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21st Century U.S. Energy Sources: A Primer

Description: This report provides an overview of U.S. energy issues, and it serves as an initial resource document for related information, data, and CRS contacts. It is mainly organized around the major fuels and energy sources used in the United States and also highlights the role of the federal government, particularly the use of federal lands in energy production.
Date: May 19, 2017
Creator: Ratner, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

India's Natural Gas: A Small Part of the Energy Mix

Description: This report discusses India's natural gas plans that have implications for a number of issues in which Congress has expressed an interest. Those issues include the prospects for U.S. hydrocarbon exports, U.S. energy companies' investments, Indian investments in U.S. natural gas production, India's ability to meet its international commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to combat climate change, and India's plans for integrating itself into the growing South Asian energy market.
Date: February 13, 2017
Creator: Ratner, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Energy Flow -- 1995

Description: Energy consumption in 1995 increased slightly for the fifth year in a row (from 89 to 91 quadrillion [10<sup>15</sup>Btu). U.S. economic activity slowed from the fast-paced recovery of 1994, even with the continued low unemployment rates and low inflation rates. The annual increase in U.S. real GDP dropped to 4.6% from 1994�s increase of 5.8%. Energy consumption in all major end-use sectors surpassed the record-breaking highs achieved in 1994, with the largest gains (2.5%) occurring in the residential/commercial sector. Crude oil imports decreased for the first time this decade. There was also a decline in domestic oil production. Venezuela replaced Saudi Arabia as the principal supplier of imported oil. Imports of natural gas, mainly from Canada, continued to increase. The demand for natural gas reached a level not seen since the peak levels of the early 1970s and the demand was met by a slight increase in both natural gas production and imports. Electric utilities had the largest percentage increase of n.atural gas consumption, a climb of 7% above 1994 levels. Although coal production decreased, coal exports continued to make a comeback after 3 years of decline. Coal once again become the primary U.S. energy export. Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) consists of two phases. Phase I (in effect as of January 1, 1995) set emission restrictions on 110 mostly coal-burning plants in the eastern and midwestem United States. Phase II, planned to begin in the year 2000, places additional emission restrictions on about 1,000 electric plants. As of January 1, 1995, the reformulated gasoline program, also part of the CAAA90, was finally initiated. As a result, this cleaner-burning fuel was made available in areas of the United States that failed to meet the Environmental Protection Agency� s (EPA�s) ozone standards. In 1995, reformulated ...
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Miller, H.; Mui, N. & Pasternak, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling diffusion of electrical appliances in the residential sector

Description: This paper presents a methodology for modeling residential appliance uptake as a function of root macroeconomic drivers. The analysis concentrates on four major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, washing machines, televisions and air conditioners. The model employs linear regression analysis to parameterize appliance ownership in terms of household income, urbanization and electrification rates according to a standard binary choice (logistic) function. The underlying household appliance ownership data are gathered from a variety of sources including energy consumption and more general standard of living surveys. These data span a wide range of countries, including many developing countries for which appliance ownership is currently low, but likely to grow significantly over the next decades as a result of economic development. The result is a 'global' parameterization of appliance ownership rates as a function of widely available macroeconomic variables for the four appliances studied, which provides a reliable basis for interpolation where data are not available, and forecasting of ownership rates on a global scale. The main value of this method is to form the foundation of bottom-up energy demand forecasts, project energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, and allow for the construction of detailed emissions mitigation scenarios.
Date: November 22, 2009
Creator: McNeil, Michael A. & Letschert, Virginie E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

Description: National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.
Date: March 31, 2008
Creator: Jimenez, Tamara
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SSTAR: The U.S. Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR)

Description: It is widely recognized that the developing world is the next area for major energy demand growth, including demand for new and advanced nuclear energy systems. With limited existing industrial and grid infrastructures, there will be an important need for future nuclear energy systems that can provide small or moderate increments of electric power (10-700 MWe) on small or immature grids in developing nations. Most recently, the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) has identified, as one of its key objectives, the development and demonstration of concepts for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) that can be globally deployed while assuring a high level of proliferation resistance. Lead-cooled systems offer several key advantages in meeting these goals. The small lead-cooled fast reactor concept known as the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) reactor has been under ongoing development under the U.S. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative. It a system designed to provide energy security to developing nations while incorporating features to achieve nonproliferation aims, anticipating GNEP objectives. This paper presents the motivation for development of internationally deployable nuclear energy systems as well as a summary of one such system, SSTAR, which is the U.S. Generation IV Lead-cooled Fast Reactor system.
Date: September 25, 2007
Creator: Smith, C F; Halsey, W G; Brown, N W; Sienicki, J J; Moisseytsev, A & Wade, D C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-Term US Industrial Energy Use and CO2 Emissions

Description: We present a description and scenario results from our recently-developed long-term model of United States industrial sector energy consumption, which we have incorporated as a module within the ObjECTS-MiniCAM integrated assessment model. This new industrial model focuses on energy technology and fuel choices over a 100 year period and allows examination of the industrial sector response to climate policies within a global modeling framework. A key challenge was to define a level of aggregation that would be able to represent the dynamics of industrial energy demand responses to prices and policies, but at a level that remains tractable over a long time frame. In our initial results, we find that electrification is an important response to a climate policy, although there are services where there are practical and economic limits to electrification, and the ability to switch to a low-carbon fuel becomes key. Cogeneration of heat and power using biomass may also play a role in reducing carbon emissions under a policy constraint.
Date: December 3, 2007
Creator: Wise, Marshall A.; Sinha, Paramita; Smith, Steven J. & Lurz, Joshua P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy

Description: Policy makers and program designers in the U.S. and abroad are deeply concerned with the question of how to scale up energy efficiency to a level that is commensurate both to the scale of the energy and climate challenges we face, and to the potential for energy savings that has been touted for decades. When policy makers ask what energy efficiency can do, the answers usually revolve around the technical and economic potential of energy efficiency - they rarely hone in on the element of energy demand that matters most for changing energy usage in existing homes: the consumer. A growing literature is concerned with the behavioral underpinnings of energy consumption. We examine a narrower, related subject: How can millions of Americans be persuaded to divert valued time and resources into upgrading their homes to eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy? With hundreds of millions of public dollars flowing into incentives, workforce training, and other initiatives to support comprehensive home energy improvements, it makes sense to review the history of these programs and begin gleaning best practices for encouraging comprehensive home energy improvements. Looking across 30 years of energy efficiency programs that targeted the residential market, many of the same issues that confronted past program administrators are relevant today: How do we cost-effectively motivate customers to take action? Who can we partner with to increase program participation? How do we get residential efficiency programs to scale? While there is no proven formula - and only limited success to date with reliably motivating large numbers of Americans to invest in comprehensive home energy improvements, especially if they are being asked to pay for a majority of the improvement costs - there is a rich and varied history of experiences that new programs can draw upon. Our ...
Date: September 20, 2010
Creator: Fuller, Merrian C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fueling sustainable development: The energy productivity solution

Description: The booklet describes the mounting policy and business concerns surrounding the supply of energy and argues that the most cost-effective way to address these concerns is through improving energy productivity and adopting existing energy-efficient technologies that pay for themselves in future energy savings. The document supports the role of public policy in encouraging consumers and businesses to capture the benefits of higher energy productivity.
Date: October 2008
Creator: McKinsey Global Institute
Partner: UNT Libraries

The residential space heating problem in Lithuania

Description: This report gives preliminary data on housing in Lithuania. We focus on the actual housing structure now that much of the stock has been privatized-an action that carries with it uncertainty regarding who is responsible for heating energy use, who is responsible for conservation measures and retrofitting, and who benefits from these actions. The paper then discusses some of the measures undertaken by both property owners and by governmental agencies to ameliorate poor heating conditions. The report summarizes results from a number of recent studies of the potential for energy savings in heating Lithuanian multifamily buildings. In closing we recommend actions that should be taken soon to ensure that Lithuanian housing moves along a path to greater energy efficiency. Some signals as to where this path should go can be taken from European countries with similar climatic conditions.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Kazakevicius, E.; Schipper, L. & Meyers, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

Description: This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J. & Roop, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

Description: This report documents the approaches used in developing the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of the coal market module`s three submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS), the Coal Export Submodule (CES), the Coal Expert Submodule (CES), and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).
Date: March 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regional growth and energy supply: Is there an energy security issue?

Description: This study examines how the growth of the developing world might affect energy markets in the future. Based on recent growth trends, world energy demand could reasonably be expected to grow from about 350 Exajoules (EJ: 1.0E18=0.95 Quad) to nearly 1025 EJ by the year 2020, nearly 3x current consumption estimates. Introduction of more energy-efficient technologies could reduce this growth by about 17% to 830 EJ. But one cannot rely exclusively on current trends to forecast future energy demand. The growth of the developing world will interact with supply to affect prices, which in turn will mitigate the growth of demand, and growth rates of energy use will be much more modes. Under the Business as Usual scenario, energy demand will grow to 835 EJ by 2020, and this could be reduced a further 15% to 714 EJ through the adoption of more energy efficient technologies. Fuel prices based on model results are analyzed. Energy security implications of rapid growth in the developing world are considered and found to be of likely little significance.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Roop, J.M.; Freund, K.A.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Johnson, A.K.; Paananen, O.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantifying occupant energy behavior using pattern analysis techniques

Description: Occupant energy behavior is widely agreed upon to have a major influence over the amount of energy used in buildings. Few attempts have been made to quantify this energy behavior, even though vast amounts of end-use data containing useful information lay fallow. This paper describes analysis techniques developed to extract behavioral information from collected residential end-use data. Analysis of the averages, standard deviations and frequency distributions of hourly data can yield important behavioral information. Pattern analysis can be used to group similar daily energy patterns together for a particular end-use or set of end-uses. Resulting pattern groups can then be examined statistically using multinomial logit modeling to find their likelihood of occurrence for a given set of daily conditions. These techniques were tested successfully using end-use data for families living in four heavily instrumented residences. Energy behaviors were analyzed for individual families during each heating season of the study. These behaviors (indoor temperature, ventilation load, water heating, large appliance energy, and miscellaneous outlet energy) capture how occupants directly control the residence. The pattern analysis and multinomial logit model were able to match the occupant behavior correctly 40 to 70% of the time. The steadier behaviors of indoor temperature and ventilation were matched most successfully. Simple changes to capture more detail during pattern analysis can increase accuracy for the more variable behavior patterns. The methods developed here show promise for extracting meaningful and useful information about occupant energy behavior from the stores of existing end-use data.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Emery, A. & Gartland, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Near-ground cooling efficacies of trees and high-albedo surfaces

Description: Daytime summer urban heat islands arise when the prevalence of dark-colored surfaces and lack of vegetation make a city warmer than neighboring countryside. Two frequently-proposed summer heat island mitigation measures are to plant trees and to increase the albedo (solar reflectivity) of ground surfaces. This dissertation examines the effects of these measures on the surface temperature of an object near the ground, and on solar heating of air near the ground. Near-ground objects include people, vehicles, and buildings. The variation of the surface temperature of a near-ground object with ground albedo indicates that a rise in ground albedo will cool a near-ground object only if the object`s albedo exceeds a critical value. This critical value of object albedo depends on wind speed, object geometry, and the height of the atmospheric thermal boundary layer. It ranges from 0.15 to 0.37 for a person. If an object has typical albedo of 0.3, increasing the ground albedo by.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Levinson, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

California energy flow in 1994

Description: California energy consumption increased in 1994 in keeping with a recovery from the previous mild recession years. Although unemployment remained above the national average, other indicators pointed to improved economic health. Increased energy use was registered principally in the residential/commercial and transportation end-use sectors. A cooler-than-usual winter and spring was reflected in increased consumption of natural gas, the principal space-heating fuel in the state. Because of low water levels behind state dams, utilities turned to natural gas for electrical generation and to increased imports from out-of- state sources to meet demand. Other factors, such as smaller output from geothermal, biomass, and cogenerators, contributed to the need for the large increase in electrical supply from these two sources. Nonetheless, petroleum dominated the supply side of the energy equation of the state in which transportation requirements comprise more than one-third of total energy demand. About half of the oil consumed derived from California production. Onshore production has been in slow decline; however, in 1994 the decrease was compensated for by increases from federal offshore fields. Until 1994 production had been limited by regulatory restrictions relating to the movement of the crude oil to onshore refineries. State natural gas production remained at 1993 levels. The increased demand was met by larger imports from Canada through the recent expansion of Pacific Transmission Company`s 804 mile pipeline. Deregulation of the state`s utilities moved ahead in 1994 when the California Public Utilities Commission issued its proposal on how to restructure the industry. Public hearings were conducted in which the chief issues were recovery of the utilities` capital investments, conflicts with the Public Utilities Policies Act, management of power transactions between new suppliers and former utility customers, and preservation of energy conservation programs currently sponsored by the utilities. The issues were not resolved at year-end, but the ...
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Borg, I.Y. & Mui, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International ESCO business opportunities and challenges: a Japanese case study

Description: Recently, US energy service companies (ESCOs) have begun to actively explore markets outside the US. Despite the needs of many countries for ESCO involvement, ESCOs face many challenges (i.e., marketing, financial, institutional, political and cultural barriers). Consequently, most of these firms pursue international project opportunities very selectively due to the costs and risks associated with project development. Despite these barriers, some ESCOs view international work as a strategic expansion of their business, assuming that there will be adequate business in the future to repay them for their initial investment. In this paper, the authors present the findings from a recently completed study on the proposed development of an ESCO industry in Japan. The study was based on four sources of information: (1) a review of the published and unpublished literature on ESCOs; (2) interviews with 26 ESCOs in the US, the US Department of Energy, and the National Association of Energy Service Companies (NAESCO); (3) ESCO presentations at the October 1996 NAESCO meeting; and (4) informal discussions with ESCO experts in the US. They believe that the lessons learned in this study can be transferred or applied to other countries interested in developing an ESCO industry. While energy prices have remained relatively stable over the last several years in Japan and energy capacity is not perceived as a near-term problem, other ``market drivers`` necessary for the emergence of a successful and vibrant ESCO industry exist in Japan. Despite the presence of these market drivers, significant barriers to the successful development of an ESCO industry exist in Japan.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Vine, E. & Murakoshi, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department