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Meeting the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) Mandate for Cellulosic Biofuels: Questions and Answers

Description: The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) was expanded under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA; P.L. 110-140) in an effort to reduce dependence on foreign oil, promote biofuel use, and stabilize transportation fuel prices, among other goals. Over a 15-year period, the RFS seeks to establish a market for biofuels in the transportation sector by requiring that increasing amounts of biofuels-36 billion gallons by 2022-be blended into transportation fuel. The mandate is to be accomplished with an assortment of advanced biofuels, including cellulosic biofuels-fuels produced from cellulosic materials including grasses, trees, and agricultural and municipal wastes-which will ramp up over time to comprise some 44% of the RFS in 2022.
Date: January 11, 2012
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meeting the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) Mandate for Cellulosic Biofuels: Questions and Answers

Description: This report discusses the background of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and answers some common questions about it. The RFS was expanded under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 in an effort to reduce dependence on foreign oil, promote biofuel use, and stabilize transportation fuel prices, among other goals. Over a 15-year period, the RFS seeks to establish a market for biofuels in the transportation sector by requiring that increasing amounts of biofuels be blended into transportation fuel.
Date: July 13, 2011
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meeting the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) Mandate for Cellulosic Biofuels: Questions and Answers

Description: This report, in a question and answer format, discusses some challenges facing the cellulosic biofuels community, including feedstock supply estimates, and potential legislative options to address cellulosic biofuels production uncertainty for the Renewable Fuel Standard.
Date: March 11, 2013
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Investment Advisory Series No. 2. Investment opportunities in Indochina`s energy sector

Description: Indochina is well positioned to join Asia`s recent record of impressive economic growth. Vietnam, with the largest population and its long coast, seems poised to be the first nation in Indochina to succeed. It, and to a lesser extent Laos and Cambodia, are well positioned to take advantage of future tends in energy and energy-related markets. Electricity, hydro, renewables and nuclear are discussed as well as oil and gas. Areas of the energy industry in which investment might be possible in each country are tabulated.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Hagen, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

Description: Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.
Date: January 31, 2002
Creator: Baskin, Kathryn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Council of Energy Engineering Research. Final Report

Description: The Engineering Research Program, a component program of the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), was established in 1979 to aid in resolving the numerous engineering issues arising from efforts to meet U.S. energy needs. The major product of the program became part of the body of knowledge and data upon which the applied energy technologies are founded; the product is knowledge relevant to energy exploration, production, conversion and use.
Date: August 22, 2003
Creator: Goldstein, Richard J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

Description: Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.
Date: October 31, 2001
Creator: Baskin, Kathryn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RP-5 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECT

Description: This is the second quarterly technical report for the RP-5 Renewable Energy Project. The report summarizes the work progress, effort and activities that took place during the period of October 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002. The report has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy (DOE) Guidelines. This technical report covers all meetings and discussions that were conducted in order to follow up on potential renewable energy technologies that were identified in the previous report; the technologies were analyzed for their feasibility, suitability and cost effectiveness for this project. This report covers the one-day conceptual design kickoff meeting that took place on November 4, 2002. The meeting was held to discuss the practicality and implementation of potential innovative technologies. Following the kickoff meeting, Inland Empire Utilities Agency (IEUA) and CH2M Hill, the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Consultant, held a meeting on December 2, 2002 to discuss the Conceptual Design Report outline and contents in order to clearly present each selected technology along with its evaluation, cost effectiveness and justification. A conference call also took place between the PIER Consultant and IEUA on December 13, 2002, to discuss the overall scope of work for this project. Major project activities in this period include expanded discussions on previous Energy Charrette decisions and recommendations, conceptual design kickoff meeting, conceptual design report, and deciding on the overall project scope of work.
Date: January 30, 2003
Creator: Clifton, Neil; Whitman, Eliza Jane & Zughbi, Jamal A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

Description: Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.
Date: July 31, 2001
Creator: Baskin, Kathryn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summaries of FY 1996 geosciences research

Description: The Geosciences Research Program is directed by the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Research (OER) through its Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES). Activities in the Geosciences Research Program are directed toward building the long-term fundamental knowledge base necessary to provide for energy technologies of the future. Future energy technologies and their individual roles in satisfying the nations energy needs cannot be easily predicted. It is clear, however, that these future energy technologies will involve consumption of energy and mineral resources and generation of technological wastes. The earth is a source for energy and mineral resources and is also the host for wastes generated by technological enterprise. Viable energy technologies for the future must contribute to a national energy enterprise that is efficient, economical, and environmentally sound. The Geosciences Research Program emphasizes research leading to fundamental knowledge of the processes that transport, modify, concentrate, and emplace (1) the energy and mineral resources of the earth and (2) the energy by-products of man.
Date: December 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The U.S. Department of Energy Wind Turbine Development Program

Description: The development of technologically-advanced wind turbines continues to be a high priority of the US wind industry. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a range of projects that assist the wind industry to design, develop, and test new wind turbines. The overall goal is to develop turbines that can compete with conventional electric generation with a cost of energy (COE) of 5 cents/kWh at 5.8 m/s (13 mph sites) by the mid-1990s and with a cost of energy of 4 cents/kWh or less at 5.8 m/s sites by the year 2000. These goals will be supported through the DOE Turbine Development Program. The Turbine Development Program uses a two-path approach. The first path assists US industry to develop and integrate innovative technologies into utility-grade wind turbines for the near-term (mid-1990s). The second path assists industry to develop a new generation of turbines for the year 2000. This paper describes present and planned projects under the Turbine Development Program.
Date: March 1, 1995
Creator: Link, H.; Laxson, A.; Smith, B. & Goldman, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Minnesota Agripower Project. Quarterly report, July 1996--September 1996

Description: Program status and accomplishments for the quarter are summarized in this report. The Agri-Power project is aimed at the development of alfalfa as a biomass fuel for power generation. Components of the project include varietal evaluation and selection; development of harvest, storage, and transportation systems; pellet production; and assessment of gasification and other combustion systems. Major items reported for the quarter include: (1) Design Package - economic analysis, (2) Review and Confirmation of the Alfalfa Feedwater Supply - sampling studies and resistance studies of varietals, and (3) Project Management, Engineering, and Administration - evaluation of gasification and power generating cycles.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Hanson, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International Power Institute quarterly report, October--December 1997

Description: The International Power Institute (IPI) held a meeting in Washington, DC, on July 30, 1997, to plan the future strategy and activities for IPI. This meeting was attended by the staff of the IPI, the Morehouse College Provost, Department of Energy officials and energy sector representatives. There were a total of 13 people attending this meeting that focused the country/regional focus of IPI and how best to achieve private sector participation in IPI activities. Based on the discussions held, it was decided that South Africa and Mexico would be the countries of initial principal focus for IPI, given the Institute`s staff`s expertise and the attractiveness of these markets for US investors in energy sector projects. In addition, the meeting concluded that the proposed fundraising program presented during the meeting should be revised and made more product oriented and other methods for private sector financing should be explored.
Date: April 2, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fusion energy science: Clean, safe, and abundant energy through innovative science and technology

Description: Fusion energy science combines the study of the behavior of plasmas--the state of matter that forms 99% of the visible universe--with a vision of using fusion--the energy source of the stars--to create an affordable, plentiful, and environmentally benign energy source for humankind. The dual nature of fusion energy science provides an unfolding panorama of exciting intellectual challenge and a promise of an attractive energy source for generations to come. The goal of this report is a comprehensive understanding of plasma behavior leading to an affordable and attractive fusion energy source.
Date: January 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind Resource Development Project for Armenia

Description: Armenia has few proven reserves of natural energy and is dependent on long, unreliable transport lines for oil and gas. Preliminary studies indicate that the wind energy potential in Armenia is more than 500 megawatts (MW), assuming a reasonable fraction of 10% of the land area in the high-wind zones. Over the long term, the Armenian government intends to meet 8%--10% of its electric consumption needs by grid-connected wind turbines. The goals of this project are to enhance Armenia's energy security, mitigate the environmental damage of conventional sources of energy, reduce future carbon dioxide emissions, build an environmentally sound and sustainable model for economic development, and promote trade between the U.S. and Armenia. The project is being funded by the Cafesjian Family Foundation, a private foundation based in the United States in Naples, Florida, with the participation of Ecotrade, Inc. of Glendale, California. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is providing technical assistance. As part of the wind energy development project, the authors conducted a preliminary wind-energy resource assessment for some regions in Armenia. This activity provided valuable information needed to facilitate the commercialization of wind farms in Armenia and to lay the groundwork for subsequent wind resource activities. This paper presents the wind resource monitoring results (1999--2000) for the candidate site. Preliminary assessment identified areas with good-to-excellent wind resource potential.
Date: August 17, 2000
Creator: Adamian, S.; Manoukian, L.; Lalayan, A. (Ecotrade, Inc.) & Gevorgian, V. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, April 1, 1997--June 30, 1997

Description: Detailed task progress reports and schedules are provided for the DOE/USDA sponsored Biomass Power for Rural Development project. The focus of the project is on developing commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-I, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Fayette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG) and Dunkirk Station (NMPC). Phase-H of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. Cofiring willow is also under consideration for GPU`s Seward Station where testing is under way. There will be an evaluation of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials occurring at BED`s McNeill power station. Phase-III will represent fullscale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Neuhauser, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Minnesota Agri Power Project. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

Description: Program status and accomplishments for a project to develop alfalfa as a biomass fuel for power generation are summarized in this report. The main areas of reporting include: (1) alfalfa separation pilot plant testing, (2) design of gasification plant, (3) alfalfa leaf meal feeding trials and analysis, (4) integrated plant design and cost estimate, and (5) site plan construction and environmental permits. The alfalfa separation pilot plant fractionation equipment encountered operating problems from rocks and other tramp materials in the alfalfa bales. An investigation of techniques and equipment to remove the tramp materials resulted in the selection of a vibrating conveyor system. The Carbona gasification plant design basis and the Westinghouse scope of supply and design basis for the hot gas filter are provided in the report. The alfalfa leaf meal feeding trials showed that this economically critical co-product can be a viable livestock feed ingredient if favorable price, availability, and quality are maintained. The Stone and Webster basis of design for the integrated plant is included, and the basis for development of gas turbine performance runs is also detailed.
Date: October 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, January 1, 1997--March 31, 1997

Description: Detailed task progress reports and schedules are provided for the DOE/USDA sponsored Biomass Power for Rural Development project. The focus of the project is on developing commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-1, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Fayette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG) and Dunkirk Station (NMPC). Phase-II of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. Cofiring willow is also under consideration for GPU`s Seward Station where testing is under way. There will be an evaluation of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials occurring at BED`s McNeill power station. Phase-III will represent fullscale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis.
Date: August 1, 1997
Creator: Neuhauser, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Perennial grasses for energy and conservation: Evaluating some ecological agricultural, and economic issues

Description: Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.
Date: November 1, 1995
Creator: Downing, M.; Walsh, M. & McLaughlin, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Minnesota

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Minnesota.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Francfort, J.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program [Includes Appendix C: Topical Areas Characterization]

Description: Recent years have brought dramatic advances in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. The challenge is to make fusion energy practical. As a result of the advances of the last few years, there are now exciting opportunities to optimize fusion systems so that an attractive new energy source will be available when it may be needed in the middle of the next century. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities.
Date: June 1, 1999
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The challenge of implementing an IRP process in Asia: The case of Hainan Province, China

Description: Developing a modern electric power sector is necessary for economic growth and development to proceed. Institutions to implement an IRP (integrated resource planning) process do not exist in many countries. Hainan`s economy is growing rapidly with a concomitant increase in electricity demand. This is an ideal time in Hainan`s development to implement an IRP process. The challenge is for Hainan to develop institutions and incentive mechanisms for HEPCO (Hainan Electric Power Co.) to adopt cost-based pricing, run DSM programs, construct renewable generating plants, etc. One proposal is to great a Hainan government-wide IRP committee.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Hill, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

Description: Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.
Date: October 31, 2003
Creator: Baskin, Kathryn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department