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Effects of Aging on ACTH-Stimulated Steroidogenesis in Subcellular Fractions from Rat Adrenal Glands

Description: Young, middle-aged and old rat adrenal gland steroidogenesis was measured in isolated, superfused glands and in their subcellular fractions before and after adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment. In the latter experiment, five corticosteroids were extracted from six different subcellular fractions. Superfused glands initially produced relatively high glucocorticoid levels; thereafter, production decayed asymptotically. Steroidogenesis by young and middle-aged glands was maintained at least 1.5 to 2.5 hours before it decayed; old glands were 50% less active than younger ones and production decayed within one hour. High cholesterol and progesterone levels in certain old gland fractions were associated with correspondingly reduced 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone. It is suggested that synthesis of these glucocorticoids from their accumulating precursors weakens with age.
Date: August 1982
Creator: Sawada, Tadao
Partner: UNT Libraries

A Study of the Endocrine Glands and Their Implications for Education, with Special Emphasis on Industrial Arts

Description: This is a study of the endocrine glands and their influence on the physical characteristics and behavior patterns of adolescents. The purpose of this study is not to present new ideas about the effects of the endocrine glands upon man, but to gather and present the information and data already available and to show how these glands of internal secretion affect the individual in his ability to participate in an educational program, with special emphasis on industrial arts.
Date: February 1953
Creator: Cox, Lucius L.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

Description: Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.
Date: March 1, 1994
Creator: Weller, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dose-projection considerations for emergency conditions at nuclear power plants

Description: The purpose of this report is to review the problems and issues associated with making environmental radiation-dose projections during emergencies at nuclear power plants. The review is divided into three areas: source-term development, characterization of atmospheric dispersion and selection of appropriate dispersion models, and development of dosimetry calculations for determining thyroid dose and whole-body dose for ground-level and elevated releases. A discussion of uncertainties associated with these areas is also provided.
Date: May 1, 1983
Creator: Stoetzel, G.A.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Poeton, R.W.; Powell, D.C. & Desrosiers, A.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 09/14/2000

Description: The three major components of the research included: (a) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists (b) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects and (c) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular interest in this study were those that can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and thus provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The objective of this basic research is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. Although the endocrine disrupting effects of contaminants such as dioxin and PCBs have been well characterized in both animals and humans, little is known about the capacities of other hydrocarbon contaminants to act as endocrine disruptors. Results obtained from this research project have provided information on endocrine disrupting contaminants for consideration in DOE's risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities at contaminated DOE sites.
Date: September 14, 2000
Creator: McLachlan, John A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of short-lived internal emitters and external radiation exposure

Description: In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. We determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentially exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individual more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. We computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. 14 refs., 8 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B. & Adams, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improving Hatchery Effectiveness as Related to Smoltification: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Kah-Nee-Tah Lodge, Warm Springs, Oregon, May 20-23, 1985.

Description: The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) intends to develop a smoltification research effort that would have broad support among the interested parties. BPA sponsored this workshop on smoltification and related research to gather leading technical experts in the field in smoltification, permit them to exchange information about the state of the art of smoltification research, and allow them to identify and rank high-priority projects. This document includes keynote speeches, technical papers, and other sessions that summarize both what is known and what information is needed.
Date: May 1, 1987
Creator: Bouck, Gerald R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanisms of calcium transport in small intestine. Overall review of the contract, September 1, 1972--March 1, 1976

Description: Progress is reported in the following areas of research: role of high molecular weight protein in calcium transport in vitamin D deficient chicks; subcellular localization of 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/; receptor proteins for 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/; effects of high calcium diet, strontium diet, EHDP, and parathyroidectomy on intestinal calcium transport in chicks; effects of analogs of 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ on intestinal calcium transport; discrimination by chicks against vitamin D/sub 2/ compounds by metabolism; effects of extract of Solanum malacoxylan on intestinal calcium absorption in nephrectomized rats; and role of vitamin D in phosphate transport reactions in the intestine. (HLW)
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: DeLuca, H. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

Description: We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. Previous results indicated that these clonogens are the precursor cells of radiogenic cancer, and that initiation, is common event at the clonegenic cell level. Detailed information on the physiologic control of clonogen proliferation, differentiation, and total numbers is thus essential to an understanding of the carcinogenic process. We report here studies on investigations on the relationships between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamus-pituitary feedback axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH-(thyrotropin-) responsive sub- population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and a large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cell interactions during the neoplastic process.
Date: May 20, 1992
Creator: Clifton, K. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Joint HVAC Transmission EMF Environmental Study : Final Report on Experiment 1.

Description: This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration`s Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.
Date: May 1, 1992
Creator: Administration, United States. Bonneville Power & Center, Oregon Regional Primate Research
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thyroid hypofunction appearing as a delayed manifestation of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in a Marshallese population

Description: The increased incidence of thyroid nodularity and carcinoma appearing as a late effect after exposure of the human thyroid to ionizing radiation is well-recognized. Despite the high prevalence of thyroid nodularity in Marshallese inadvertently exposed to fallout in 1954, only two subjects, both about one year of age at exposure, have been found to have primary hypothyroidism. The recent availability of sophisticated immunoassay techniques for thyroxine (T/sub 4/) and thyrotropin (TSH) has allowed more thorough thyroid evaluation of the exposed population who do not have known thyroid abnormalities (43 Rongelap people). Four of 43 Rongelapese had abnormally high basal TSH and TRH-induced TSH release on two such tests as opposed to only 2 of 214 controls. Plasma T/sub 4/ concentrations were low, or low-normal in these individuals. These results indicate the presence of early thyroid dysfunction. Several other subjects have shown at least one abnormal finding but have not had the required number of tests to meet the established criteria. In /sup 3///sub 4/ of these subjects the estimated thyroid exposure dose was less than 400 rads. Hypothyroidism has been previously noted after therapeutic doses of /sup 131/I for hyperthyroidism, but not in individuals exposed to the relatively low levels of thyroidal radiation (less than 400 rads) estimated for these individuals.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Larsen, P. R.; Conard, R. A.; Knudsen, K.; Robbins, J.; Wolff, J.; Rall, J. E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

Description: In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E. & Larsen, P.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Health effects in women exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation

Description: There are three delayed health effects of radiation which appear at the present time to have importance to women in radiation protection. These are: (1) the probability of cancer-induction at low doses and low-dose rates; (2) the consideration of those cancers in women, notably the breast and the thyroid, attributable to radiation exposure; and (3) the probability of induction of developmental abnormalities in the newborn following low-dose exposure in utero. The bases for the concern over these effects are discussed. (ACR)
Date: June 1, 1982
Creator: Fabrikant, J.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM): reactor-accident assessment methods. Vol. 2

Description: As part of the continuing emphasis on emergency preparedness, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored the development of a rapid dose assessment system by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This system, the Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model (IRDAM) is a micro-computer based program for rapidly assessing the radiological impact of accidents at nuclear power plants. This document describes the technical bases for IRDAM including methods, models and assumptions used in calculations. IRDAM calculates whole body (5-cm depth) and infant thyroid doses at six fixed downwind distances between 500 and 20,000 meters. Radionuclides considered primarily consist of noble gases and radioiodines. In order to provide a rapid assessment capability consistent with the capacity of the Osborne-1 computer, certain simplifying approximations and assumptions are made. These are described, along with default values (assumptions used in the absence of specific input) in the text of this document. Two companion volumes to this one provide additional information on IRDAM. The user's Guide (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 1) describes the setup and operation of equipment necessary to run IRDAM. Scenarios for Comparing Dose Assessment Models (NUREG/CR-3012, Volume 3) provides the results of calculations made by IRDAM and other models for specific accident scenarios.
Date: May 1, 1983
Creator: Poeton, R.W.; Moeller, M.P.; Laughlin, G.J. & Desrosiers, A.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiogenic neoplasia in thyroid and mammary clonogens

Description: We have developed rat thyroid and mammary clonogen transplantation systems for the study of radiogenic cancer induction at the target cell level in vivo. The epithelial cell populations of both glands contain small subpopulations of cells which are capable of giving rise to monoclonal glandular structures when transplanted and stimulated with appropriate hormones. During the end of the last grant year and the first half of the current grant year, we have completed analyses and summarized for publication: investigations on the relationship between grafted thyroid cell number and the rapidity and degree of reestablishment of the thyroid-hypothalamicpituitary axis in thyroidectomized rats maintained on a normal diet or an iodine deficient diet; studies of the persistence of, and the differentiation potential and functional characteristics of, the TSH- (thyrotropin-) responsive sub-population of clonogens during goitrogenesis, the plateau-phase of goiter growth, and goiter involution; studies of changes in the size of the clonogen sub-population during goitrogenesis, goiter involution and the response to goitrogen rechallenge; and the results of the large carcinogenesis experiment on the nature of the grafted thyroid cell number-dependent suppression of promotion/progression to neoplasia in grafts of radiation-initiated thyroid cells. We are testing new techniques for the culture, cytofluorescent analysis and characterization mammary epithelial cells and of clonogens in a parallel project, and plan to apply similar technology to the thyroid epithelial cells and clonogen population. Data from these studies will be used in the design of future carcinogenesis experiments on neoplastic initiation by high and low LET radiations and on cells interactions during the neoplastic process.
Date: May 31, 1991
Creator: Clifton, K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US NRC emergency response dose assessment model

Description: A new IBM PC-based dose assessment model has been written to replace the IRDAM model for use during response to emergencies. It is fast, very simple to use, and easy to modify, with separate modules of the source term, atmospheric transport, and dose models. The source term can be estimated based on isotopic ratios or on recently developed procedures that depend only on gross plant conditions. The atmospheric transport and dose models have been adapted from MESORAD. The transport model is a combination of a Lagrangian puff and Gaussian plume dispersion models. Doses are computed for whole body, lung, and thyroid for each grid location. 8 refs.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Sjoreen, A.L.; Athey, G.F.; Sakenas, C.A. & McKenna, T.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clinical results of stereotactic helium-ion radiosurgery of the pituitary gland at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

Description: The first therapeutic clinical trial using accelerated heavy-charged particles in humans was performed for the treatment of various endocrine and metabolic disorders of the pituitary gland, and as suppressive therapy for adenohypophyseal hormone-responsive carcinomas and diabetic retinopathy. Since then, over 800 patients have received stereotactically-directed plateau-beam heavy-charged particle pituitary irradiation at this institution. In acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome and prolactin-secreting tumors, the therapeutic goal in the 433 patients treated has been to destroy or inhibit the growth of the pituitary tumor and control hormonal hypersecretion, while preserving a functional rim of tissue with normal hormone-secreting capacity, and minimizing neurologic injury. An additional group of 34 patients was treated for nonsecreting chromophobe adenomas. This paper discusses the methods and results of these treatments. 11 refs.
Date: December 1, 1989
Creator: Levy, R. P.; Fabrikant, J. I.; Lyman, J. T.; Frankel, K. A.; Phillips, M. H.; Lawrence, J. H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Treatment of hyperthyroidism: use of /sup 131/I and /sup 125/I

Description: Factors related to late hypothyroidism following the use of /sup 131/I for treatment of hyperthyroidism are discussed with regard to age of patient, size of dose, previous surgery, immune status, and others. Possible reasons for the post-therapeutic hypothyroidism are discussed with regard to effects of radiation on the reproductive capacity of thyroid cells, effects of radiation on blood vessels, and dose distribution of radioiodine. The following therapeutic strategies are discussed: reduction of initial dose; multiple small doses; high dose radioiodine followed by replacement therapy; the use of external beam irradiation; and the use of /sup 125/I. (HLW)
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Atkins, H. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Late biological effects from internal and external exposure

Description: Information on late biological effects of radiation was obtained from the long-term medical followup of a small population of Marshallese accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954. Endocrine data are compatible with a sequence of nonstochastic radiation effects. The ingestion of radioisotopes of iodine produced clinical thyroid hypofunction in children, biochemical evidence of thyroid dysfunction in some adults, thyroid adenomatous module formation, and, as a possible indirect effect of thyroid damage, at least two cases of pituitary adenoma. In contrast, the only evidence of a stochastic effect has been a real increase in thyroid cancers among the more highly exposed people of Rongelap, none of whom have evidence of residual disease. While three nonthyroidal cancers which are known to be inducible in humans by external irradiation have been documented in the exposed population, three similar cancers have occurred in an unexposed comparison population of Marshallese. Nonstochastic effects of radiation exposure may be common but subtle. In the Marshallese experience the morbidity of delayed nonstochastic effects far exceeds that of the stochastic. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Adams, W.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of the /sup 129/I//sup 131/I ratio in Chernobyl fallout

Description: Rainwater collected in the Munich area approximately one week after the Chernobyl reactor accident was investigated for its content of the radioisotopes /sup 129/I (T/sub 1/2/ = 1.6 x 10/sup 7/ y) and /sup 131/I (T/sub 1/2/ = 8.04 d). For the time of release, an isotopic ratio of /sup 129/I//sup 131/I = 19 +- 5 was found. This value was obtained from a gamma-ray activity measurement of /sup 131/I with a GE detector and a concentration measurement of /sup 129/I with accelerator mass spectrometry. From the measured ratio an operating time of the reactor prior to the accident in the vicinity of two years can be estimated, which is in fair agreement with estimates from other long-lived to short-lived radioisotope ratios in the Chernobyl fallout. Some measurements of /sup 131/I activity in thyroids of persons living in the Munich area is also reported.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Kutschera, W.; Fink, D.; Paul, M.; Hollos, G. & Kaufman, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

300-Area accident analysis for Emergency Planning Zones

Description: The Department of Energy has requested SRL assistance in developing offsite Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) for the Savannah River Plant, based on projected dose consequences of atmospheric releases of radioactivity from potential credible accidents in the SRP operating areas. This memorandum presents the assessment of the offsite doses via the plume exposure pathway from the 300-Area potential accidents. 8 refs., 3 tabs.
Date: June 27, 1983
Creator: Pillinger, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending March 31, 1993

Description: We have exploring the possibility of measuring urinary radioactivity as an index of pancreatic lipase activity after oral administration of a new triglyceride containing a radioactive iodine-1 25-labeled fatty acid moiety. The new agent, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3[15-(p-iodophenyl)pentandecan-l-oyl]-racglycerol (1,2-Pal-3-IPPA), was prepared by the thallation-iodide displacement method. Following oral gavage of the radioiodinated triglyceride to rats, about 30% of the administered activity was excreted in 24 hours in the urine. In normal human controls an higher urinary excretion (of about 75% was observed. In this report, we describe an evaluation of the metabolites excreted in the urine and the chemical species stored in adipose from rats. The urine activity co-chromatographed with hippuric acid by TLC indicating conjugation of the IPPA metabolites. Release of the acidic components from the conjugated excretory products by acid hydrolysis of the urine provided the radioactive acidic IPPA metabolites. Analysis of the Folch extracts of fat samples from rats demonstrated that the radioactive components co-chromatographed In the triglyceride region. Recent studies in patients with compromised pancreatic exocrine function have demonstrated significantly decreased 24 hr. urinary excretion of about 25%, following oral administration of [1 -1 31]-1,2-Pal-3-IPPA. Thus, urine analysis after oral administration of [I -1 31]-1,2-Pal-3-IPPA may be a simple, non-invasive tool for the clinical evaluation of various diseases involving dietary fat digestion.
Date: April 1, 1993
Creator: Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SFACTOR: a computer code for calculating dose equivalent to a target organ per microcurie-day residence of a radionuclide in a source organ

Description: A computer code SFACTOR was developed to estimate the average dose equivalent S (rem/..mu..Ci-day) to each of a specified list of target organs per microcurie-day residence of a radionuclide in source organs in man. Source and target organs of interest are specified in the input data stream, along with the nuclear decay information. The SFACTOR code computes components of the dose equivalent rate from each type of decay present for a particular radionuclide, including alpha, electron, and gamma radiation. For those transuranic isotopes which also decay by spontaneous fission, components of S from the resulting fission fragments, neutrons, betas, and gammas are included in the tabulation. Tabulations of all components of S are provided for an array of 22 source organs and 24 target organs for 52 radionuclides in an adult.
Date: November 1, 1977
Creator: Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Pleasant, J.C. & Killough, G.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department