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Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2010

Description: This report summarizes the environmental status of Ames Laboratory for calendar year 2010. It includes descriptions of the Laboratory site, its mission, the status of its compliance with applicable environmental regulations, its planning and activities to maintain compliance, and a comprehensive review of its environmental protection, surveillance and monitoring activities. In 2010, the Laboratory accumulated and disposed of waste under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued generator numbers. All waste is handled according to all applicable EPA, State, Local regulations and DOE Orders. In 2006 the Laboratory reduced its generator status from a Large Quantity Generator (LQG) to a Small Quantity Generator (SQG). EPA Region VII was notified of this change. The Laboratory's RCRA hazardous waste management program was inspected by EPA Region VII in April 2006. There were no notices of violations. The inspector was impressed with the improvements of the Laboratory's waste management program over the past ten years. The Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable federal, state, local and DOE regulations and orders in 2010. There were no radiological air emissions or exposures to the general public due to Laboratory activities in 2010. See U.S. Department of Energy Air Emissions Annual Report in Appendix B. As indicated in prior SERs, pollution awareness, waste minimization and recycling programs have been in practice since 1990, with improvements implemented most recently in 2010. Included in these efforts were battery and CRT recycling, miscellaneous electronic office equipment, waste white paper and green computer paper-recycling and corrugated cardboard recycling. Ames Laboratory also recycles/reuses salvageable metal, used oil, foamed polystyrene peanuts, batteries, fluorescent lamps and telephone books. Ames Laboratory reported to DOE-Ames Site Office (AMSO), through the Laboratory's Performance Evaluation Measurement Plan, on its Affirmative Procurement Performance Measure. A performance level of 'A-' was achieved in 2010 for Integrated Safety, Health and ...
Date: January 31, 2011
Creator: Kayser, Dan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Process for Converting Waste Glass Fiber into Value Added Products, Final Report

Description: Nature of the Event: Technology demonstration. The project successfully met all of its technical objectives. Albacem has signed an exclusive licensing agreement with Vitro Minerals Inc., a specialty minerals company, to commercialize the Albacem technology (website: www.vitrominerals.com). Location: The basic research for the project was conducted in Peoria, Illinois, and Atlanta, Georgia, with third-party laboratory verification carried out in Ontario, Canada. Pilot-scale trials (multi-ton) were conducted at a facility in South Carolina. Full-scale manufacturing facilities have been designed and are scheduled for construction by Vitro Minerals during 2006 at a location in the Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina tri-state area. The Technology: This technology consists of a process to eliminate solid wastes generated at glass fiber manufacturing facilities by converting them to value-added materials (VCAS Pozzolans) suitable for use in cement and concrete applications. This technology will help divert up to 250,000 tpy of discarded glass fiber manufacturing wastes into beneficial use applications in the concrete construction industry. This technology can also be used for processing glass fiber waste materials reclaimed from monofills at manufacturing facilities. The addition of take-back materials and reclamation from landfills can help supply over 500,000 tpy of glass fiber waste for processing into value added products. In the Albacem process, waste glass fiber is ground to a fine powder that effectively functions as a reactive pozzolanic admixture for use in portland ceĀ¬ment-based building materials and products, such as concrete, mortars, terrazzo, tile, and grouts. Because the waste fiber from the glass manufacturing industry is vitreous, clean, and low in iron and alkalis, the resulting pozzolan is white in color and highly consistent in chemical composition. This white pozzolan, termed VCAS Pozzolan (for Vitreous Calcium-Alumino-Silicate). is especially suited for white concrete applications where it imparts desirable benefits such as increased long-term strength and improved long-term ...
Date: December 31, 2005
Creator: Hemmings, Raymond T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)

Description: The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas ...
Date: December 31, 2007
Creator: Henderson, Rachel & Fickes, Robert
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of the Species Composition, Densities, and Distribution of Native Freshwater Mussels along the Benton County Shoreline of the Hanford Reach, Columbia River, 2004

Description: The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River is the last unimpounded section of the river and contains substrate characteristics (cobble, gravel, sand/silt) suitable for many of the native freshwater mussels known to exist in the Pacific Northwest. Information concerning the native mussel species composition, densities, and distributions in the mainstem of the Columbia River is limited. Under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted an assessment of the near-shore habitat on the Hanford Reach. Surveys conducted in 2004 as part of the Ecological Monitoring and Compliance project documented several species of native mussels inhabiting the near-shore habitat of the Hanford Reach. Findings reported here may be useful to resource biologists, ecologists, and DOE-RL to determine possible negative impacts to native mussels from ongoing near-shore remediation activities associated with Hanford Site cleanup. The objective of this study was to provide an initial assessment of the species composition, densities, and distribution of the freshwater mussels (Margaritiferidae and Unionidae families) that exist in the Hanford Reach. Researchers observed and measured 201 live native mussel specimens. Mussel density estimated from these surveys is summarized in this report with respect to near-shore habitat characteristics including substrate size, substrate embeddedness, relative abundance of aquatic vegetation, and large-scale geomorphic/hydrologic characteristics of the Hanford Reach.
Date: January 31, 2011
Creator: Mueller, Robert P.; Tiller, Brett L.; Bleich, Matthew D.; Turner, Gerald & Welch, Ian D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ecological Data in Support of the Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement. Part 2: Results of Spring 2007 Field Surveys

Description: This review provides an evaluation of potential impacts of actions that have been proposed under various alternatives to support the closure of the high level waste tanks on the Hanford Site. This review provides a summary of data collected in the field during the spring of 2007 at all of the proposed project sites within 200 East and 200 West Areas, and at sites not previously surveyed. The primary purpose of this review is to provide biological data that can be incorporated into or used to support the Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement.
Date: May 31, 2007
Creator: Sackschewsky, Michael R. & Downs, Janelle L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2007

Description: This report summarizes the environmental status of Ames Laboratory for calendar year 2007. It includes descriptions of the Laboratory site, its mission, the status of its compliance with applicable environmental regulations, its planning and activities to maintain compliance, and a comprehensive review of its environmental protection, surveillance and monitoring activities. Ames Laboratory is located on the campus of Iowa State University (ISU) and occupies 11 buildings owned by the Department of Energy (DOE). See the Laboratory's Web page at www.external.ameslab.gov for locations and Laboratory overview. The Laboratory also leases space in ISU owned buildings. In 2007, the Laboratory accumulated and disposed of waste under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued generator numbers. All waste is handled according to all applicable EPA, State, Local and DOE Orders. In 2006 the Laboratory reduced its generator status from a Large Quantity Generator (LQG) to a Small Quantity Generator (SQG). EPA Region VII was notified of this change. The Laboratory's RCRA hazardous waste management program was inspected by EPA Region VII in April 2006. There were no notices of violations. The inspector was impressed with the improvements of the Laboratory's waste management program over the past ten years. The Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable federal, state, local and DOE regulations and orders in 2007. There were no radiological air emissions or exposures to the general public due to Laboratory activities in 2007. See U.S. Department of Energy Air Emissions Annual Report in Appendix B. As indicated in prior SERs, pollution awareness, waste minimization and recycling programs have been in practice since 1990, with improvements implemented most recently in 2003. Included in these efforts were battery and CRT recycling, waste white paper and green computer paper-recycling. Ames Laboratory also recycles/reuses salvageable metal, used oil, styrofoam peanuts, batteries, fluorescent lamps and telephone books. Ames ...
Date: December 31, 2007
Creator: Laboratory, Dan Kayser-Ames
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

Description: The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time, corresponding to ...
Date: January 31, 2011
Creator: Troiano, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2

Description: In the near future, the nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It is necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact of fossil fuel utilization including greenhouse gas management. GE Global Research (GEGR) investigated an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology with potential to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP technology offers the long-term potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions. GE was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to investigate and develop the UFP technology. Work started on the Phase I program in October 2000 and on the Phase II effort in April 2005. In the UFP technology, coal, water and air are simultaneously converted into (1) hydrogen rich stream that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) CO{sub 2} rich stream for sequestration, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air stream to produce electricity in a gas turbine expander. The process produces near-zero emissions with an estimated efficiency higher than Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) process with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The Phase I R&D program established the chemical feasibility of the major reactions of the integrated UFP technology through lab-, bench- and pilot-scale testing. A risk analysis session was carried out at the end of Phase I effort to identify the major risks in the UFP technology and a plan was developed to mitigate these risks in the Phase II of the program. The Phase II effort focused on three high-risk areas: economics, lifetime of solids used in the UFP process, and product gas quality for turbines (or the impact of impurities in the coal on the overall system). The economic analysis included estimating ...
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Kulkarni, Parag; Guan, Jie; Subia, Raul; Cui, Zhe; Manke, Jeff; Frydman, Arnaldo et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This Final Technical Report summarizes the technical accomplishments of an investigation entitled ''Laboratory Experiments to Simulate CO{sub 2} Ocean Disposal'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's University Coal Research Program. This investigation responds to the possibility that restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions may be imposed in the future to comply with the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The primary objective of the investigation was to obtain experimental data that can be applied to assess the technical feasibility and environmental impacts of oceanic containment strategies to limit release of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal and other fossil fuel combustion systems into the atmosphere. A number of critical technical uncertainties of ocean disposal of CO{sub 2} were addressed by performing laboratory experiments on liquid CO{sub 2} jet break-up into a dispersed droplet phase, and hydrate formation, under deep ocean conditions. Major accomplishments of this study included: (1) five jet instability regimes were identified that occur in sequence as liquid CO{sub 2} jet disintegration progresses from laminar instability to turbulent atomization; (2) linear regression to the data yielded relationships for the boundaries between the five instability regimes in dimensionless Ohnesorge Number, Oh, and jet Reynolds Number, Re, space; (3) droplet size spectra was measured over the full range of instabilities; (4) characteristic droplet diameters decrease steadily with increasing jet velocity (and increasing Weber Number), attaining an asymptotic value in instability regime 5 (full atomization); and (5) pre-breakup hydrate formation appears to affect the size distribution of the droplet phase primary by changing the effective geometry of the jet.
Date: December 31, 1999
Creator: Masutani, Stephen M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Factors Influencing The Accuracy Of A Macroinvertebrate Bioassessment Protocol In South Carolina Coastal Plain Streams (DRAFT)

Description: The Multiple Habitat Sampling Protocol (MHSP) is a bioassessment method designed to assess the ecological health of South Carolina streams on the basis of macroinvertebrate samples collected from natural substrates. The MHSP is computed by averaging the EPT (number of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera taxa) and BI (a biotic index that reflects the pollution tolerances of individual taxa) to produce a bioclassification score. The MHSP produced low bioclassification scores that could falsely indicate environmental degradation in some undisturbed, high quality streams in the Sandhills ecoregion. This problem had two causes: (1) the metrics (especially EPT) were significantly related to stream size, which confounded stream size effects with environmental impacts, and (2) the scoring criteria for EPT were too high for some Sandhills streams, likely because of unrecognized heterogeneity among the Sandhills streams from which the criteria were derived. We corrected these problems by developing new scoring criteria from ecologically comparable undisturbed streams and by utilizing residuals from regressions of the metrics on stream width to normalize for stream size. The MHSP and related protocols are effective methods for assessing environmental quality but allowances must be made for the effects of stream size and the potential ecological heterogeneity that naturally exists among streams in some ecoregions.
Date: January 31, 2006
Creator: Paller, M. H.; Martin, F. D.; Wike, L. D. & Specht, W. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Jointly Sponsored Research Program Energy Related Research

Description: Cooperative Agreement, DE-FC26-98FT40323, Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) Program at Western Research Institute (WRI) began in 1998. Over the course of the Program, a total of seventy-seven tasks were proposed utilizing a total of $23,202,579 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors committed $26,557,649 in private funds to produce a program valued at $49,760,228. The goal of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program was to develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources - coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Under the JSR Program, energy-related tasks emphasized enhanced oil recovery, heavy oil upgrading and characterization, coal beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, coal-bed methane recovery, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils and waters, processing of oily wastes, mitigating acid mine drainage, and demonstrating uses for solid waste from clean coal technologies, and other advanced coal-based systems. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental impacts associated with energy production and utilization. This report summarizes the accomplishments of the JSR Program.
Date: March 31, 2009
Creator: Institute, Western Research
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

Description: Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.
Date: August 31, 2008
Creator: Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y. Paul & Hower, James
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Detroit Commuter Hydrogen Project

Description: This project was undertaken to demonstrate the viability of using hydrogen as a fuel in an internal combustion engine vehicle for use as a part of a mass transit system. The advantages of hydrogen as a fuel include renew-ability, minimal environmental impact on air quality and the environment, and potential to reduce dependence on foreign energy sources for the transportation sector. Recognizing the potential for the hydrogen fuel concept, the Southeast Michigan Congress of Governments (SEMCOG) determined to consider it in the study of a proposed regional mass transit rail system for southeast Michigan. SEMCOG wanted to evaluate the feasibility of using hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine (H2ICE) vehicles in shuttle buses to connect the Detroit Metro Airport to a proposed, nearby rail station. Shuttle buses are in current use on the airport for passenger parking and inter-terminal transport. This duty cycle is well suited to the application of hydrogen fuel at this time because of the ability to re-fuel vehicles at a single nearby facility, overcoming the challenge of restricted fuel availability in the undeveloped hydrogen fuel infrastructure. A cooperative agreement between SEMCOG and the DOE was initiated and two H2ICE buses were placed in regular passenger service on March 29, 2009 and operated for six months in regular passenger service. The buses were developed and built by the Ford Motor Company. Wayne County Airport Authority provided the location for the demonstration with the airport transportation contractor, Metro Cars Inc. operating the buses. The buses were built on Ford E450 chassis and incorporated a modified a 6.8L V-10 engine with specially designed supercharger, fuel rails and injectors among other sophisticated control systems. Up to 30 kg of on-board gaseous hydrogen were stored in a modular six tank, 350 bar (5000 psi) system to provide a 150 mile driving range. ...
Date: July 31, 2010
Creator: Brooks, Jerry & Prebo, Brendan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

Description: The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; are functionally-graded to give the best combination of thermal, mechanical, and physical properties and chemical stability; or are relatively inexpensive, reliable repair materials. Material development will be divided ...
Date: March 31, 2003
Creator: Moore, Robert E.; Headrick, William L. & Rezaie, Alireza
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Novel Corrosion Sensor for Vision 21 Systems

Description: Advanced sensor technology is identified as a key component for advanced power systems for future energy plants that would have virtually no environmental impact. This project intends to develop a novel high temperature corrosion sensor and subsequent measurement system for advanced power systems. Fireside corrosion is the leading mechanism for boiler tube failures and has emerged to be a significant concern for current and future energy plants due to the introduction of technologies targeting emissions reduction, efficiency improvement, or fuel/oxidant flexibility. Corrosion damage can lead to catastrophic equipment failure, explosions, and forced outages. Proper management of corrosion requires real-time indication of corrosion rate. However, short-term, on-line corrosion monitoring systems for fireside corrosion remain a technical challenge to date due to the extremely harsh combustion environment. The overall goal of this project is to develop a technology for on-line fireside corrosion monitoring. This objective is achieved by the laboratory development of sensors and instrumentation, testing them in a laboratory muffle furnace, and eventually testing the system in a coal-fired furnace. This project successfully developed two types of sensors and measurement systems, and successful tested them in a muffle furnace in the laboratory. The capacitance sensor had a high fabrication cost and might be more appropriate in other applications. The low-cost resistance sensor was tested in a power plant burning eastern bituminous coals. The results show that the fireside corrosion measurement system can be used to determine the corrosion rate at waterwall and superheater locations. Electron microscope analysis of the corroded sensor surface provided detailed picture of the corrosion process.
Date: March 31, 2007
Creator: Ban, Heng & Soni, Bharat
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photoinduced degradation of PAHs in the presence of ozone

Description: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) are formed from both anthropogenic and natural sources. In order to assess the environmental impact caused by the surface-adsorbed PAHs, the chemical lifetimes of these compounds in the atmosphere must be determined. Although ozone is known to be a primary reactant in the chemical transformation of surface-adsorbed PAHs in the atmosphere, the kinetics of these reactions have not been investigated in detail. In addition to the experimental difficulties that arise in using an oxygen-ozone stream while monitoring the PAH with fluorescence, complications in analyzing the kinetic mechanism also exist. It is difficult to determine whether the ozone or oxygen initially quenches the excited state of PAH. Ozone could enhance the degradation rate by simply reacting with a product derived from the excited state of PAH and oxygen. The focus of this study is to demonstrate the use of fluorescence spectroscopy in monitoring the degradation of PAH adsorbed on a three dimensional particle in the presence of gaseous ozone free from the interference of oxygen. More specifically, the experimental procedure will involve the generation of an ozone-nitrogen gas stream to be used in the investigation of dark and photochemical reactions between ozone and naphthalene. The absence of oxygen in the system will allow for the accurate monitoring of PAH fluorescence decay due solely to ozone quenching. It will also aid in the determination of the reaction mechanism. This is the first time that the direct interaction of ozone with an excited state of PAH has been demonstrated.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Schutt, W.S.; Li, Y. & Sigman, M.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National conference on environmental remediation science and technology: Abstracts

Description: This conference was held September 8--10, 1998 in Greensboro, North Carolina. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on methods and site characterization technologies for environmental monitoring and remedial action planning of hazardous materials. This report contains the abstracts of sixty-one papers presented at the conference.
Date: December 31, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Climate change decision-making: Model & parameter uncertainties explored

Description: A critical aspect of climate change decision-making is uncertainties in current understanding of the socioeconomic, climatic and biogeochemical processes involved. Decision-making processes are much better informed if these uncertainties are characterized and their implications understood. Quantitative analysis of these uncertainties serve to inform decision makers about the likely outcome of policy initiatives, and help set priorities for research so that outcome ambiguities faced by the decision-makers are reduced. A family of integrated assessment models of climate change have been developed at Carnegie Mellon. These models are distinguished from other integrated assessment efforts in that they were designed from the outset to characterize and propagate parameter, model, value, and decision-rule uncertainties. The most recent of these models is ICAM 2.1. This model includes representation of the processes of demographics, economic activity, emissions, atmospheric chemistry, climate and sea level change and impacts from these changes and policies for emissions mitigation, and adaptation to change. The model has over 800 objects of which about one half are used to represent uncertainty. In this paper we show, that when considering parameter uncertainties, the relative contribution of climatic uncertainties are most important, followed by uncertainties in damage calculations, economic uncertainties and direct aerosol forcing uncertainties. When considering model structure uncertainties we find that the choice of policy is often dominated by model structure choice, rather than parameter uncertainties.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Dowlatabadi, H.; Kandlikar, M. & Linville, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1997 environmental monitoring report for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory, Pittsburgh Site

Description: The 1997 results for the Bettis-Pittsburgh radiological and nonradiological environmental monitoring programs are presented. The results demonstrate that the existing procedures ensured that releases to the environment during 1997 were in accordance with applicable Federal, State, County, and local regulations. Evaluation of the environmental data indicates tat current operations at the Site continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. A conservative assessment of radiation exposure to the general public as a result of Site operations demonstrates that the dose received by any member of the public was well below the most restrictive dose limits established by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the US Department of Energy. A risk assessment of potentially exposed populations to chemical residues in the environment at the Site demonstrates that these residues do not pose any significant risk to human health or the environment.
Date: December 31, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rangeland plant response to elevated CO{sub 2}. Annual report, 1991

Description: Effects of carbon dioxide enrichment on a tallgrass ecosystem were monitored during the 1990 growing season. The chambers, CO{sub 2} delivery system, and data acquisition and control system were in place and operational by 4 April 1990. CO{sub 2} fumigation and data acquisition began on that date. Nitrogen fertilizer as ammonium nitrate was applied at a rate of 45 kg ha {sup -1} on 1 April to the N-fertilized plots. The chambers were 4.5 m in diameter and 4 m in height to allow for destructive sampling for biomass accumulation, leaf area determination, and for grazing esophageally-fistulated sheep. The experimental site was located in pristine Tallgrass Prairie north of/and adjacent to the Kansas State University campus. Vegetation on the site was a mixture of C3 and C4 species and was dominated by big bluestem (Andropogon geradii vitman) and indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash). Subdominants included Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr.), and tall dropseed (Sporobolus asper var. asper (Michx.) Kunth). Members of the sedge family made up 5-10% of the composition. Principal forbs included western ragweed (Ambrosia psilostachya DC.), Louisiana sagewort (Artemesia ludoviciana Nutt.), and mayflower scurfpea (Psoralea tenuiflora var. floribunda (Nutt.) Rydb.). Average peak biomass occurs in early August at 425 g m{sup -2} of which 35 g m{sup -2} is from forbs. The area was ideal for meeting the experimental objectives, in that the mixture of C3 and C4 plants would allow for assessment of competitive relationships among numerous species of both carbon fixation pathways.
Date: December 31, 1991
Creator: Owensby, C.E.; Coyne, P.I.; Ham, J.M.; Parton, W.; Rice, C.; Auen, L.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Greenhouse gas balances of biomass energy systems

Description: A full energy-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of biomass energy systems requires analysis well beyond the energy sector. For example, production of biomass fuels impacts on the global carbon cycle by altering the amount of carbon stored in the biosphere and often by producing a stream of by-products or co-products which substitute for other energy-intensive products like cement, steel, concrete or, in case of ethanol from corn, animal feed. It is necessary to distinguish between greenhouse gas emissions associated with the energy product as opposed to those associated with other products. Production of biomass fuels also has an opportunity cost because it uses large land areas which could have been used otherwise. Accounting for the greenhouse gas emissions from biomass fuels in an environment of credits and debits creates additional challenges because there are large nonlinearities in the carbon flows over time. This paper presents some of the technical challenges of comprehensive greenhouse gas accounting and distinguishes between technical and public policy issues.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Marland, G. & Schlamadinger, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Influence of Atmospheric CO{sub 2} enrichment on rangeland forage quality and animal grazing. Final technical report, September 1, 1989--August 31, 1992

Description: Increased biomass production in terrestrial ecosystems with elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}, may be constrained by nutrient limitations as a result of increased requirement or reduced availability caused by reduced turnover rates of nutrients. To determine the short-term impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization on plant biomass production under elevated CO{sub 2}, we compared the response of N-fertilized tallgrass prairie at ambient and twice-ambient CO{sub 2} levels. Native tall grass prairie plots were exposed continuously to ambient and twice-ambient CO{sub 2}. We compared our results to an unfertilized companion experiment on the same research site. Above- and below-ground biomass production and leaf area of fertilized plots were greater with elevated than ambient CO{sub 2}. Nitrogen concentration was lower in plants exposed to elevated CO{sub 2}, but total standing crop N was greater at high CO{sub 2} increased root biomass under elevated CO{sub 2} apparently increased N uptake. The biomass production response to elevated CO{sub 2} was much greater on N-fertilized than unfertilized prairie, particularly in the dry year. We conclude that biomass production response to elevated C{sub 2} was suppressed by N limitation in years with below-normal precipitation. Reduced N concentration in above- and below-ground biomass could slow microbial degradation of soil organic matter and surface litter. The reduced tissue N concentration higher acid detergent fiber under elevated CO{sub 2} compared to ambient for forage indicated that ruminant growth and reproduction could be reduced under elevated CO{sub 2}.
Date: December 31, 1992
Creator: Sionit, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual site environmental report for calendar year 1991

Description: The Western Area Power Administration (Western) has established a formal environmental protection, auditing, monitoring, and planning program which has been in effect since 1978. The significant environmental projects and issues Western was involved with in 1991 are discussed in this annual site environmental report. It is written to demonstrate the nature and effectiveness of the environmental protection program. Western is responsible for the operation and maintenance of 16,664 miles of transmission lines, 265 substations, and various appurtenant power facilities in fifteen central and western states. Western also is responsible for planning, construction, and operation and maintenance of additional federal transmission facilities that may be authorized in the future. There is a combined total of 51 hydroelectric power generating plants in the service area. Additionally, Western markets the US entitlement from the Navajo coal-fired plant near Page, Arizona. The Department of Energy requires the preparation of an annual site environmental report. Because Western has numerous facilities located in these states, this report was written to address the environmental activities in all of the facilities as one site.
Date: December 31, 1991
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department