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The Coupling of ESP-R and Genopt: A Simple Case Study

Description: This paper describes and demonstrates how to use the optimization program GenOpt with the building energy simulation program ESP-r. GenOpt, a generic optimization program, minimises an objective function that is evaluated by an external simulation program. It has been developed for optimization problems that are computationally expensive and that may have nonsmooth objective functions. ESP-r is a research oriented building simulation program that is well validated and has been used to conduct various building energy analysis studies. In this paper, the necessary file preparations are described and a simple optimization example is presented.
Date: July 1, 2010
Creator: Peeters, Leen; D'haeseleer, William; Ferguson, Alex & Wetter, Michael
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: An FFAG moot likely requires rapid cavity tuning. The cavity must also have a very high gradient. To satisfy both the high power and rapid tuning requirements is a big challenge. Detailed investigation of the possibility is addressed. Included are general thoughts, dual-loop and simple loop analyses, and a study of using ferrite or PIN diodes. Also proposed is a phase control scheme, which may be a better solution if the needed components can be developed. Finally, an energy analysis reveals the difficult of high power tuning.
Date: July 12, 2001
Creator: ZHAO, Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Commissioning Ventilated Containment Systems in the Laboratory

Description: This Best Practices Guide focuses on the specialized approaches required for ventilated containment systems, understood to be all components that drive and control ventilated enclosures and local exhaust systems within the laboratory. Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, this guide provides information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.
Date: August 1, 2008
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large Scale Duty Cycle (LSDC) Project: Tractive Energy Analysis Methodology and Results from Long-Haul Truck Drive Cycle Evaluations

Description: This report addresses the approach that will be used in the Large Scale Duty Cycle (LSDC) project to evaluate the fuel savings potential of various truck efficiency technologies. The methods and equations used for performing the tractive energy evaluations are presented and the calculation approach is described. Several representative results for individual duty cycle segments are presented to demonstrate the approach and the significance of this analysis for the project. The report is divided into four sections, including an initial brief overview of the LSDC project and its current status. In the second section of the report, the concepts that form the basis of the analysis are presented through a discussion of basic principles pertaining to tractive energy and the role of tractive energy in relation to other losses on the vehicle. In the third section, the approach used for the analysis is formalized and the equations used in the analysis are presented. In the fourth section, results from the analysis for a set of individual duty cycle measurements are presented and different types of drive cycles are discussed relative to the fuel savings potential that specific technologies could bring if these drive cycles were representative of the use of a given vehicle or trucking application. Additionally, the calculation of vehicle mass from measured torque and speed data is presented and the accuracy of the approach is demonstrated.
Date: May 1, 2011
Creator: LaClair, Tim J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methodology for Validating Building Energy Analysis Simulations

Description: The objective of this report was to develop a validation methodology for building energy analysis simulations, collect high-quality, unambiguous empirical data for validation, and apply the validation methodology to the DOE-2.1, BLAST-2MRT, BLAST-3.0, DEROB-3, DEROB-4, and SUNCAT 2.4 computer programs. This report covers background information, literature survey, validation methodology, comparative studies, analytical verification, empirical validation, comparative evaluation of codes, and conclusions.
Date: April 1, 2008
Creator: Judkoff, R.; Wortman, D.; O'Doherty, B. & Burch, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Flexible Framework for Building Energy Analysis: Preprint

Description: In the building energy research and advanced practitioner communities, building models are perturbed across large parameter spaces to assess energy and cost performance in the face of programmatic and economic constraints. This paper describes the OpenStudio software framework for performing such analyses.
Date: September 1, 2012
Creator: Hale, E.; Macumber, D.; Weaver, E. & Shekhar, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of Performance, Cost, and Financing of Concentrating Solar, Photovoltaic, and Solar Heat Systems (Poster)

Description: This poster, submitted for the CU Energy Initiative/NREL Symposium on October 3, 2006 in Boulder, Colorado, discusses the modeling, performance, cost, and financing of concentrating solar, photovoltaic, and solar heat systems.
Date: October 3, 2006
Creator: Blair, N.; Mehos, M. & Christiansen, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Future of Liquid Biofuels for APEC Economies

Description: This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.
Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Milbrandt, A. & Overend, R. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantification of uncertainties in the parameters of a long-term energy model

Description: Even if the form of an energy-economy model's equations can be assumed to specify correctly our technological processes and the relevant behaviors of our society over the necessary time range, there is uncertainty in model results induced by our imperfect knowledge of the numerical values of the model's parameters and input data. Some of this uncertainty is typically covered by provision of alternative scenarios with assumptions but, up to now, modelers have rarely dealt in detail with the inherent uncertainty of input data. However, when model output or response can be represented by a first-order Taylor expansion in the input data about the nominal solution point, knowledge of the variance-covariance (uncertainty) matrix of the input data is sufficient to determine the uncertainty in the computed response induced by the input uncertainties. Some guidelines are given for the evaluation of the required input-uncertainty matrices. Illustrative examples are given from the authors' beginning efforts to develop an uncertainty matrix for the important parameters of the Long-term Energy Analysis Package used within the Energy Information Administration of the Department of Energy.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Peelle, R W; Downing, D J & Bjornstad, D J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A bibliography of published papers describing models, measurement techniques, apparatus, and data for the thermal performance of whole buildings and building envelope systems has been collected (aggregate energy consumption of whole buildings, performance of HVAC equipment, and solar technologies are not included). Summary descriptions of the content of each citation are provided. Measurements on whole buildings or on systems other than walls are sparse. However, new and recently completed measurement facilities are increasing these capabilities. Measurements under dynamic conditions are difficult to accomplish and few reliable data exist. Some analogs have been explored experimentally and analytically. Citations on analytical models are selective and concentrate on methodology that forms the basis of computer programs for whole-building energy analysis. Interesting future directions include new approaches to dynamic measurements, both in the laboratory and in the field, for envelope systems and for whole buildings.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Carroll, William L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regulatory Considerations Associated with the Expanded Adoption of Distributed Solar

Description: Increased adoption of distributed PV, and other forms of distributed generation, have the potential to affect utility-customer interactions, system costs recovery, and utility revenue streams. If a greater number of electricity customers choose to self-generate, demand for system power will decrease and utility fixed costs will have to be recovered over fewer kilowatt hours of sales. As such, regulators will need to determine the value and cost of additional distributed PV and determine the appropriate allocation of the costs and benefits among consumers. The potential for new business models to emerge also has implications for regulation and rate structures that ensure equitable solutions for all electricity grid users. This report examines regulatory tools and rate designs for addressing emerging issues with the expanded adoption of distributed PV and evaluates the potential effectiveness and viability of these options going forward. It offers the groundwork needed in order for regulators to explore mechanisms and ensure that utilities can collect sufficient revenues to provide reliable electric service, cover fixed costs, and balance cost equity among ratepayers -- while creating a value proposition for customers to adopt distributed PV.
Date: November 1, 2013
Creator: Bird, L.; McLaren, J.; Heeter, J.; Linvill, C.; Shenot, J.; Sedano, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data)

Description: Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. These markets continued to exhibit growth and stimulate renewable energy development in 2012. This paper reviews the voluntary market and identifies market trends.
Date: October 1, 2013
Creator: Heeter, J. & Nicholas, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning

Description: Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. State and federal support policies, solar photovoltaic (PV) price declines, and the introduction of new business models for solar PV 'ownership' are leading to increasing interest in solar technologies (especially PV); however, solar introduces myriad new variables into the utility resource planning decision. Most, but not all, utility planners have less experience analyzing solar than conventional generation as part of capacity planning, portfolio evaluation, and resource procurement decisions. To begin to build this knowledge, utility staff expressed interest in one effort: utility exchanges regarding data, methods, challenges, and solutions for incorporating solar in the planning process. Through interviews and a questionnaire, this report aims to begin this exchange of information and capture utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.
Date: October 1, 2013
Creator: Sterling, J.; McLaren, J.; Taylor, M. & Cory, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Strategies to Reduce the Cost of Offshore Wind Energy

Description: Currently, installation, operation, and maintenance (IO&M) costs contribute approximately 30% to the LCOE of offshore wind plants. To reduce LCOE while ensuring safety, this paper identifies principal cost drivers associated with IO&M and quantifies their impacts on LCOE. The paper identifies technology improvement opportunities and provides a basis for evaluating innovative engineering and scientific concepts developed subsequently to the study. Through the completion of a case study, an optimum IO&M strategy for a hypothetical offshore wind project is identified.
Date: July 1, 2013
Creator: Maples, B.; Saur, G.; Hand, M.; van de Pieterman, R. & Obdam, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Better IAQ through integrating design tools for the HVACindustry

Description: There is currently no effective combination of interoperable design tools to cover all critical aspects of the HVAC design process. Existing design tools are separately available, but require expertise and operating time that is beyond the scope of a normal design project. For example, energy analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools are not used in practical design, leading to poor indoor air quality and/or unnecessary energy consumption in buildings. A prototype integrated software tool for demonstration, process mapping and proof-of-concept purposes was developed under a new international, Finland/USA jointly funded development project BildIT. Individual design tools were simplified and adapted to specific applications and also integrated so that they can be used in a timely and effective manner by the designer. The core of the prototype linked together an architectural CAD system, a 3D space model, a CFD program and a building energy simulation program and it utilizes real product data from manufacturer's software. Also the complex building design, construction, maintenance and retrofit processes were mapped to get a template for the structure of the integrated design tool.
Date: June 1, 2000
Creator: Laine, Tuomas; Kosonen, Risto; Hagstrom, Kim; Mustakallio, Panu; Yin, De-Wei; Haves, Philip et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sensitivity of Rooftop PV Projections in the SunShot Vision Study to Market Assumptions

Description: The SunShot Vision Study explored the potential growth of solar markets if solar prices decreased by about 75% from 2010 to 2020. The SolarDS model was used to simulate rooftop PV demand for this study, based on several PV market assumptions--future electricity rates, customer access to financing, and others--in addition to the SunShot PV price projections. This paper finds that modeled PV demand is highly sensitive to several non-price market assumptions, particularly PV financing parameters.
Date: January 1, 2013
Creator: Drury, E.; Denholm, P. & Margolis, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications (Report Summary) (Presentation)

Description: This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.
Date: June 1, 2013
Creator: Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Twenty Years On!: Updating the IEA BESTEST Building Thermal Fabric Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140: Preprint

Description: ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs applies the IEA BESTEST building thermal fabric test cases and example simulation results originally published in 1995. These software accuracy test cases and their example simulation results, which comprise the first test suite adapted for the initial 2001 version of Standard 140, are approaching their 20th anniversary. In response to the evolution of the state of the art in building thermal fabric modeling since the test cases and example simulation results were developed, work is commencing to update the normative test specification and the informative example results.
Date: July 1, 2013
Creator: Judkoff, R. & Neymark, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Deployment Investment on the Growth of the Biofuels Industry

Description: In support of the national goals for biofuel use in the United States, numerous technologies have been developed that convert biomass to biofuels. Some of these biomass to biofuel conversion technology pathways are operating at commercial scales, while others are in earlier stages of development. The advancement of a new pathway toward commercialization involves various types of progress, including yield improvements, process engineering, and financial performance. Actions of private investors and public programs can accelerate the demonstration and deployment of new conversion technology pathways. These investors (both private and public) will pursue a range of pilot, demonstration, and pioneer scale biorefinery investments; the most cost-effective set of investments for advancing the maturity of any given biomass to biofuel conversion technology pathway is unknown. In some cases, whether or not the pathway itself will ultimately be technically and financially successful is also unknown. This report presents results from the Biomass Scenario Model -- a system dynamics model of the biomass to biofuels system -- that estimate effects of investments in biorefineries at different maturity levels and operational scales. The report discusses challenges in estimating effects of such investments and explores the interaction between this deployment investment and a volumetric production incentive. Model results show that investments in demonstration and deployment have a substantial positive effect on the development of the biofuels industry. Results also show that other conditions, such as supportive policies, have major impacts on the effectiveness of such investments.
Date: December 1, 2013
Creator: Vimmerstedt, L. J. & Bush, B. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department