated with the use of the proposed technological approach nor any consequential environmental impacts associated with the proposed magnitudes of PFT tagging.
Date: October 20, 1998
Creator: DIETZ,R.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Battery Usage and Thermal Performance of the Toyota Prius and Honda Insight for Various Chassis Dynamometer Test Procedures: Preprint

Description: This study describes the results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) chassis dynamometer testing of a 2000 model year Honda Insight and 2001 model year Toyota Prius. The tests were conducted for the purpose of evaluating the battery thermal performance, assessing the impact of air conditioning on fuel economy and emissions, and providing information for NREL's Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR).
Date: November 20, 2001
Creator: Kelly, K. J.; Mihalic, M. & Zolot, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The Discharge Monitoring Reports (DMRs) for July, August and September, 2003, were prepared and submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). Discussions were held during July with our environmental consulting firm (TVG Environmental) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) about the groundwater testing program for the CFFF. Both TVG and TDEC advised that we continue with the semiannual sampling schedule for at least the next 6 months to a year. A relatively new category titled Site-Specific Impaired Classification is being considered for the CFFF, but the documentation requirements are expected to be extensive and expensive. The next sampling event will be contracted for in November 2003. In addition to regular monthly report to TDEC, a regional inspector from TDEC came by to inspect the CFFF for compliance with the water discharge permit. He took a short tour of the facility and subsequently issued a statement that the CFFF was in compliance with the permit. TVG Environmental, Inc. of Nashville was requested to provide a cost quote to perform the next scheduled groundwater sampling event for the CFFF. They quoted the same per-event cost as the two previous sampling events. TVG was awarded the contract and the next scheduled semiannual sampling event will occur in mid-November.
Date: October 20, 2003
Creator: Muehlhauser, Joel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2002 Wastewater Land Application Site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

Description: The 2002 Wastewater Land Application site Performance Reports for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory describe site conditions for the facilities with State of Idaho Wastewater Land Application Permits. Permit-required monitoring data are summarized, and permit exceedences or environmental impacts relating to the operation of the facilities during the 2002 permit year are discussed.
Date: February 20, 2003
Creator: Meachum, T.R. & Lewis, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Program Description for the Tank Farm Contractor

Description: This Environmental Program Description has been developed in support of the Integrated Environmental, Safety, and Health Management System and consistent with the goals of DOE/RL-96-50, Hanford Strategic Plan. This Environmental Program Plan was developed in support of the Integrated Environment, Safety, and Health Management System Description for the Tank Farm Contractor (ISMS) (RPP-MP-003), which establishes a single, defined environmental, safety, and health management system that integrates requirements into the work planning and execution processes to protect workers, the public, and the environment. The ISMS also provides mechanisms for increasing worker involvement in work planning, including hazard and environmental impact identification, analysis, and control; work execution; and feedback/improvement processes. The ISMS plan consists of five core functions. Each section of this plan describes the activities (formerly known as the Tank Waste Remediation System) of the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) environmental organization according to the following core functions: Establish Environmental Policy and Define Work Scope; Identify Hazards, Environmental Impacts, and Requirements; Analyze Hazards and Environmental Impacts and Implement Controls; Provide Feedback and Continuous Improvement; and Perform Work within Controls.
Date: April 20, 2000
Creator: Powell, P. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preoperational Subsurface Conditions at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Service Wastewater Discharge Facility

Description: The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Service Wastewater Discharge Facility replaces the existing percolation ponds as a disposal facility for the INTEC Service Waste Stream. A preferred alternative for helping decrease water content in the subsurface near INTEC, closure of the existing ponds is required by the INTEC Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Record of Decision (ROD) for Waste Area Group 3 Operable Unit 3-13 (DOE-ID 1999a). By August 2002, the replacement facility was constructed approximately 2 miles southwest of INTEC, near the Big Lost River channel. Because groundwater beneath the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is protected under Federal and State of Idaho regulations from degradation due to INEEL activities, preoperational data required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 were collected. These data include preexisting physical, chemical, and biological conditions that could be affected by the discharge; background levels of radioactive and chemical components; pertinent environmental and ecological parameters; and potential pathways for human exposure or environmental impact. This document presents specific data collected in support of DOE Order 5400.1, including: four quarters of groundwater sampling and analysis of chemical and radiological parameters; general facility description; site specific geology, stratigraphy, soils, and hydrology; perched water discussions; and general regulatory requirements. However, in order to avoid duplication of previous information, the reader is directed to other referenced publications for more detailed information. Documents that are not readily available are compiled in this publication as appendices. These documents include well and borehole completion reports, a perched water evaluation letter report, the draft INEEL Wellhead Protection Program Plan, and the Environmental Checklist.
Date: February 20, 2002
Creator: Ansley, Shannon L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Disposal of irradiated waste Ink'' solution (Production Test 105-529-A)

Description: Boron solution circulated through special poison tubes to achieve more variable control of neutron flattening'' was tested in the 100-DR Hanford reactor. About 2700 gallons of irradiated waste Ink solution from Production Test 105-529-A was discharged to an underground crib at 100-DR, after radiochemical analyses and evaluation of radiation protection aspects by the Radiological Sciences Department. In case the Ink method is considered for production use at Hanford in the future, further biological and biophysical study is recommended to determine whether irradiated waste Ink solution may be disposed of into the Columbia River, into the ground near the river, or into the ground several miles from the river. 10 refs, 2 tabs.
Date: July 20, 1954
Creator: Clukey, H.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of three ICF reactor designs

Description: Three concepts for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactors are described and compared with each other, and with magnetic fusion and fission reactors on the basis of environmental impact, safety and efficiency. The critical technical developments of each concept are described. The three concepts represent alternative development paths for inertial fusion.
Date: September 20, 1984
Creator: Hogan, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Landscape dynamics in the Arctic foothills: Landscape evolution and vegetation succession on disturbances

Description: This document contains a summary of research accomplished by the University of Colorado's Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) Joint Facility for Regional Ecosystem Analysis (JFREA) for the Department of Energy's R D research program for 1989--1990. Aerial photographs, orthophoto topographic maps, and digital elevation models (DEMs) of the Toolik Lake region site were prepared by Aeromap US at 1:500 and 1:5000 scales. During August 1990, the region surrounding Toolik Lake was mapped at 1:5000 scale, and the intensive research grid was mapped at 1:500 scale. Mapped variables include vegetation, landforms, surface forms, and percentage surface water. Soil data from the Imnavait Creek and Toolik Lake sites are central to the analysis of landscape evolution. Soils were collected from the base of the O horizon at 72 gridpoints on the 1:500-scale map area at Imnavait Creek, and 85 grid points at Toolik Lake. Soils are being analyzed for percentage moisture, pH (saturated paste), electrical conductivity, percentage organic matter, nitrate, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron, manganese, copper. Soils were also collected from 81 permanent plots (199 horizons) which will be used for vegetation-environmental analyses. Permanent 1 {times} 1-meter point-quadrat plots were established at 85 points of the Toolik Lake grid. Data from the plots will be stratified according to slope position and terrain unit and used to compare vegetation structure and cover on different aged surfaces. Work continued on the study of the effects of road dust on tundra vegetation. 28 figs.
Date: October 20, 1990
Creator: Walker, D.A. & Walker, M.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department