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Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets

Description: Although electrokinetic effects are not new, only recently have they been investigated for possible use in energy conversion devices. We have recently reported the electrokinetic generation of molecular hydrogen from rapidly flowing liquid water microjets [Duffin et al. JPCC 2007, 111, 12031]. Here, we describe the use of liquid water microjets for direct conversion of electrokinetic energy to electrical power. Previous studies of electrokinetic power production have reported low efficiencies ({approx}3%), limited by back conduction of ions at the surface and in the bulk liquid. Liquid microjets eliminate energy dissipation due to back conduction and, measuring only at the jet target, yield conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%.
Date: February 15, 2008
Creator: Duffin, Andrew M. & Saykally, Richard J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Damping dependence on bolt torque for a simple frame structure.

Description: Damping quantifies the energy dissipation properties of a material or system under cyclic stress. Damping is also one of the most difficult properties of a mechanical structure to model using first principles (Ewins, 2002) . Damping in uniform metal structures is often low. In built up structures dissipation occurs at mechanical joints or through introduction of viscoelastic materials ( Ungar, 1973, Goodman, 1996) . Energy dissipation at joints, associated with microslip, macroslip and hystersis increases the total damping of a structure so built up structures virtually always have greater damping than structures composed of a single part . Since damping is sensitive to interface properties, damping is a good feature for quantifying interface condition.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Hunter, N. F. (Norman F.) & Paez, Thomas L.,
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Initial Overview of Iwan Modeling for Mechanical Joints

Description: The structural dynamics modeling of engineering structures must accommodate the energy dissipation due to microslip in mechanical joints. Given the nature of current hardware and software environments, this will require the development of constitutive models for joints that both adequately reproduce the important physics and lend themselves to efficient computational processes. The exploration of the properties of mechanical joints--either through fine resolution finite element modeling or through experiment--is itself an area of research, but some qualitative behavior appears to be established. The work presented here is the presentation of a formulation of idealized elements due to Iwan, that appears capable of reproducing the important joint properties as they are now understood. Further, methods for selecting parameters for that model by joining the results from experiments in regimes of small and large load are developed. The significance of this work is that a reduced order model is presented that is capable of reproducing the important qualitative properties of mechanical joints using only a small number of parameters.
Date: March 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stopping power, its meaning, and its general characteristics

Description: This essay presents remarks on the meaning of stopping, power and of its magnitude. More precisely, the first set of remarks concerns the connection of stopping power with elements of particle-transport theory, which describes particle transport and its consequences in full detail, including its stochastic aspects. The second set of remarks concerns the magnitude of the stopping power of a material and its relation with the material`s electronic structure and other properties.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Inokuti, Mitio
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Self-similar variables and the problem of nonlocal electron heat conductivity

Description: Self-similar solutions of the collisional electron kinetic equation are obtained for the plasmas with one (1D) and three (3D) dimensional plasma parameter inhomogeneities and arbitrary Z{sub eff}. For the plasma parameter profiles characterized by the ratio of the mean free path of thermal electrons with respect to electron-electron collisions, {gamma}{sub T}, to the scale length of electron temperature variation, L, one obtains a criterion for determining the effect that tail particles with motion of the non-diffusive type have on the electron heat conductivity. For these conditions it is shown that the use of a {open_quotes}symmetrized{close_quotes} kinetic equation for the investigation of the strong nonlocal effect of suprathermal electrons on the electron heat conductivity is only possible at sufficiently high Z{sub eff} (Z{sub eff} {ge} (L/{gamma}{sub T}){sup 1/2}). In the case of 3D inhomogeneous plasma (spherical symmetry), the effect of the tail electrons on the heat transport is less pronounced since they are spread across the radius r.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Krasheninnikov, S.I. & Bakunin, O.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy loss of coasting gold ions and deuterons in RHIC.

Description: The total energy loss of coasting gold ion beams was measured at RHIC at two energies, corresponding to a gamma of 75.2 and 107.4. We describe the experiment and observations and compare the measured total energy loss with expectations from ionization losses at the residual gas, the energy loss due to impedance and synchrotron radiation. We find that the measured energy losses are below what is expected from free space synchrotron radiation. We believe that this shows evidence for suppression of synchrotron radiation which is cut off at long wavelength by the presence of the conducting beam pipe.
Date: June 23, 2008
Creator: Abreu,N.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Butler, J.J.; FischW; Harvey, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anomalies in the theory of viscous energy losses due to shear in rotational MEMS resonators.

Description: In this paper, the effect of viscous wave motion on a micro rotational resonator is discussed. This work shows the inadequacy of developing theory to represent energy losses due to shear motion in air. Existing theory predicts Newtonian losses with little slip at the interface. Nevertheless, experiments showed less effect due to Newtonian losses and elevated levels of slip for small gaps. Values of damping were much less than expected. Novel closed form solutions for the response of components are presented. The stiffness of the resonator is derived using Castigliano's theorem, and viscous fluid motion above and below the resonator is derived using a wave approach. Analytical results are compared with experimental results to determine the utility of existing theory. It was found that existing macro and molecular theory is inadequate to describes measured responses.
Date: December 1, 2003
Creator: Walsh, Timothy Francis; Klody, Kelly Anne; Jenkins, Mark W. & Dohner, Jeffrey Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical Improvements in PV Degradation Rate Determination

Description: As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly evolving industry such a time span is often unacceptable and the need exists to determine degradation rates accurately in a shorter period of time. Occurrence of outliers and data shifts are two examples of analytical problems leading to greater uncertainty and therefore to longer observation times. In this paper we compare three methodologies of data analysis for robustness in the presence of outliers, data shifts and shorter measurement time periods.
Date: February 1, 2011
Creator: Jordan, D. C. & Kurtz, S. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of bearing surfaces on lap joint energy dissipation

Description: Energy is dissipated in mechanical systems in several forms. The major contributor to damping in bolted lap joints is friction, and the level of damping is a function of stress distribution in the bearing surfaces. This study examines the effects of bearing surface configuration on lap joint energy dissipation. The examination is carried out through the analysis of experimental results in a nonlinear framework. Then finite element models are constructed in a nonlinear framework to simulate the results. The experimental data were analyzed using piecewise linear log decrement. Phenomenological and non-phenomenological mathematical models were used to simulate joint behavior. Numerical results of experiments and analyses are presented.
Date: January 1, 2001
Creator: Kess, H. R. (Harold R.); Rosnow, N. J. (Nathan J.) & Sidle, B. C. (Brian C.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mutiscale Modeling of Segregation in Granular Flows

Description: Modeling and simulation of segregation phenomena in granular flows are investigated. Computational models at different scales ranging from particle level (microscale) to continuum level (macroscale) are employed in order to determine the important microscale physics relevant to macroscale modeling. The capability of a multi-fluid model to capture segregation caused by density difference is demonstrated by simulating grain-chaff biomass flows in a laboratory-scale air column and in a combine harvester. The multi-fluid model treats gas and solid phases as interpenetrating continua in an Eulerian frame. This model is further improved by incorporating particle rotation using kinetic theory for rapid granular flow of slightly frictional spheres. A simplified model is implemented without changing the current kinetic theory framework by introducing an effective coefficient of restitution to account for additional energy dissipation due to frictional collisions. The accuracy of predicting segregation rate in a gas-fluidized bed is improved by the implementation. This result indicates that particle rotation is important microscopic physics to be incorporated into the hydrodynamic model. Segregation of a large particle in a dense granular bed of small particles under vertical. vibration is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Wall friction is identified as a necessary condition for the segregation. Large-scale force networks bearing larger-than-average forces are found with the presence of wall friction. The role of force networks in assisting rising of the large particle is analyzed. Single-point force distribution and two-point spatial force correlation are computed. The results show the heterogeneity of forces and a short-range correlation. The short correlation length implies that even dense granular flows may admit local constitutive relations. A modified minimum spanning tree (MST) algorithm is developed to asymptotically recover the force statistics in the force networks. This algorithm provides a possible route to constructing a continuum model with microstructural information supplied from it. Microstructures in ...
Date: August 3, 2007
Creator: Sun, Jin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of 2 mrad and 14/20 mrad Crossing Angle Extraction Lines

Description: A study of the beam distributions in the 2 mrad and 14/20 mrad extraction lines are presented. Beam losses, energy losses due to synchrotron radiation and spin diffusion are shown. Synchrotron radiation distributions generated by the beam as it traverses the extraction lines are studied.
Date: July 17, 2006
Creator: Moffeit, Ken; Maruyama, Takashi; Nosochkov, Yuri; Seryi, Andrei; Wood, Mike & /SLAC
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear and electronic energy loss by 1 keV to 60 keV ions in silicon : comparison of measurement to SRIM

Description: Comparison of TRIM simulations with measurements of the energy lost to electronic and nuclear stopping processes using 1 00% internal carrier collection efficiency silicon photodiodes shows a large, systematic overestimation by TRIM of electronic energy loss.
Date: January 1, 2003
Creator: Funsten, H. O. (Herbert O.); Harper, R. W. (Ronnie W.); Ritzau, S. M. (Stephen M.) & Korde, R. (Raj)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Loss Factor of the PEP-II Rings

Description: An RF power balance method is used to measure the synchrotron radiation losses and the wake field losses. We present the history of the losses in the Low Energy Ring (LER) and the High Energy Ring (HER) during the last several runs of PEP-II.
Date: July 11, 2008
Creator: Novokhatski, A. & Sullivan, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Matrix Formalism of Synchrobetatron Coupling

Description: In this paper we present a complete linear synchrobetatron coupling formalism by studying the transfer matrix which describes linear horizontal and longitudinal motions. With the technique established in the linear horizontal-vertical coupling study [D. Sagan and D. Rubin, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 2, 074001 (1999)], we found a transformation to block diagonalize the transfer matrix and decouple the betatron motion and the synchrotron motion. By separating the usual dispersion term from the horizontal coordinate first, we were able to obtain analytic expressions of the transformation under reasonable approximations. We also obtained the perturbations to the betatron tune and the Courant-Snyder functions. The closed orbit changes due to finite energy gains at rf cavities and radiation energy losses were also studied by the 5 x 5 extended transfer matrix with the fifth column describing kicks in the 4-dimension phase space.
Date: October 6, 2006
Creator: Huang, Xiaobiao
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimality and Conductivity for Water Flow: From Landscapes, to Unsaturated Soils, to Plant Leaves

Description: Optimality principles have been widely used in many areas. Based on an optimality principle that any flow field will tend toward a minimum in the energy dissipation rate, this work shows that there exists a unified form of conductivity relationship for three different flow systems: landscapes, unsaturated soils and plant leaves. The conductivity, the ratio of water flux to energy gradient, is a power function of water flux although the power value is system dependent. This relationship indicates that to minimize energy dissipation rate for a whole system, water flow has a small resistance (or a large conductivity) at a location of large water flux. Empirical evidence supports validity of the relationship for landscape and unsaturated soils (under gravity dominated conditions). Numerical simulation results also show that the relationship can capture the key features of hydraulic structure for a plant leaf, although more studies are needed to further confirm its validity. Especially, it is of interest that according to this relationship, hydraulic conductivity for gravity-dominated unsaturated flow, unlike that defined in the classic theories, depends on not only capillary pressure (or saturation), but also the water flux. Use of the optimality principle allows for determining useful results that are applicable to a broad range of areas involving highly non-linear processes and may not be possible to obtain from classic theories describing water flow processes.
Date: February 23, 2012
Creator: Liu, H.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precise measurements of the energy losses of heavy ions

Description: Accurate measurements of the energy loss of all charged particles are needed to determine the reliability of the Bethe theory of stopping power. Few measurements have been made for particles with energies greater than 20 MeV/u. A first step to accurate measurements is to establish the precision of an experimental method. The authors report here about the recent energy loss measurements for 290 MeV/u carbon ions from the HIMAC. They have been made with the method used for 70 MeV protons. The ion beam traverses an absorber of thickness t and the residual range of the ions is measured with a water container of adjustable thickness (``range gauge``).
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Bichsel, H. & Hiraoka, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of losses in ITER joints in varying parallel field

Description: One of the options for a design of a Central Solenoid in ITER and other tokamak machines is pancake would modules. In this configuration joints have to be placed in maximum magnetic field with high changing rate. In this condition joints should be designed to have at least the same or larger temperature margin as that for the conductor in the same field. It is argued that joints in parallel field can be designed to meet this requirement along with reasonably low DC resistance. Losses in parallel field are calculated and design features which can suppress AC losses without increasing DC resistance are discussed. Recommendations for low loss, low DC resistance joints are made.
Date: August 8, 1996
Creator: Martovetsky, N.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Frozen plasma within the flow from a metal plate hit by an electron beam pulse

Description: When a pulsed electron beam hits a metal plate with sufficient energy a volume of the metal becomes hot fluid that subsequently sprays out of the plate. A portion of this flow is ionized. This report describes a fluid that expands so rapidly into a vacuum that the ionized portion of the flow departs from local thermodynamic equilibrium. This cold supersonic exhaust will have a much higher degree of ionization, and of higher electron temperature, than would be expected from a gas in thermodynamic equilibrium at the local temperature of the neutral flow. This report presents a continuation of the work described in reference (1). My aim is to develop as simple a model as will reasonably predict the speed and density of neutral flow, and the temperature and density of plasma. I use simplifying assumptions and mathematical approximations to develop convenient formulas, and I test them by comparing specific examples to experimental data and computations by DeVolder and other Los Alamos scientists (2). The phenomenon of sudden expansion of a gas cloud into vacuum is described in several sections of the two-volume work by ZelUdovich and Raizer (3). The criterion I use for estimating the point in the flow where plasma ceases to be in equilibrium is in principle that proposed by Bray (4), (5), and discussed extensively by Vincenti and Kruger (6). The immediate concern motivating this work is how to design a metal target that accurately converts an electron beam pulse train into a radiation pulse train for use in the high-speed radiography of implosion hydrodynamics experiments. In the radiography application, either the electron beam must be swept magnetically along the metal target more quickly than the spread of the debris plume, or the metal plate must move laterally past a fixed point of impact, carrying its ...
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Garcia, M., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation from hard objects

Description: The inference of the diameter of hard objects is insensitive to radiation efficiency. Deductions of radiation efficiency from observations are very sensitive - possibly overly so. Inferences of the initial velocity and trajectory vary similarly, and hence are comparably sensitive.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Canavan, G. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The extended Touschek lifetime

Description: Scattering of particles within the bunch is called Touschek scattering. If large enough, such an energy transfer may eject the particle out of the bunch. If a particle is scattered in the dispersive region, it will induce a horizontal betatron oscillation which will be coupled into vertical motion when it passes through skew components. The amount of coupling is expressed in terms of the coupling coefficient, {chi}. If the coupling coefficient is large enough, the resulting vertical oscillations may exceed the normally small vertical admittance of the ring. Thus the particles may be lost even though the energy loss is within the momentum acceptance. The lifetime associated with this loss mechanism is called the extended Touschek lifetime. In the usual touschek lifetime calculation, the lifetime increases as the coupling increases. Including the effect of the vertical oscillation results in a decrease of Touschek lifetime beyond some coupling value.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Bizek, H.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department