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Engineered Geothermal Systems Energy Return On Energy Investment

Description: Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. Too often comparisons of energy systems use “efficiency” when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system. Embodied energy includes the energy contained in the materials, as well as, that consumed in each stage of manufacturing from mining the raw materials to assembling the finished system. Also critical are the system boundaries and value of the energy – heat is not as valuable as electrical energy. The EROI of an EGS depends upon a number of factors that are currently unknown, for example what will be typical EGS well productivity, as well as, reservoir depth, temperature, and temperature decline rate. Thus the approach developed is to consider these factors as parameters determining EROI as a function of number of wells needed. Since the energy needed to construct a geothermal well is a function of depth, results are provided as a function of well depth. Parametric determination of EGS EROI is calculated using existing information on EGS and US Department of Energy (DOE) targets and is compared to the “minimum” EROI an energy production system should have to be an asset rather than a liability.
Date: December 10, 2012
Creator: Mansure, A J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Final Technical Report

Description: From September 1, 2002, to November 30, 2006, the Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) conducted over 120 industrial assessments across 19 different industry types in five different states. In the 1,000+ assessment recommendations written during the award, the UIC-IAC has written recommendations that, if implemented will save several millions of kilowatt-hours of electricity and several million British thermal units of natural gas annually. Additionally, the UIC-IAC has achieved an overall implementation rate in excess of 50%. During the overall span of the award period, the UIC-IAC has trained over 50 students, nearly 25% of which have remained in the energy field in some way after graduating from the IAC program. UIC-IAC students have received over $23,000 in scholarships in the last two years alone. During the course of the award, the UIC-IAC has made it a priority to incorporate ITP tools and technologies whenever possible. The ITP Best Practices tools have been used on several assessments and introduced to clients. DOE technologies are constantly compared against assessment clients to determine what technologies have reached the stage where they can effectively be introduced into industrial operations. The UIC-IAC has been involved in several projects for the Department of Energy (DOE), including energy assessments of Department of Defense bases and industrial facilities, the Plant Energy Profiler (PEP) tool assessment, and expanding the range of assessments to include large- energy users. Additionally, the UIC-IAC has forged a close relationship with the Midwest CHP Application Center, working to incorporate combined heat and power (CHP) and distributed generation (DG) technologies into industrial plants. The most recent project is the Save Energy Now (SEN) six- and 12-month follow-up surveys being conducted by UIC-IAC students. The SEN surveys are an effort for the DOE to determine the implementation rate of …
Date: April 18, 2007
Creator: Miller, Robert A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Weatherization Works!: Weatherization Assistance Program Close-Up Fact Sheet

Description: The United States demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.
Date: October 10, 2001
Creator: D&R International
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

Description: We argue that a primary focus on energy efficiency may not be sufficient to slow (and ultimately reverse) the growth in total energy consumption and carbon emissions. Instead, policy makers need to return to an earlier emphasis on"conservation," with energy efficiency seen as a means rather than an end in itself. We briefly review the concept of"intensive" versus"extensive" variables (i.e., energy efficiency versus energy consumption), and why attention to both consumption and efficiency is essential for effective policy in a carbon- and oil-constrained world with increasingly brittle energy markets. To start, energy indicators and policy evaluation metrics need to reflect energy consumption as well as efficiency. We introduce the concept of"progressive efficiency," with the expected or required level of efficiency varying as a function of house size, appliance capacity, or more generally, the scale of energy services. We propose introducing progressive efficiency criteria first in consumer information programs (including appliance labeling categories) and then in voluntary rating and recognition programs such as ENERGY STAR. As acceptance grows, the concept could be extended to utility rebates, tax incentives, and ultimately to mandatory codes and standards. For these and other programs, incorporating criteria for consumption as well as efficiency offers a path for energy experts, policy-makers, and the public to begin building consensus on energy policies that recognize the limits of resources and global carrying-capacity. Ultimately, it is both necessary and, we believe, possible to manage energy consumption, not just efficiency in order to achieve a sustainable energy balance. Along the way, we may find it possible to shift expectations away from perpetual growth and toward satisfaction with sufficiency.
Date: August 13, 2007
Creator: Diamond, Rick; Harris, Jeff; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership (REMAP): An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025

Description: Energy system modeling can be intentionally or unintentionally misused by decision-makers. This report describes how both can be minimized through careful use of models and thorough understanding of their underlying approaches and assumptions. The analysis summarized here assesses the impact that model and data choices have on forecasting energy systems by comparing seven different electric-sector models. This analysis was coordinated by the Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership (REMAP), a collaboration among governmental, academic, and nongovernmental participants.
Date: September 1, 2009
Creator: Blair, Nate; Jenkin, Thomas; Milford, James; Short, Walter; Sullivan, Patrick; Evans, David et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Energy Returned On Investment of Engineered Geothermal Systems Annual Report FY2010

Description: Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. EROI analyses of geothermal energy are either out of date or presented online with little supporting documentation. Often comparisons of energy systems inappropriately use 'efficiency' when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electric energy delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to build, operate, and decommission the facility.
Date: December 31, 2010
Creator: Mansure, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

State Energy Program in Kentucky

Description: The State Energy Program in Kentucky summarizes the important renewable energy and energy efficiency projects and recent successes of the Kentucky Division of Energy, which is the state energy office in the Kentucky.
Date: April 1, 2003
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Applications of solar energy in industrial parks

Description: The four phases of ongoing work at SERI that examines many unresolved questions regarding the purpose, solar applicability, economics, and energy modeling of industral parks are presented. The first phase involved site visits to approximately 300 parks in 12 major metropolitan areas of 9 states. Phase 2 entails an analysis of four parks selected from those parks surveyed. Phase 3 narrows the focus to two parks to be examined for detailed technical and engineering analysis. Phase 4 incorporates all of the work of the earlier phases with economic criteria to produce an energy allocation model describing energy delivery and consumption within the park.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Greaver, V. W.; Farrington, R. B. & Leboeuf, C. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Weatherization: Wyoming's Hidden Resource; Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

Description: Wyoming demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.
Date: October 10, 2001
Creator: D&R International
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Frosty Conditions Catalyze Weatherization Solutions: Maine Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

Description: Maine demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.
Date: October 10, 2001
Creator: D&R International
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar Energy Technologies Contributing to a Robust Energy Infrastructure (viewgraphs only)

Description: This paper provides a brief summary of the role that energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies can serve in strengthening our energy infrastructure. These technologies are commercially available today and are already deployed in many thousands of applications.
Date: May 1, 2003
Creator: Thornton, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Feds Pitch In, Test Load Reduction in California

Description: This brochure, part of the SEP Stellar Projects series, covers a federal load reduction test in California in May 2001. The purpose of the test was to quantify the amount of short-term reduction in power requirements could be achieved in the event of an emergency. With California electricity providers stretched to their limits last winter and spring, the California Energy Commission (CEC) wanted to test its new Automated Emergency Response System in the event of an electricity supply emergency. The system is designed to communicate with 1,000 city, county, and special districts in the event of an imminent (Stage 2 or Stage 3) emergency. CEC also wanted to see what federal and state facilities managers might contribute in conservation and energy efficiency measures. California has a large number of state and federal facilities, and their combined electricity demand is significant. The U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) offered to coordinate the federal agencies participating in the voluntary CEC test to see how much they could reduce electricity demand between 11 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. on May 24. Altogether, the test involved than 190 people from 115 facilities working for 20 different federal agencies.
Date: September 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Launching an Energy-Efficient Future in Alabama: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

Description: Alabama demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.
Date: October 10, 2001
Creator: D&R International
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Final Technical Report

Description: The industrial Assessment Center at the University of Massachusetts completed 83 assessments in this project period, covering all states in New England and the eastern part of New York. The combined energy consumption for these facilities was more than 750,000,000 kWh costing approximately $77,000,000 for electricity and close to 5,600,000 MMBtu for all fossil fuels combined, totaling almost $37,000,000. The average annual energy costs per plant were $1,372,600. We had almost eight recommendations per assessment, and the implemented recommendations alone are saving these facilities on an average $66,500 or almost 5% of their total energy bill. We have organized and participated in sixteen seminars and presentations promoting energy efficiency practices and other DOE tools and programs. Our center developed the Chilled Water System Assessment tool that is part of DOE’s BestPractices Suite of Tools. During this period we had nineteen students in the program. Fifteen were graduate students, and four were undergraduate students. Eleven of them graduated with the Masters of Science degree in mechanical engineering and are working in the energy field, and three are currently in the program. Two undergraduate students were hired by engineering firms that perform energy efficiency services, and one continued his education and is pursuing an advanced engineering degree. We cooperate with the Manufacturing Extension Partnerships and state Energy Offices to provide energy efficiency services to their constituents. As a result of our activities, all our clients requested assessments or were referred to us by one of the state energy offices, the MEP’s or DOE. Our current and former staff members hold 16 Qualified Specialist certificates. Seven of those were awarded to our students while participating in the IAC program. Currently we have three staff members with nine QS certificates and two students with four. Three people from our staff were involved in the …
Date: February 29, 2008
Creator: Kosanovic, Dragoljub (Beka)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

U.S. Energy: Overview and Key Statistics

Description: Energy supplies and prices are major economic factors in the United States, and energy markets are volatile and unpredictable. Thus, energy policy has been a recurring issue for Congress since the first major crisis in the 1970s. As an aid in policy making, this report presents a current and historical view of the supply and consumption of various forms of energy.
Date: April 11, 2012
Creator: Behrens, Carl E. & Glover, Carol
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Energy: Selected Facts and Numbers

Description: Energy supplies and prices are a major economic factor in the United States, and energy markets are volatile and unpredictable. This report represents a statistical view of the supply and consumption of various forms of energy. After an introductory overview of aggregate energy consumption, the report presents detailed analysis of trends and statistics regarding specific energy sources: oil, electricity, natural gas, and coal. A section on trends in energy efficiency is also presented.
Date: October 6, 2006
Creator: Glover, Carol & Behrens, Carl E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Energy in 2001: Crisis Again?

Description: This report deals with changes in the national energy picture since the early 1990s, when Congress last dealt at length with energy policy. It reviews the problem areas and discusses differing views on how to deal with the energy situation in the long run. A summary of some current legislative initiatives is also given.
Date: July 31, 2001
Creator: Behrens, Carl E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Energy: Useful Facts and Numbers

Description: Energy supplies and prices are a major economic factor in the United States, and energy markets are volatile and unpredictable. For both these reasons, energy policy is of frequent interest to the Congress. This report presents a statistical view of the supply and consumption of various forms of energy. After an introductory overview of aggregate energy consumption, the report presents detailed analysis of trends and statistics regarding specific energy sources: oil, electricity, natural gas, and coal. A section on trends in energy efficiency is also presented.
Date: June 23, 2003
Creator: Glover, Carol & Behrens, Carl E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Energy: Useful Facts and Numbers

Description: Energy supplies and prices are a major economic factor in the United States, and energy markets are volatile and unpredictable. For both these reasons, energy policy is of frequent interest to the Congress. This report presents a statistical view of the supply and consumption of various forms of energy. After an introductory overview of aggregate energy consumption, the report presents detailed analysis of trends and statistics regarding specific energy sources: oil, electricity, natural gas, and coal. A section on trends in energy efficiency is also presented.
Date: July 23, 2003
Creator: Glover, Carol & Behrens, Carl E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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