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21st Century U.S. Energy Sources: A Primer

Description: This report provides an overview of U.S. energy issues, and it serves as an initial resource document for related information, data, and CRS contacts. It is mainly organized around the major fuels and energy sources used in the United States and also highlights the role of the federal government, particularly the use of federal lands in energy production.
Date: May 19, 2017
Creator: Ratner, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

21st Century U.S. Energy Sources: A Primer

Description: This report provides an overview of U.S. energy issues, and suggests related information, data, and CRS contacts. It is mainly organized around the major fuels and energy sources: resources on federal lands, oil, natural gas, electric, coal, nuclear power, and renewable energy.
Date: November 5, 2018
Creator: Ratner, Michael; Bracmort, Kelsi; Brown, Phillip; Campbell, Richard J.; Holt, Mark; Humphries, Marc et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. Energy Flow -- 1995

Description: Energy consumption in 1995 increased slightly for the fifth year in a row (from 89 to 91 quadrillion [10<sup>15</sup>Btu). U.S. economic activity slowed from the fast-paced recovery of 1994, even with the continued low unemployment rates and low inflation rates. The annual increase in U.S. real GDP dropped to 4.6% from 1994�s increase of 5.8%. Energy consumption in all major end-use sectors surpassed the record-breaking highs achieved in 1994, with the largest gains (2.5%) occurring in the residential/commercial sector. Crude oil imports decreased for the first time this decade. There was also a decline in domestic oil production. Venezuela replaced Saudi Arabia as the principal supplier of imported oil. Imports of natural gas, mainly from Canada, continued to increase. The demand for natural gas reached a level not seen since the peak levels of the early 1970s and the demand was met by a slight increase in both natural gas production and imports. Electric utilities had the largest percentage increase of n.atural gas consumption, a climb of 7% above 1994 levels. Although coal production decreased, coal exports continued to make a comeback after 3 years of decline. Coal once again become the primary U.S. energy export. Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) consists of two phases. Phase I (in effect as of January 1, 1995) set emission restrictions on 110 mostly coal-burning plants in the eastern and midwestem United States. Phase II, planned to begin in the year 2000, places additional emission restrictions on about 1,000 electric plants. As of January 1, 1995, the reformulated gasoline program, also part of the CAAA90, was finally initiated. As a result, this cleaner-burning fuel was made available in areas of the United States that failed to meet the Environmental Protection Agency� s (EPA�s) ozone standards. In 1995, reformulated ...
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Miller, H.; Mui, N. & Pasternak, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

India's Natural Gas: A Small Part of the Energy Mix

Description: This report discusses India's natural gas plans that have implications for a number of issues in which Congress has expressed an interest. Those issues include the prospects for U.S. hydrocarbon exports, U.S. energy companies' investments, Indian investments in U.S. natural gas production, India's ability to meet its international commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to combat climate change, and India's plans for integrating itself into the growing South Asian energy market.
Date: February 13, 2017
Creator: Ratner, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling diffusion of electrical appliances in the residential sector

Description: This paper presents a methodology for modeling residential appliance uptake as a function of root macroeconomic drivers. The analysis concentrates on four major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, washing machines, televisions and air conditioners. The model employs linear regression analysis to parameterize appliance ownership in terms of household income, urbanization and electrification rates according to a standard binary choice (logistic) function. The underlying household appliance ownership data are gathered from a variety of sources including energy consumption and more general standard of living surveys. These data span a wide range of countries, including many developing countries for which appliance ownership is currently low, but likely to grow significantly over the next decades as a result of economic development. The result is a 'global' parameterization of appliance ownership rates as a function of widely available macroeconomic variables for the four appliances studied, which provides a reliable basis for interpolation where data are not available, and forecasting of ownership rates on a global scale. The main value of this method is to form the foundation of bottom-up energy demand forecasts, project energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, and allow for the construction of detailed emissions mitigation scenarios.
Date: November 22, 2009
Creator: McNeil, Michael A. & Letschert, Virginie E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The residential space heating problem in Lithuania

Description: This report gives preliminary data on housing in Lithuania. We focus on the actual housing structure now that much of the stock has been privatized-an action that carries with it uncertainty regarding who is responsible for heating energy use, who is responsible for conservation measures and retrofitting, and who benefits from these actions. The paper then discusses some of the measures undertaken by both property owners and by governmental agencies to ameliorate poor heating conditions. The report summarizes results from a number of recent studies of the potential for energy savings in heating Lithuanian multifamily buildings. In closing we recommend actions that should be taken soon to ensure that Lithuanian housing moves along a path to greater energy efficiency. Some signals as to where this path should go can be taken from European countries with similar climatic conditions.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Kazakevicius, E.; Schipper, L. & Meyers, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

Description: This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J. & Roop, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Model documentation coal market module of the National Energy Modeling System

Description: This report documents the approaches used in developing the Annual Energy Outlook 1995 (AEO95). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of the coal market module`s three submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS), the Coal Export Submodule (CES), the Coal Expert Submodule (CES), and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).
Date: March 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regional growth and energy supply: Is there an energy security issue?

Description: This study examines how the growth of the developing world might affect energy markets in the future. Based on recent growth trends, world energy demand could reasonably be expected to grow from about 350 Exajoules (EJ: 1.0E18=0.95 Quad) to nearly 1025 EJ by the year 2020, nearly 3x current consumption estimates. Introduction of more energy-efficient technologies could reduce this growth by about 17% to 830 EJ. But one cannot rely exclusively on current trends to forecast future energy demand. The growth of the developing world will interact with supply to affect prices, which in turn will mitigate the growth of demand, and growth rates of energy use will be much more modes. Under the Business as Usual scenario, energy demand will grow to 835 EJ by 2020, and this could be reduced a further 15% to 714 EJ through the adoption of more energy efficient technologies. Fuel prices based on model results are analyzed. Energy security implications of rapid growth in the developing world are considered and found to be of likely little significance.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Roop, J.M.; Freund, K.A.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Johnson, A.K.; Paananen, O.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantifying occupant energy behavior using pattern analysis techniques

Description: Occupant energy behavior is widely agreed upon to have a major influence over the amount of energy used in buildings. Few attempts have been made to quantify this energy behavior, even though vast amounts of end-use data containing useful information lay fallow. This paper describes analysis techniques developed to extract behavioral information from collected residential end-use data. Analysis of the averages, standard deviations and frequency distributions of hourly data can yield important behavioral information. Pattern analysis can be used to group similar daily energy patterns together for a particular end-use or set of end-uses. Resulting pattern groups can then be examined statistically using multinomial logit modeling to find their likelihood of occurrence for a given set of daily conditions. These techniques were tested successfully using end-use data for families living in four heavily instrumented residences. Energy behaviors were analyzed for individual families during each heating season of the study. These behaviors (indoor temperature, ventilation load, water heating, large appliance energy, and miscellaneous outlet energy) capture how occupants directly control the residence. The pattern analysis and multinomial logit model were able to match the occupant behavior correctly 40 to 70% of the time. The steadier behaviors of indoor temperature and ventilation were matched most successfully. Simple changes to capture more detail during pattern analysis can increase accuracy for the more variable behavior patterns. The methods developed here show promise for extracting meaningful and useful information about occupant energy behavior from the stores of existing end-use data.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Emery, A. & Gartland, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Near-ground cooling efficacies of trees and high-albedo surfaces

Description: Daytime summer urban heat islands arise when the prevalence of dark-colored surfaces and lack of vegetation make a city warmer than neighboring countryside. Two frequently-proposed summer heat island mitigation measures are to plant trees and to increase the albedo (solar reflectivity) of ground surfaces. This dissertation examines the effects of these measures on the surface temperature of an object near the ground, and on solar heating of air near the ground. Near-ground objects include people, vehicles, and buildings. The variation of the surface temperature of a near-ground object with ground albedo indicates that a rise in ground albedo will cool a near-ground object only if the object`s albedo exceeds a critical value. This critical value of object albedo depends on wind speed, object geometry, and the height of the atmospheric thermal boundary layer. It ranges from 0.15 to 0.37 for a person. If an object has typical albedo of 0.3, increasing the ground albedo by.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Levinson, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

California energy flow in 1994

Description: California energy consumption increased in 1994 in keeping with a recovery from the previous mild recession years. Although unemployment remained above the national average, other indicators pointed to improved economic health. Increased energy use was registered principally in the residential/commercial and transportation end-use sectors. A cooler-than-usual winter and spring was reflected in increased consumption of natural gas, the principal space-heating fuel in the state. Because of low water levels behind state dams, utilities turned to natural gas for electrical generation and to increased imports from out-of- state sources to meet demand. Other factors, such as smaller output from geothermal, biomass, and cogenerators, contributed to the need for the large increase in electrical supply from these two sources. Nonetheless, petroleum dominated the supply side of the energy equation of the state in which transportation requirements comprise more than one-third of total energy demand. About half of the oil consumed derived from California production. Onshore production has been in slow decline; however, in 1994 the decrease was compensated for by increases from federal offshore fields. Until 1994 production had been limited by regulatory restrictions relating to the movement of the crude oil to onshore refineries. State natural gas production remained at 1993 levels. The increased demand was met by larger imports from Canada through the recent expansion of Pacific Transmission Company`s 804 mile pipeline. Deregulation of the state`s utilities moved ahead in 1994 when the California Public Utilities Commission issued its proposal on how to restructure the industry. Public hearings were conducted in which the chief issues were recovery of the utilities` capital investments, conflicts with the Public Utilities Policies Act, management of power transactions between new suppliers and former utility customers, and preservation of energy conservation programs currently sponsored by the utilities. The issues were not resolved at year-end, but the ...
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Borg, I.Y. & Mui, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

International ESCO business opportunities and challenges: a Japanese case study

Description: Recently, US energy service companies (ESCOs) have begun to actively explore markets outside the US. Despite the needs of many countries for ESCO involvement, ESCOs face many challenges (i.e., marketing, financial, institutional, political and cultural barriers). Consequently, most of these firms pursue international project opportunities very selectively due to the costs and risks associated with project development. Despite these barriers, some ESCOs view international work as a strategic expansion of their business, assuming that there will be adequate business in the future to repay them for their initial investment. In this paper, the authors present the findings from a recently completed study on the proposed development of an ESCO industry in Japan. The study was based on four sources of information: (1) a review of the published and unpublished literature on ESCOs; (2) interviews with 26 ESCOs in the US, the US Department of Energy, and the National Association of Energy Service Companies (NAESCO); (3) ESCO presentations at the October 1996 NAESCO meeting; and (4) informal discussions with ESCO experts in the US. They believe that the lessons learned in this study can be transferred or applied to other countries interested in developing an ESCO industry. While energy prices have remained relatively stable over the last several years in Japan and energy capacity is not perceived as a near-term problem, other ``market drivers`` necessary for the emergence of a successful and vibrant ESCO industry exist in Japan. Despite the presence of these market drivers, significant barriers to the successful development of an ESCO industry exist in Japan.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Vine, E. & Murakoshi, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

Description: The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.
Date: October 14, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A discrete-continuous choice model of climate change impacts on energy

Description: This paper estimates a discrete-continuous fuel choice model in order to explore climate impacts on the energy sector. The model is estimated on a national data set of firms and households. The results reveal that actors switch from oil in cold climates to electricity and natural gas in warm climates and that fuel-specific expenditures follow a U-shaped relationship with respect to temperature. The model implies that warming will increase American energy expenditures, reflecting a sizable welfare damage.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Morrison, W.N. & Mendelsohn, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The impacts of climate change on energy: An aggregate expenditure model for the US

Description: This paper develops a theoretical model to measure the climate change impacts to the energy sector. Welfare effects are approximately equal to the resulting change in expenditures on energy and buildings. Using micro data on individuals and firms across the United States, energy expenditures are regressed on climate and other control variables to estimate both short-run and long-run climate response functions. The analysis suggests that energy expenditures have a quadratic U-shaped relationship with respect to temperature. Future warming of 2 C is predicted to cause annual damages of about $6 billion but increases of 5 C would increase damages to almost $30 billion.
Date: September 1, 1998
Creator: Morrison, W. & Mendelsohn, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

China power - thermal coal and clean coal technology export. Topical report

Description: China is the world`s fourth largest electric power producer, and is expected to surpass Japan within the next two years to become the third largest power producer. During the past 15 years, China`s total electricity generation more than tripled, increasing from about 300 TWh to about 1,000 TWh. Total installed generating capacity grew at an average of 8.2 percent per year, increasing from 66 to 214 GW. The share of China`s installed capacity in Asia increased from 21 to 31 percent. The Chinese government plans to continue China`s rapid growth rate in the power sector. Total installed capacity is planned to reach 300 GW by 2000, which will generate 1,400 TWh of electricity per year. China`s long-term power sector development is subject to great uncertainty. Under the middle scenario, total capacity is expected to reach 700 GW by 2015, with annual generation of 3,330 TWh. Under the low and high scenarios, total capacity will reach 527-1,005 GW by 2015. The high scenario representing possible demand. To achieve this ambitious scenario, dramatic policy changes in favor of power development are required; however, there is no evidence that such policy changes will occur at this stage. Even under the high scenario, China`s per capita annual electricity consumption would be only 3,000 kWh by 2015, less than half of the present per capita consumption for OECD countries. Under the low scenario, electricity shortages will seriously curb economic growth.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Li, Binsheng
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, second quarter 1996

Description: The Energy Information Administration prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The forecasts in this issue cover the second quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Changes to macroeconomic measures by the Bureau of Economic Analysis have been incorporated into the STIFS model used.
Date: April 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department