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Industrial Assessment Centers: A program of direct assistance for small and medium-size manufacturers. Quarterly progres report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

Description: During the quarter ending March 31, 1998, the IACs in the Western Region issued assessment reports to 16 clients for the 1996-97 program period. The attached summary shows the aggregate numbers of industrial assessments performed by, reports received from, critiques completed and returned to, and implementation reports completed by each of the Western Region IACs under the 1995-96 program period through the quarter ending March 31, 1998. Table 2 shows the numbers of industrial assessments performed by, reports received from, critiques completed and returned to, and implementation reports completed by each of the Western Region IACs under the 1996-97 program period.
Date: June 17, 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The industrial Center at Mississippi State University

Description: The Mississippi State University Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) is one of 26 centers supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at universities across the country. The Mississippi State University IAC in existence since 1994 provides plant assessments at no cost to eligible small and mid-sized manufacturers categorized in Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Codes 20-39. Client eligibility is based on gross sales below $100 million, fewer than 500 employees at the plant, annual utility bills more than $100,000 and less than $2 million, and no in-house professional staff to perform an assessment. IAC assessment benefits include no cost to the clients, increased profitability and competitiveness, confidentiality, non-regulatory, nonobligatory, and student involvement.
Date: April 30, 2007
Creator: Hodge, b.K. & Emplaincourt, Mary C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building Energy Audit Report for Camp Smith, HI

Description: A detailed energy assessment was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Management program (FEMP). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at Camp Smith, identify the most cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings. This report documents the results of that assessment.
Date: September 30, 2010
Creator: Chvala, William D.; De La Rosa, Marcus I.; Brown, Daryl R. & Dixon, Douglas R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building Energy Audit Report for Pearl Harbor, HI

Description: A building energy audit was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at selected Pearl Harbor buildings, identify cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings. This report documents the findings of that assessment.
Date: September 30, 2010
Creator: Brown, Daryl R.; Chvala, William D.; De La Rosa, Marcus I. & Dixon, Douglas R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Building Energy Audit Report, for Hickam AFB, HI

Description: A building energy assessment was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Management program (FEMP). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at Hickam AFB, identify the most cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings. This documents reports the results of that assessment.
Date: September 30, 2010
Creator: Chvala, William D.; De La Rosa, Marcus I.; Brown, Daryl R. & Dixon, Douglas R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial Energy Audit Guidebook: Guidelines for Conducting an Energy Audit in Industrial Facilities

Description: Various studies in different countries have shown that significant energy-efficiency improvement opportunities exist in the industrial sector, many of which are cost-effective. These energy-efficiency options include both cross-cutting as well as sector-specific measures. However, industrial plants are not always aware of energy-efficiency improvement potentials. Conducting an energy audit is one of the first steps in identifying these potentials. Even so, many plants do not have the capacity to conduct an effective energy audit. In some countries, government policies and programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency. However, usually only limited technical and financial resources for improving energy efficiency are available, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises. Information on energy auditing and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to industrial plants. This guidebook provides guidelines for energy auditors regarding the key elements for preparing for an energy audit, conducting an inventory and measuring energy use, analyzing energy bills, benchmarking, analyzing energy use patterns, identifying energy-efficiency opportunities, conducting cost-benefit analysis, preparing energy audit reports, and undertaking post-audit activities. The purpose of this guidebook is to assist energy auditors and engineers in the plant to conduct a well-structured and effective energy audit.
Date: October 7, 2010
Creator: Hasanbeigi, Ali & Price, Lynn
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Benchmarking for Complex Building Types: Laboratories as an Exemplar

Description: Complex buildings such as laboratories, data centers and cleanrooms present particular challenges for energy benchmarking because it is difficult to normalize special requirements such as health and safety in laboratories and reliability (i.e., system redundancy to maintain uptime) in data centers which significantly impact energy use. For example, air change requirements vary widely based on the type of work being performed in each laboratory space. We present methods and tools for energy benchmarking in laboratories, as an exemplar of a complex building type. First, we address whole building energy metrics and normalization parameters. We present empirical methods based on simple data filtering as well as multivariate regression analysis on the Labs21 database. The regression analysis showed lab type, lab-area ratio and occupancy hours to be significant variables. Yet the dataset did not allow analysis of factors such as plug loads and air change rates, both of which are critical to lab energy use. The simulation-based method uses an EnergyPlus model to generate a benchmark energy intensity normalized for a wider range of parameters. We suggest that both these methods have complementary strengths and limitations. Second, we present"action-oriented" benchmarking, which extends whole-building benchmarking by utilizing system-level features and metrics such as airflow W/cfm to quickly identify a list of potential efficiency actions which can then be used as the basis for a more detailed audit. While action-oriented benchmarking is not an"audit in a box" and is not intended to provide the same degree of accuracy afforded by an energy audit, we demonstrate how it can be used to focus and prioritize audit activity and track performance at the system level. We conclude with key principles that are more broadly applicable to other complex building types.
Date: August 1, 2010
Creator: Mathew, Paul A.; Clear, Robert; Kircher, Kevin; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho & Hoyt, Tyler
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance Federal Aviation Administration – Project 209 Control Tower and Support Building, Reno, Nevada

Description: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Redhorse Corporation (Redhorse) conducted an energy audit on the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) control tower and base building in Reno, Nevada. This report presents the findings of the energy audit team that evaluated construction documents and operating specifications (at the 100% level) and completed a site visit. The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.
Date: June 30, 2010
Creator: Arends, J. & Sandusky, William F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act ( ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance, U.S. General Services Administration - Project 194 U.S. Custom Cargo Inspection Facility, Detroit, MI

Description: This report documents the findings of an on-site audit of the U.S. Customs Cargo Inspection Facility (CIF) in Detroit, Michigan. The federal landlord for this building is the General Services Administration (GSA). The focus of the audit was to identify various no-cost or low-cost energy-efficiency opportunities that, once implemented, would reduce electrical and gas consumption and increase the operational efficiency of the building. This audit also provided an opportunity to identify potential capital cost projects that should be considered in the future to acquire additional energy (electric and gas) and water savings to further increase the operational efficiency of the building.
Date: May 31, 2010
Creator: Arends, J. & Sandusky, William F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy management assistance for small and medium-size manufacturers, 1987--1988

Description: Small and medium-size manufacturers continue to express strong confidence in and satisfaction with the energy-conserving and cost-saving services provided by the Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers. That conclusion is based upon in-depth interviews with 243 of the 388 manufacturers (63%) served during 1987-88 by an EADC. These interviews were conducted at the manufacturing plants by engineers from the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center, which manages the EADC program under agreement with the Office of Industrial Programs, U.S. Department of Energy. University engineering faculty and a mix of graduate and undergraduate students who make up the staff of each EADC perform energy audits under subcontract to the Science Center at manufacturing plants which are located within about 150 miles of the university. This report presents the chief results obtained during two series of interviews with 63% of the manufacturers in 36 states served by 13 EADCs during 1987-88. These include the principal benefits derived by the manufacturers, the extent to which EADCs` recommendations are being understood and implemented, and the manufacturers` perceptions about the ways EADCs carry out their dual mission of industrial service and educational enrichment. The 243 manufacturers interviewed represent 19 different industries (2-digit SIC codes), and they collectively employed over 39,700 persons and sold more than $4.7 billion worth of products and services during the past year.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Kirsch, F.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy management assistance for small and medium-size manufacturers, 1988--1989

Description: Small and medium-size manufacturers continue to express strong confidence in and satisfaction with the energy-conserving and cost-saving services provided by the Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers. That conclusion is based upon in-depth interviews with 227 of the 340 manufacturers (67%) served during 1988-89 by an EADC. These interviews were conducted at the manufacturing plants by engineers from the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center, which manages the EADC program under agreement with the Office of Industrial Programs, U.S. Department of Energy. University engineering faculty and a mix of graduate and undergraduate students who make up the staff of each EADC perform energy audits under subcontract to the Science Center at manufacturing plants which are located within about 150 miles of the university. This report presents the chief results obtained during two series of interviews with 67% of the manufacturers in 36 states served by 13 EADCs during 1988-89. These include the principal benefits derived by the manufacturers, the extent to which EADCs` recommendations are being understood and implemented, and the manufacturers` perceptions about the ways EADCs carry out their dual mission of industrial service and educational enrichment. The 227 manufacturers interviewed represent 19 different industries (2-digit SIC codes), and they collectively employed over 36,000 persons and sold more than $5.0 billion worth of products and services during the past year.
Date: October 1, 1989
Creator: Reeder, K.M. & Kirsch, F.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers, 1988--1989

Description: Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADCs) provided energy-conserving and cost saving assistance in 339 small and medium-size manufacturing plants nationwide during 1988-89. This report presents the results of what was recommended to those manufacturers, the record of what was implemented by them, and an analysis of the financial rewards gained by them. It also includes an accounting of the financial returns to the federal government, derived from taxes upon the cost savings, or incremental income, of the manufacturers who implement the EADCs` recommendations. EADCs collect implementation data within a year of the energy audit, and for these results that time period extended through 1990. The EADCs are located at accredited engineering departments of universities and staffed by faculty and students. At present there are 18 EADCs serving manufacturers in 37 states; of these, two were established as a result of the 1989 competition, and five more were chosen competitively in 1990. Most of the results in this report were generated by 11 EADCs (named in the Appendix); two others withdrew voluntarily after completing only 10 energy audits during 1988-89. Primary responsibility for selecting, training, evaluating, and managing the EADCs belongs to the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center (UCSC). The Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies sponsors the EADC program through an agreement with UCSC.
Date: May 1, 1991
Creator: Kirsch, F.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy management assistance for small and medium-size manufacturers, 1989--1990

Description: Small and medium-size manufacturers continue to express strong confidence in and satisfaction with the energy-conserving and cost-saving services provided by the Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers. That conclusion is based upon in-depth interviews with 210 of the 330 manufacturers served by 11 of the EADCs during 1989-90. These interviews were conducted at the manufacturing plants by engineers from the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center, which manages the EADC program under agreement with the Office of Industrial Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy. University engineering faculty and a mix of graduate and undergraduate students who make up the staff of each EADC perform energy audits under subcontract to the Science Center at manufacturing plants which are located within about 150 miles of the university.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Law, C.J. & Kirsch, F.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial operations and maintenance energy measures: A review

Description: Industry consumes a significant percentage of the total electric energy consumption both nationally and in the Pacific Northwest. However, industrial demand-side management (DSM) activities in this sector are underdeveloped and typically concentrate on new technologies and new equipment. An overlooked opportunity for electric resource development is through operations and maintenance (O and M) activities. The purpose of this project is to determine the industrial DSM potential that may be achieved through O and M practices both in the US and the Pacific Northwest. The overall goal of the project is to identify, quantify, confirm, and develop conservation resources that can be achieved from the industrial sector through O and M practices and energy measures. The results of the study identify a significant electric resource potential available through improved O and M activities in industry. Several O and M type energy-saving measures that increase efficiencies and reduce loads are identified and estimates of potential energy savings associated with each measure are presented. Systems identified with the most potential include compressed-air systems; motors and motor drives; lighting; heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC); and control systems. The results of the research show that industrial electric energy consumption can be notably reduced by implementing key O and M type energy measures. Specifically, the results of industrial energy audits, case studies, and other published sources indicate that reductions in energy consumption from improved O and M activities can average between 8% and 12.5%.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Parker, S.A.; Gaustad, K.L. & Winiarski, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Doing business with business: Municipal utility energy audits

Description: This article is a review of the ways in which municipal utilities can use energy audits to identify the energy efficiency measures that are most effective for themselves and their customers. Two examples, Osage Municipal Utilities in Iowa and Sacramento Municipal Utility District in California, are used to illustrate the strategies that are most cost effective.
Date: December 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pilot project for a commercial buildings Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) program. Final report

Description: Commercial energy use costs businesses around $70 billion annually. Many of these businesses are small and medium sized organizations that do not have the resources to help themselves, or to pay for professional engineering services to help reduce their energy costs and improve their economic competitiveness. Energy cost reduction actions with payback times of around two years could save the commercial sector 15--20%, or $10--$15 billion per year. This project was initially intended to evaluate the feasibility of performing commercial energy audits as an adjunct to the industrial audit program run by the US Department of Energy Industrial Office. This program is housed in 30 universities throughout the United States. Formerly known as Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADC`s), the university programs are now called Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC`s) to reflect their expansion from energy use analyses to include waste and productivity analyses. The success of the EADC/IAC program in helping the manufacturing sector provides an excellent model for a similar program in the commercial buildings sector. This project has investigated using the EADC/IAC approach to performing energy audits for the commercial sector, and has determined that such an approach is feasible and cost effective.
Date: February 1, 1996
Creator: Capehart, B.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy efficiency in the US economy technical report four: Analysis of energy-efficiency investment decisions by small and medium-sized manufacturers

Description: This report highlights the results of a comprehensive analysis of investment decisions regarding energy-efficiency measures at small and medium-sized manufacturing plants. The analysis is based primarily on the experiences of companies participating in the US Department of Energy`s Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) program.
Date: March 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy conservation opportunities in small commercial buildings

Description: As part of a joint project between Duke Power Co. and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a study was performed to determine the energy savings potential of small commercial buildings, located in the Duke Power service territory. This relatively untouched portion of the commercial sector has the potential for reducing energy consumption by 13% - 25%, which corresponds to a reduction in average annual operating costs of $500 - $1000 per building. A database of over sixty customers was used to target five buildings with unusually high levels of energy consumption and/or peak demand. Conservation measures in these buildings were selected on the basis of cost-effectiveness and relative non-intrusiveness on the occupants. Together, ORNL and Duke Power representatives worked on data analysis, site-audits, and measure recommendations. Duke Power supplied hourly and monthly utility data, customer survey information and participated in site-audits. ORNL analyzed the data, developed targeting indices, performed site-audits and corresponding first-order energy simulations on candidate buildings, and recommended individualized conservation retrofits. For the five buildings examined, retrofits including lighting, controls, and HVAC systems accounted for a total reduction in consumption of 32%, and in peak demand of 22%. In addition, the study emphasizes the importance of continuous attention to the operating conditions of HVAC equipment and controls, in order to ensure long-term sustainability of these energy savings.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Abraham, M.M. & MacDonald, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SAVEnergy Action Plan: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, Washington

Description: The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a SAVEnergy Audit of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s (NOAA) National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center in Seattle, Washington. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of all energy-consuming equipment in the facility, to estimate energy consumption and demand by end-use and to recommend energy conservation measures (ECMs) and water conservation measures (WCMs) to reduce costs . This section describes the facility and the systems encountered during the visit by the audit team. It also presents a summary of energy conservation measures. Section 2 shows energy consumption and costs for electricity, natural gas and water. A breakdown of energy consumed by end-use is also presented. Recommended energy conservation measures are presented in Section 3. Section 4 contains a discussion of operations and maintenance issues and other energy measures that can be implemented on a replace-on-failure basis rather than replacing immediately. Appendix A contains a three-year history of consumption, demand and cost for electric, natural gas and water utilities. Appendix B contains information on local weather data correlated to utility billing periods. A brief summary on Federal life-cycle costing is located in Appendix C along with the life-cycle cost analyses summaries for the energy and water conservation measures detailed in this report. Information on the rebate program sponsored by Seattle City Light, the electric utility, is located in Appendix D. Sample information for water-efficient equipment is located in Appendix E. Appendix F contains submittal forms to the Federal Energy Efficiency Fund for the energy conservation measures recommended in Section 3 of this report. A glossary of terms and abbreviations used in this report is located in Appendix G.
Date: May 1995
Creator: Parker, S. A.; Wahlstrom, R. R.; Richman, E. E.; Sandusky, W. F., III & Dittmer, A. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers: A program of direct energy conservation assistance for small and medium-size manufacturers. Quarterly progress report, June 1994

Description: During the quarter ending June 30, 1994, the EADCs in the Western Region performed a total of 109 energy audits and six industrial assessments under the contract continuation beginning October 1, 1993. Energy audit reports were issued to 90 manufacturers during the past quarter. Industrial assessment reports were issued to three clients.
Date: August 15, 1994
Creator: Kirsch, F. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Audit Practices in China: National and Local Experiences and Issues

Description: China has set an ambitious goal of reducing its energy use per unit of GDP by 20% between 2006 and 2010. Since the industrial sector consumes about two-thirds of China's primary energy, many of the country's efforts are focused on improving the energy efficiency of this sector. Industrial energy audits have become an important part of China's efforts to improve its energy intensity. In China, industrial energy audits have been employed to help enterprises indentify energy-efficiency improvement opportunities for achieving the energy-saving targets. These audits also serve as a mean to collect critical energy-consuming information necessary for governments at different levels to supervise enterprises energy use and evaluate their energy performance. To better understand how energy audits are carried out in China as well as their impacts on achieving China's energy-saving target, researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an in-depth study that combines a review of China's national policies and guidelines on energy auditing and a series of discussions with a variety of Chinese institutions involved in energy audits. This report consists of four parts. First, it provides a historical overview of energy auditing in China over the past decades, describing how and why energy audits have been conducted during various periods. Next, the report reviews current energy auditing practices at both the national and regional levels. It then discusses some of the key issues related to energy audits conducted in China, which underscore the need for improvement. The report concludes with policy recommendations for China that draw upon international best practices and aim to remove barriers to maximizing the potential of energy audits.
Date: December 21, 2010
Creator: Shen, Bo; Price, Lynn & Lu, Hongyou
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 184 U.S. Customs and Border Protection Laboratory, Houston, Texas

Description: This report documents the findings of an on-site energy audit of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Laboratory in Houston, Texas. The focus of the audit was to identify various no-cost and low-cost energy efficiency opportunities that, once implemented, would reduce electricity and gas consumption and increase the operational efficiency of the building. This audit also provided an opportunity to identify potential capital cost projects that should be considered in the future to acquire additional energy (electric and gas) and water savings to further increase the operational efficiency of the building.
Date: September 30, 2010
Creator: Arends, J. & Sandusky, William F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plant-Wide Energy Efficiency Assessment at the Arizona Portland Cement Plant in Rillito, Arizona

Description: A Department of Energy Plant-wide Assessment was undertaken by Arizona Portland Cement (APC) beginning in May 2005. The assessment was performed at APC’s cement production facility in Rillito, Arizona. The assessment included a compressed air evaluation along with a detailed process audit of plant operations and equipment. The purpose of this Energy Survey was to identify a series of energy cost savings opportunities at the Plant, and provide preliminary cost and savings estimates for the work. The assessment was successful in identifying projects that could provide annual savings of over $2.7 million at an estimated capital cost of $4.3 million. If implemented, these projects could amount to a savings of over 4.9 million kWh/yr and 384,420 MMBtu/year.
Date: May 17, 2007
Creator: Stephen J. Coppinger, P.E. & Bruce Colburn, Ph.D., P.E., CEM
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department