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Tracking the Sun III; The Installed Cost of Photovoltaics in the United States from 1998-2009

Description: Installations of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have been growing at a rapid pace in recent years. In 2009, approximately 7,500 megawatts (MW) of PV were installed globally, up from approximately 6,000 MW in 2008, consisting primarily of grid-connected applications. With 335 MW of grid-connected PV capacity added in 2009, the United States was the world's fourth largest PV market in 2009, behind Germany, Italy, and Japan. The market for PV in the United States is driven by national, state, and local government incentives, including up-front cash rebates, production-based incentives, requirements that electricity suppliers purchase a certain amount of solar energy, and federal and state tax benefits. These programs are, in part, motivated by the popular appeal of solar energy, and by the positive attributes of PV - modest environmental impacts, avoidance of fuel price risks, coincidence with peak electrical demand, and the possible deployment of PV at the point of use. Given the relatively high cost of PV, however, a key goal of these policies is to encourage cost reductions over time. Therefore, as policy incentives have become more significant and as PV deployment has accelerated, so too has the desire to track the installed cost of PV systems over time, by system characteristics, by system location, and by component. Despite the significant year-on-year growth, however, the share of global and U.S. electricity supply met with PV remains small, and annual PV additions are currently modest in the context of the overall electric system. To address this need, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory initiated a report series focused on describing trends in the installed cost of grid-connected PV systems in the United States. The present report, the third in the series, describes installed cost trends from 1998 through 2009, and provides preliminary cost data for systems installed in 2010. The analysis ...
Date: December 13, 2010
Creator: Barbose, Galen; Darghouth, Naim & Wiser, Ryan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rhodium-Catalyzed C-C Bond Formation via Heteroatom-Directed C-H Bond Activation

Description: Once considered the 'holy grail' of organometallic chemistry, synthetically useful reactions employing C-H bond activation have increasingly been developed and applied to natural product and drug synthesis over the past decade. The ubiquity and relative low cost of hydrocarbons makes C-H bond functionalization an attractive alternative to classical C-C bond forming reactions such as cross-coupling, which require organohalides and organometallic reagents. In addition to providing an atom economical alternative to standard cross - coupling strategies, C-H bond functionalization also reduces the production of toxic by-products, thereby contributing to the growing field of reactions with decreased environmental impact. In the area of C-C bond forming reactions that proceed via a C-H activation mechanism, rhodium catalysts stand out for their functional group tolerance and wide range of synthetic utility. Over the course of the last decade, many Rh-catalyzed methods for heteroatom-directed C-H bond functionalization have been reported and will be the focus of this review. Material appearing in the literature prior to 2001 has been reviewed previously and will only be introduced as background when necessary. The synthesis of complex molecules from relatively simple precursors has long been a goal for many organic chemists. The ability to selectively functionalize a molecule with minimal pre-activation can streamline syntheses and expand the opportunities to explore the utility of complex molecules in areas ranging from the pharmaceutical industry to materials science. Indeed, the issue of selectivity is paramount in the development of all C-H bond functionalization methods. Several groups have developed elegant approaches towards achieving selectivity in molecules that possess many sterically and electronically similar C-H bonds. Many of these approaches are discussed in detail in the accompanying articles in this special issue of Chemical Reviews. One approach that has seen widespread success involves the use of a proximal heteroatom that serves as a directing ...
Date: May 13, 2010
Creator: Colby, Denise; Bergman, Robert & Ellman, Jonathan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2010, Attachment A: Site Description

Description: Introduction to the Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2010. Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting and the cultural resources of the NNSS. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NNSS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NNSS. The NNSS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NNSS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NNSS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.
Date: September 13, 2011
Creator: C. Wills, ed.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009, Attachment A: Site Description

Description: This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009. Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.
Date: September 13, 2010
Creator: Cathy Wills, ed.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ERDA sponsored non-electric uses of geothermal energy in the Geysers/Clear Lake area. April progress report

Description: The geotechnical, environmental, socioeconomic impact, and engineering studies undertaken to identify the different uses to which geothermal heat and fluids could be applied as a direct utilization of resource or as heat utilization are reviewed. Six potential sites are identified.
Date: May 13, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1999 and 1999 Summary

Description: A maximum of thirty eight-wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Iron (Total Recoverable), Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride) and 1,1-Dichloroethane were the most widespread constituents exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during 1999. Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Aluminum (Total Recoverable), Benzene, cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride), Gross Alpha, Mercury (Total Recoverable), Nonvolatile Beta, Tetrachloroethylene, Total Organic Halogens, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 144.175 ft/year during first quarter 1999 and 145.27 ft/year during fourth quarter 1999.
Date: March 13, 2000
Creator: Chase, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Environmental monitoring report No. 1, 1 April 1997--31 June 1997

Description: The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) demonstration project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. A demonstration unit producing 80,000 gallons per day (260 TPD) of methanol was designed, constructed, and has begun operation at a site located at the Eastman complex in Kingsport. The Partnership will own and operate the facility for the four-year demonstration period. This project is sponsored under the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, and its primary objective is to {open_quotes}demonstrate the production of methanol using the LPMEOH{trademark} Processing conjunction with an integrated coal gasification facility.{close_quotes} The project will also demonstrate the suitability of the methanol produced for use as a chemical feedstock or as a low-sulfur dioxide, low-nitrogen oxides alternative fuel in stationary and transportation applications. The project may also demonstrate the production of dimethyl ether (DME) as a mixed coproduct with methanol, if laboratory- and pilot-scale research and market verification studies show promising results. If implemented, the DME would be produced during the last six months of the four-year demonstration period. The LPMEOH{trademark} process is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and the DOE in a program that started in 1981. It was successfully piloted at a 10-TPD rate in the DOE-owned experimental unit at Air Products` LaPorte, Texas, site. This demonstration project is the culmination of that extensive cooperative development effort.
Date: February 13, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot-dry-rock energy: review of environmental aspects

Description: The potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the production of energy contained in hot dry rock (HDR) is surveyed here. In general, careful siting and timing and routine control measures should be adequate to prevent significant environmental harm; sites of particular ecological or visual and recreational value, however, may require more extensive (and more expensive) precautions such as using multiwell pads to reduce land disturbance and dry or wet and dry cooling towers to reduce or eliminate the consumptive use of water. The most important uncertainty among the environmental concerns is the seismic response of HDR formations to short-duration fluid injections at pressures above fracture thresholds; continued monitoring at HDR development sites is necessary. The direct socioeconomic impacts of HDR development should be relatively minor, owing to its capital-intensive nature. Of greater potential importance are the indirect jobs resulting from such development, which could cause significant demographic (and thus fiscal and social) impacts in sparsely populated regions. However, such indirect growth is not expected to begin until a large, stable HDR industry is established in a region, and thus its impacts are expected to be permanent rather than transient.
Date: October 13, 1981
Creator: O'Banion, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technology assessment: environmental, health, and safety impacts associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits

Description: The tar-sand resources of the US have the potential to yield as much as 36 billion barrels (bbls) of oil. The tar-sand petroleum-extraction technologies now being considered for commercialization in the United States include both surface (above ground) systems and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface systems currently receiving the most attention include: (1) thermal decomposition processes (retorting); (2) suspension methods (solvent extraction); and (3) washing techniques (water separation). Underground bitumen extraction techniques now being field tested are: (1) in situ combustion; and (2) in situ steam-injection procedures. At this time, any commercial tar-sand facility in the US will have to comply with at least 7 major federal regulations in addition to state regulations; building, electrical, and fire codes; and petroleum-industry construction standards. Pollution-control methods needed by tar-sand technologies to comply with regulatory standards and to protect air, land, and water quality will probably be similar to those already proposed for commercial oil-shale systems. The costs of these systems could range from about $1.20 to $2.45 per barrel of oil produced. Estimates of potential pollution-emisson levels affecting land, air, and water were calculated from available data related to current surface and in situ tar-sand field experiments in the US. These data were then extrapolated to determine pollutant levels expected from conceptual commercial surface and in situ facilities producing 20,000 bbl/d. The likelihood-of-occurrence of these impacts was then assessed. Experience from other industries, including information concerning health and ecosystem damage from air pollutants, measurements of ground-water transport of organic pollutants, and the effectiveness of environmental-control technologies was used to make this assessment.
Date: October 13, 1981
Creator: Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R. & Ricker, Y.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of ecosystems impacts from geothermal development in Imperial Valley, California

Description: A summary of three years of field ecological investigation in Imperial Valley Environmental Program is presented. The potential terrestrial habitat impacts of geothermal development are discussed for shorebirds and waterfowl habitat, the endangered clapper rail, powerline corridors, noise effects, animal trace element burdens, and the desert community. Aquatic habitats are discussed in terms of Salton Sea salinity, effects of geothermal brine discharges to the Salton Sea, trace element baselines, and potential toxicity of brine spills in freshwater. Studies of impacts on agriculture involved brine movement in soil, release of trace metals, trace element baselines in soil and plants, water requirements of crops, and H{sub 2}S effects on crop production in the presence of CO{sub 2} and ozone.
Date: July 13, 1979
Creator: Shinn, J.H.; Ireland, R.R.; Kercher, J.R.; Koranda, J.J. & Tompkins, G.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department