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Impacts to Dungeness Crab from the Southwest Washington Littoral Drift Restoration Project

Description: The Benson Beach littoral drift restoration project is a demonstration project that will replenish sand on Benson Beach, the public beach north of the North Jetty at the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR), using material dredged from the river during normal maintenance dredging of the navigational channel. A U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) proposal involves pumping the material from a sump area on the south side of the jetty to Benson Beach using a cutter suction dredge, also known as a pipeline dredge. If this one-time demonstration project proves feasible and successful, up to a million cubic yards of sediment could be used to replenish the outer coast littoral drift system in successive years by the same process. The primary goal of this study was to assess the potential risk of impacts to Dungeness crab from the proposed Benson Beach littoral drift restoration process of using the cutter suction dredge to move sediment from the proposed sump area on one side of the North Jetty to the beach on the other side of the jetty. Because there are no direct measurements of crab entrainment by pipeline dredge operating outside of the lower Columbia River navigation channel, dredge impacts for the proposed demonstration project were estimated using a modification of the dredge impact model (DIM) of Armstrong et al. (1987). The model estimates adult equivalent loss (AEL) of crabs using crab population density from trawl surveys, dredge project information (gear type, season, location, volume), and an entrainment function relating crab population density to entrainment by the dredge. The input used in applying the DIM to the Benson Beach littoral drift restoration included the specific dredging scenario provided by the Corps, existing data on crab density in previously proposed sump areas, and a series of entrainment functions. A total of ...
Date: November 9, 2005
Creator: Williams, Greg D.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Pearson, Walter H. & Skalski, J R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ch. 37, Inertial Fusion Energy Technology

Description: Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and renewable energy (including biofuels) are the only energy sources capable of satisfying the Earth's need for power for the next century and beyond without the negative environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Substantially increasing the use of nuclear fission and renewable energy now could help reduce dependency on fossil fuels, but nuclear fusion has the potential of becoming the ultimate base-load energy source. Fusion is an attractive fuel source because it is virtually inexhaustible, widely available, and lacks proliferation concerns. It also has a greatly reduced waste impact, and no danger of runaway reactions or meltdowns. The substantial environmental, commercial, and security benefits of fusion continue to motivate the research needed to make fusion power a reality. Replicating the fusion reactions that power the sun and stars to meet Earth's energy needs has been a long-sought scientific and engineering challenge. In fact, this technological challenge is arguably the most difficult ever undertaken. Even after roughly 60 years of worldwide research, much more remains to be learned. the magnitude of the task has caused some to declare that fusion is 20 years away, and always will be. This glib criticism ignores the enormous progress that has occurred during those decades, progress inboth scientific understanding and essential technologies that has enabled experiments producing significant amounts of fusion energy. For example, more than 15 megawatts of fusion power was produced in a pulse of about half a second. Practical fusion power plants will need to produce higher powers averaged over much longer periods of time. In addition, the most efficient experiments to date have required using about 50% more energy than the resulting fusion reaction generated. That is, there was no net energy gain, which is essential if fusion energy is to be a viable source of electricity. The ...
Date: June 9, 2010
Creator: Moses, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tethys: The Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Environmental Impacts Knowledge Management System -- Requirements Specification -- Version 1.0

Description: The marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) environmental impacts knowledge management system (KMS), dubbed Tethys after the mythical Greek goddess of the seas, is being developed for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program (WHTP) by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). This requirements specification establishes the essential capabilities required of Tethys and clarifies for WHTP and the Tethys development team the results that must be achieved by the system.
Date: November 9, 2010
Creator: Butner, R. Scott; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J. & Ellis, Peter C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Management and Development of the Western Resources Project

Description: The purpose of this project was to manage the Western Resources Project, which included a comprehensive, basin-wide set of experiments investigating the impacts of coal bed methane (CBM; a.k.a. coal bed natural gas, CBNG) production on surface and groundwater in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. This project included a number of participants including Apache Corporation, Conoco Phillips, Marathon, the Ucross Foundation, Stanford University, the University of Wyoming, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, and Western Research Institute.
Date: March 9, 2009
Creator: Brown, Terry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final environmental assessment: TRU waste drum staging building, Technical Area 55, Los Alamos National Laboratory

Description: Much of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) research on plutonium metallurgy and plutonium processing is performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in Los Alamos, New Mexico. LANL`s main facility for plutonium research is the Plutonium Facility, also referred to as Technical Area 55 (TA-55). The main laboratory building for plutonium work within the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) is the Plutonium Facility Building 4, or PF-4. This Environmental Assessment (EA) analyzes the potential environmental effects that would be expected to occur if DOE were to stage sealed containers of transuranic (TRU) and TRU mixed waste in a support building at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) that is adjacent to PF-4. At present, the waste containers are staged in the basement of PF-4. The proposed project is to convert an existing support structure (Building 185), a prefabricated metal building on a concrete foundation, and operate it as a temporary staging facility for sealed containers of solid TRU and TRU mixed waste. The TRU and TRU mixed wastes would be contained in sealed 55-gallon drums and standard waste boxes as they await approval to be transported to TA-54. The containers would then be transported to a longer term TRU waste storage area at TA-54. The TRU wastes are generated from plutonium operations carried out in PF-4. The drum staging building would also be used to store and prepare for use new, empty TRU waste containers.
Date: February 9, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank waste remediation system environmental program plan

Description: This Environmental Program Plan has been developed in support of the Integrated Environmental, Safety and Health Management System and consistent with the goals of DOE/RL-96-50, Hanford Strategic Plan (RL 1996a), and the specifications and guidance for ANSI/ISO 14001-1996, Environmental Management Systems Specification with guidance for use (ANSI/ISO 1996).
Date: January 9, 1998
Creator: Borneman, L.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SSC workshop on environmental radiation

Description: The Superconducting Super Collider is a 20 TeV-on-20 TeV proton beam collider where two 20-TeV proton accelerators whose beams, rotating in opposite senses, are brought into collision to provide 40 TeV in the center of mass. The scale of the project is set by the 6.6 tesla magnet guide field for the protons which results in a roughly circular machine with a circumference of 83 km (51.5 mi.). The energy scale of the proton beams and the physical scale of the machine are an order of magnitude greater than for any presently operating or contemplated proton accelerator yet the facility must be operated within the same strict radiological guidelines as existing accelerators in the US and Europe. To ensure that the facility conforms to existing and projected guidelines both in design and operation, the Workshop was charged to review the experience and practices of existing accelerator laboratories, to determine the relevant present and projected regulatory requirements, to review particle production and shielding data from accelerators and cosmic rays, to study the design and operational specifications of the Collider, to examine the parameters set forth in the Siting Parameters Document, and to evaluate the computational tools available to model the radiation patterns arising under various operational and failure scenarios. This report summarizes the extensive and intensive presentations and discussions of the Workshop. A great deal of material, much of it in the form of internal reports from the various laboratories and drafts of works in preparation, was provided by the participants for the various topics. This material, including the viewgraphs used by the presenters, forms the background and basis for the conclusions of the Workshop and, as such, is an important part of the Workshop. An introduction to the material and a catalog by topic are presented as section 6 of ...
Date: January 9, 1986
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scenarios for the Hanford immobilized Low-Activity waste (ILAW) performance assessment

Description: The purpose of the next version of the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment (ILAW PA) is to provide an updated estimate of the long-term human health and environmental impact of the disposal of ILAW and to compare these estimates against performance objectives displayed in Tables 1,2, and 3 (Mann 1999a). Such a radiological performance assessment is required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on radioactive waste management (DOE 1988a and DOE 1999a). This document defines the scenarios that will be used for the next update of the PA that is scheduled to be issued in 2001. Since the previous performance assessment (Mann 1998) was issued, considerable additional data on waste form behavior and site-specific soil geotechnical properties have been collected. In addition, the 2001 ILAW PA will benefit from improved computer models and the experience gained from the previous performance assessment. However, the scenarios (that is, the features, events, and processes analyzed in the Performance assessment) for the next PA are very similar to the ones in the 1998 PA.
Date: September 9, 1999
Creator: MANN, F.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary plan for the development of geothermal energy in the town of Gabbs, Nevada

Description: Characteristics of the site significant to the prospect for geothermal development are described, including: physiography, demography, economy, and the goals and objectives of the citizens as they relate to geothermal development. The geothermal resource evaluation is described, including the depth to reservoir, production rates of existing water wells, water quality, and the resource temperature. Uses of the energy that seem appropriate to the situation both now and in the foreseeable future at Gabbs are described. The essential institutional requirements for geothermal energy development are discussed, including the financial, environmental, legal, and regulatory requirements. The main resource, engineering and institutional considerations involved in a geothermal district heating system for Gabbs are summarized.
Date: November 9, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department