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Emerging Energy-Efficient Technologies for Industry

Description: U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of thenation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly,society is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, moresustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing globalcompetitiveness. Technology is essential in achieving these challenges.We report on a recent analysis of emerging energy-efficient technologiesfor industry, focusing on over 50 selected technologies. The technologiesare characterized with respect to energy efficiency, economics andenvironmental performance. This paper provides an overview of theresults, demonstrating that we are not running out of technologies toimprove energy efficiency, economic and environmental performance, andneither will we in the future. The study shows that many of thetechnologies have important non-energy benefits, ranging from reducedenvironmental impact to improved productivity, and reduced capital costscompared to current technologies.
Date: May 5, 2005
Creator: Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Price, Lynn; Ruth, Michael; Elliot, Neal; Shipley, Anna et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Resources for Catalysis Science; Recommendations for a National Catalysis Research Institute

Description: Catalysis is one of the most valuable contributors to our economy and historically an area where the United States has enjoyed, but is now losing, international leadership. While other countries are stepping up their work in this area, support for advanced catalysis research and development in the U.S. has diminished. Yet, more than ever, innovative and improved catalyst technologies are imperative for new energy production processes to ease our dependence on imported resources, for new energy-efficient and environmentally benign chemical production processes, and for new emission reduction technologies to minimize the environmental impact of an active and growing economy. Addressing growing concerns about the future direction of U.S. catalysis science, experts from the catalysis community met at a workshop to determine and recommend advanced resources needed to address the grand challenges for catalysis research and development. The workshop's primary conclusion: To recapture our position as the leader in catalysis innovation and practice, and promote crucial breakthroughs, the U.S. must establish one or more well-funded and well-equipped National Catalysis Research Institutes competitively selected, centered in the national laboratories and, by charter, networked to other national laboratories, universities, and industry. The Institute(s) will be the center of a national collaboratory that gives catalysis researchers access to the most advanced techniques available in the scientific enterprise. The importance of catalysis to our energy, economic, and environmental security cannot be overemphasized. Catalysis is a vital part of our core industrial infrastructure, as it is integral to chemical processing and petroleum refining, and is critical to proposed advances needed to secure a sustainable energy future. Advances in catalysis could reduce our need for foreign oil by making better use of domestic carbon resources, for example, allowing cost-effective and zero emission conversion of coal into transportation fuels. No matter what energy sources are being considered (oil, ...
Date: October 5, 2005
Creator: Peden, Charles HF. & Ray, Douglas
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2008

Description: The Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks and uncertainties of the waste processing programs and projects of the Department of Energy's Environmental Management (EM) mission through the timely development of solutions to technical issues. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment. The Office of Waste Processing works with other DOE Headquarters offices and project and field organizations to proactively evaluate technical needs, identify multi-site solutions, and improve the technology and engineering associated with project and contract management. Participants in this program are empowered with the authority, resources, and training to implement their defined priorities, roles, and responsibilities. The Office of Waste Processing Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) supports the goals and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Environmental Management Engineering and Technology Roadmap by providing direction for technology enhancement, development, and demonstration that will lead to a reduction of technical risks and uncertainties in EM waste processing activities. The MYPP summarizes the program areas and the scope of activities within each program area proposed for the next five years to improve safety and reduce costs and environmental impacts associated with waste processing; authorized budget levels will impact how much of the scope of activities can be executed, on a year-to-year basis. Waste Processing Program activities within the Roadmap and the MYPP are described in these seven program areas: (1) Improved Waste Storage Technology; (2) Reliable and Efficient Waste Retrieval Technologies; (3) Enhanced Tank Closure Processes; (4) Next-Generation Pretreatment Solutions; (5) Enhanced Stabilization Technologies; (6) Spent Nuclear Fuel; and (7) Challenging Materials. This report provides updates on 35 technology development tasks conducted during calendar year 2008 in the ...
Date: November 5, 2009
Creator: Bush, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tracking the Sun II: The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the U.S. from 1998-2008

Description: Installations of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been growing at a rapid pace in recent years. In 2008, 5,948 MW of PV was installed globally, up from 2,826 MW in 2007, and was dominated by grid-connected applications. The United States was the world's third largest PV market in terms of annual capacity additions in 2008, behind Spain and Germany; 335 MW of PV was added in the U.S. in 2008, 293 MW of which came in the form of grid-connected installations. Despite the significant year-on-year growth, however, the share of global and U.S. electricity supply met with PV remains small, and annual PV additions are currently modest in the context of the overall electric system. The market for PV in the U.S. is driven by national, state, and local government incentives, including up-front cash rebates, production-based incentives, requirements that electricity suppliers purchase a certain amount of solar energy, and Federal and state tax benefits. These programs are, in part, motivated by the popular appeal of solar energy, and by the positive attributes of PV - modest environmental impacts, avoidance of fuel price risks, coincidence with peak electrical demand, and the location of PV at the point of use. Given the relatively high cost of PV, however, a key goal of these policies is to encourage cost reductions over time. Therefore, as policy incentives have become more significant and as PV deployment has accelerated, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of PV systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. To address this need, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated a report series focused on describing trends in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems in the U.S. The present report, the second in the series, describes installed cost trends from 1998 through 2008. ...
Date: October 5, 2009
Creator: Barbose, Galen L.; Wiser, Ryan; Peterman, Carla & Darghouth, Naim
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design report for solar production of industrial process steam ranging in temperature from 300 to 550/sup 0/F. Phase 1, September 30, 1978-June 30, 1979

Description: The conceptual design of a solar process steam system began with studies and evaluations of various alternative design configurations. From these evaluations a final candidate design configuration was selected which is to be used for further detailed analysis and engineering. An evaluation of various types of distributed collector systems is presented. Cost-effectiveness of various distributed collectors was determined on the basis of total relative cost (including foundation and installation) of the collector per square foot of collector surface for the same thermal output at noon. The considerations used to select the optimum site also are given. System optimization studies are presented, including a discussion of whether a storage facility should be provided. It was found that none is required. Three alternate system configurations are described, optimized, and compared and a final concept is selected in which water is partially boiled in the slat type collectors and steam is separated in a steam drum. A cost-effectiveness criterion based on the unit cost of net annual thermal energy generated was used in the optimization studies and is discussed. The impact of the system on the environment is assessed and a preliminary safety analysis is presented. (LEW)
Date: January 5, 1979
Creator: Gupta, G.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Re-engineering the Federal planning process: A total Federal planning strategy, integrating NEPA with modern management tools

Description: The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 was established by Congress more than a quarter of a century ago, yet there is a surprising lack of specific tools, techniques, and methodologies for effectively implementing these regulatory requirements. Lack of professionally accepted techniques is a principal factor responsible for many inefficiencies. Often, decision makers do not fully appreciate or capitalize on the true potential which NEPA provides as a platform for planning future actions. New approaches and modem management tools must be adopted to fully achieve NEPA`s mandate. A new strategy, referred to as Total Federal Planning, is proposed for unifying large-scale federal planning efforts under a single, systematic, structured, and holistic process. Under this approach, the NEPA planning process provides a unifying framework for integrating all early environmental and nonenvironmental decision-making factors into a single comprehensive planning process. To promote effectiveness and efficiency, modem tools and principles from the disciplines of Value Engineering, Systems Engineering, and Total Quality Management are incorporated. Properly integrated and implemented, these planning tools provide the rigorous, structured, and disciplined framework essential in achieving effective planning. Ultimately, the goal of a Total Federal Planning strategy is to construct a unified and interdisciplinary framework that substantially improves decision-making, while reducing the time, cost, redundancy, and effort necessary to comply with environmental and other planning requirements. At a time when Congress is striving to re-engineer the governmental framework, apparatus, and process, a Total Federal Planning philosophy offers a systematic approach for uniting the disjointed and often convoluted planning process currently used by most federal agencies. Potentially this approach has widespread implications in the way federal planning is approached.
Date: September 5, 1997
Creator: Eccleston, C. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polychlorinate biphenyls (PCB) analysis report for solid sample for 219S tank 102

Description: One waste sample was analyzed (with duplicate, matrix spike, and matrix spike duplicate) for PCBs as Aroclor mixtures by the Inorganic/Organic Chemistry Group. A soxhlet extraction procedure was used for extraction of the Aroclors from the sample. Analysis was performed using dual column confirmation gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD). Extraction follows closely method 354 C of SW-846, analysis follows SW-846 method 8082. A cross reference of laboratory sample number to the customer identification is given in a table.
Date: December 5, 1997
Creator: Ross, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supplement analysis for Greenville Gate access to Kirschbaum Field at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Description: The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Program proposes to provide additional access to the Kirschbaum Field construction laydown area. This additional access would alleviate traffic congestion at the East Gate entrance to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from Greenville Road during periods of heavy construction for the NIF. The new access would be located along the northeastern boundary of LLNL, about 305 m (1,000 ft) north of the East Gate entrance. The access road would extend from Greenville Road to the Kirschbaum Field construction laydown area and would traverse an existing storm water drainage channel. Two culverts, side by side, and a compacted road base would be installed across the channel. The security fence that runs parallel to Greenville Road would be modified to accommodate this new entrance and a vehicle gate would be installed at the entrance of Kirschbaum Field. The exiting shoulder along Greenville Road would be converted into a new turn lane for trucks entering the new gate. This analysis evaluates the impacts of constructing the Kirschbaum Field bridge and access gate at a different location than was analyzed in the NIF Project specific Analysis in the Final Programmatic environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management (SS and M PEIS) published in September 1996 (DOE/EIS-0236) and the Record of Decision published on December 19, 1996. Issues of concern addressed in this supplement analysis include potential impacts to wetlands downstream of the access bridge, potential impacts to the California red-legged frog (Rana aurora draytonii) listed as threatened on the federal listing pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1974, and potential impacts on the 100-yr floodplain along the Arroyo Las Positas.
Date: December 5, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ponnequin Wind Energy Project: Reference site avian study, January 1, 1998--December 31, 1998

Description: This report summarizes the results of surveys completed during the period January 1, 1998, through December 31, 1998, at the Ponnequin Wind Energy Project in Weld County, Colorado. The surveys were conducted at two reference sites, and include a pre-construction avian abundance and use survey and raptor nesting, prey, and carcass surveys. The reference sites were situated immediately to the west of the project site in Weld County, Colorado, and 4.8 kilometers to the north of the site in Laramie County, Wyoming. The surveys were conducted along two 800-meter (m) main transects at each site with two 400-m (by 100-m) perpendicular transects. About 30 complete surveys were completed during the year, with a greater frequency of surveys in the late spring and early autumn. The surveys revealed mostly common species, with no endangered or threatened species on the sites. Small numbers of raptors were observed on or near the project and reference areas. During the winter, avian use and abundance was minimal. Prey species consisted primarily of thirteen-lined ground squirrels and northern pocket gophers. Two songbird carcasses were found. The results of these surveys, combined with data from several more months of surveys, will be compared to surveys conducted after construction of the wind farm.
Date: April 5, 2000
Creator: Kerlinger, P.; Curry, R. & Ryder, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

Description: The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early ...
Date: January 5, 2000
Creator: Nelson, E.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Depleted uranium hexafluoride management program : data compilation for the Portsmouth site.

Description: This report is a compilation of data and analyses for the Portsmouth site, near Portsmouth, Ohio. The data were collected and the analyses were done in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 1999 Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DOE/EIS-0269). The report describes the affected environment at the Portsmouth site and summarizes potential environmental impacts that could result from conducting the following depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) management activities at the site: continued cylinder storage, preparation of cylinders for shipment, conversion, and long-term storage. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin converting the depleted UF{sub 6} inventory as soon as possible to either uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible.
Date: June 5, 2001
Creator: Hartmann, H. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Depleted uranium hexafluoride management program : data compilation for the K-25 site.

Description: This report is a compilation of data and analyses for the K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The data were collected and the analyses were done in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 1999 Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DOE/EIS-0269). The report describes the affected environment at the K-25 site and summarizes the potential environmental impacts that could result from continued cylinder storage and preparation of cylinders for shipment at the site. It is probable that the cylinders at the K-25 site will be shipped to another site for conversion. Because conversion and long-term storage of the entire inventory at the K-25 site are highly unlikely, these data are not presented in this report. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin converting the depleted uranium hexafluoride inventory as soon as possible to either uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible.
Date: June 5, 2001
Creator: Hartmann, H. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, April 2000

Description: This issue of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM Program) monthly newsletter is about the ARM Program goal to improve scientific understanding of the interactions of sunlight (solar radiation) with the atmosphere, then incorporate this understanding into computer models of climate change. To model climate accurately all around the globe, a variety of data must be collected from many locations on Earth. For its Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites, ARM chose locations in the US Southern Great Plains, the North Slope of Alaska, and the Tropical Western Pacific Ocean to represent different climate types around the world. In this newsletter they consider the North Slope of Alaska site, with locations at Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska.
Date: May 5, 2000
Creator: Sisterson, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

300 area TEDF NPDES Permit Compliance Monitoring Plan

Description: This document presents the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit Compliance Monitoring Plan (MP). The MP describes how ongoing monitoring of the TEDF effluent stream for compliance with the NPDES permit will occur. The MP also includes Quality Assurance protocols to be followed.
Date: September 5, 1995
Creator: Loll, C.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced process research and development to enhance metals and materials recycling.

Description: Innovative, cost-effective technologies that have a positive life-cycle environmental impact and yield marketable products are needed to meet the challenges of the recycling industry. Four materials-recovery technologies that are being developed at Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with industrial partners are described in this paper: (1) dezincing of galvanized steel scrap; (2) material recovery from auto-shredder residue; (3) high-value-plastics recovery from obsolete appliances; and (4) aluminum salt cake recycling. These technologies are expected to be applicable to the production of low-cost, high-quality raw materials from a wide range of waste streams.
Date: December 5, 1997
Creator: Daniels, E. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Groundwater modeling of the proposed new production reactor site, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

Description: This report addresses groundwater modeling performed to support the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) that is being prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE). The EIS pertains to construction and operation of a new production reactor (NPR) that is under consideration for the Savannah River Site (SRS). Three primary issues are addressed by the modeling analysis: (1) groundwater availability, (2) changes in vertical hydraulic gradients as a result of groundwater pumpage, and (3) migration of potential contaminants from the NPR site. The modeling indicates that the maximum pumpage to be used, 1000 gpm, will induce only minor drawdown across SRS. Pumpage of this magnitude will have a limited effect on the upward gradient from the Cretaceous into the Tertiary near Upper Three Runs Creek. Potentiometric surface maps generated from modeled results indicate that horizontal flow in the water table is either towards Four Mile Creek to the north or to Pen Branch on the south. Particle tracking analysis indicates that the primary flow paths are vertical into the Lower Tertiary Zone, with very little lateral migration. Total travel times from the NPR site to the edge of the model (approximately 3 miles) is on the order of 50 years. The flow direction of water in the Lower Tertiary Zone is relatively well defined due to the regional extent of the flow system. The Pen Branch Fault does not influence contaminant migration for this particular site because it is in the opposite direction of Lower Tertiary Zone groundwater flow. 20 refs., 27 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 5, 1990
Creator: Looney, B.B.; Haselow, J.S.; Andersen, P.F.; Spalding, C.P. & Davis, D.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water-related impacts of geothermal energy production in California's Imperial Valley

Description: To successfully develop the geothermal resources of the Imperial Valley, adequate supplies of cooling water must be obtained. The primary sources of water include waste waters from agricultural lands, condensate from flashed-steam facilities, and irrigation water. The major advantages and disadvantages of these supplies are examined and then the consequences of adopting six sets of water policies to support three scenarios of geothermal energy production are assessed. The assessment includes analyses of potential constraints to development as a result of restrictive water policies. It also includes predictions of changes in the Salton Sea's elevation and salinity caused by the consumption of agricultural drain water for cooling.
Date: July 5, 1979
Creator: Layton, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Groundwater quality assessment/corrective action feasibility plan: New TNX Seepage Basin

Description: The New TNX Seepage Basin is located across River Road east of the TNX Area at the Savannah River Site. Currently the basin is out of service and is awaiting closure in accordance with the Consent Decree settled under Civil Act No. 1:85-2583. Groundwater monitoring data from the detection monitoring network around the New TNX Seepage Basin was recently analyzed using South Carolina Hazardous Waste Management Regulations R.61-79.264.92 methods to determine if groundwater downgradient of the New TNX Seepage Basin had been impacted. Results from the data analysis indicate that the groundwater has been impacted by inorganic constituents with no associated health risks. The impacts resulting from elevated levels of inorganic constituents, such as Mn, Na, and Total PO{sub 4} in the water table, do not pose a threat to human health and the environment.
Date: December 5, 1989
Creator: Nichols, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department