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Hydrogen Embrittlement of Zirconium

Description: Abstract: "The amount of hydrogen normally present in zirconium and zirconium alloys suffices to reduce their ductility greatly in an impact test at room temperature, after slow cooling from 600 F. Quenching from 600 F or above gives high impact strength, as does removal of hydrogen by high-temperature vacuum annealing. This report discusses the evidence on hydrogen embrittlement, the diffusion, solid solubility, and equilibrium pressure of hydrogen of hydrogen in zirconium, the microstructure, and the effects of hydrogen and heat treatment on the mechanical properties of zirconium."
Date: August 22, 1952
Creator: Dayton, Russell Wendt; Schwope, A. D.; Muehlenkamp, G. T.; Saller, Henry A.; Dickerson, R. F.; Schwartz, C. M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer Simulation of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking via Hydrogen Embrittlement

Description: Computer simulation has been applied to the investigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking in Ni-based alloys based on a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism. The simulation employs computational modules that address (a) transport and reactions of aqueous species giving rise to hydrogen generation at the liquid-metal interface, (b) solid state transport of hydrogen via intergranular and transgranular diffusion pathways, and (c) fracture due to the embrittlement of metallic bonds by hydrogen. A key focus of the computational model development has been the role of materials microstructure (precipitate particles and grain boundaries) on hydrogen transport and embrittlement. Simulation results reveal that intergranular fracture is enhanced as grain boundaries are weakened and that microstructures with grains elongated perpendicular to the stress axis are more susceptible to cracking. The presence of intergranular precipitates may be expected to either enhance or impede cracking depending on the relative distribution of hydrogen between the grain boundaries and the precipitate-matrix interfaces. Calculations of hydrogen outgassing and in gassing demonstrate a strong effect of charging method on the fracture behavior.
Date: April 1, 2000
Creator: Smith, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fracture toughness properties of welded stainless steels for tritium service

Description: Studies to determine tritium exposure effects on the properties of welded steels are being conducted. In this investigation, the effects of tritium and decay helium on the fracture toughness properties of high-energy-rate-forged (HERF) Incoloy 903 were. Fracture toughness measurements were conducted for tritium-exposed samples in the as-forged condition and compared with welded samples. Tritium-exposed HERF Incoloy 903 had fracture toughness values that were 33% lower than those for unexposed HERF Incoloy 903. Tritium-exposed welded samples had fracture toughness values that were just 8% of the unexposed HERF alloys and 28% of unexposed welded alloys.
Date: October 1, 1994
Creator: Morgan, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: It is recognized that hydrogen separation membranes are a key component of the emerging hydrogen economy. A potentially exciting material for membrane separations are bulk metallic glass materials due to their low cost, high elastic toughness and resistance to hydrogen 'embrittlement' as compared to crystalline Pd-based membrane systems. However, at elevated temperatures and extended operation times structural changes including partial crystallinity may appear in these amorphous metallic systems. A systematic evaluation of the impact of partial crystallinity/devitrification on the diffusion and solubility behavior in multi-component Metallic Glass materials would provide great insight into the potential of these materials for hydrogen applications. This study will report on the development of time and temperature crystallization mapping and their use for interpretation of 'in-situ' hydrogen permeation at elevated temperatures.
Date: November 25, 2008
Creator: Brinkman, K; Paul Korinko, P; Thad Adams, T; Elise Fox, E & Arthur Jurgensen, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optimization of neutron tomography for rapid hydrogen concentration inspection of metal castings

Description: Hydrogen embrittlement describes a group of phenomena leading to the degradation of metal alloy properties. The hydrogen concentration in the alloy can be used as an indicator for the onset of embrittlement. A neutron tomography system has been optimized to perform nondestructive detection of hydrogen concentration in titanium aircraft engine compressor blades. Preprocessing of back projection images and postprocessing of tomographic reconstructions are used to achieve hydrogen concentration sensitivity below 200 ppm weight. This paper emphasizes the postprocessing techniques which allow automated reporting of hydrogen concentration.
Date: February 3, 1998
Creator: Gibbons, M. R., LLNL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling the segregation of hydrogen to lattice defects in nickel

Description: In order to better understand the effect of hydrogen on the fracture behavior of nickel, this study uses the embedded atom method (EAM) to model the segregation of hydrogen to lattice defects in nickel. The dislocations modeled include an edge, a screw, and a Lomer dislocation in the locked configuration, i.e. the Lomer-Cottrell Cock (LCL). Several coincident site lattice boundaries are also investigated, these being the {Sigma}3(112) and {Sigma}11(113) tilt boundaries. It will be shown that the trap site energies in the vicinity of both the edge and screw dislocations is only about 0.1 eV while for the LCL and all of the grain boundaries the maximum trap site energy in the vicinity of the defect is on order 0.3 eV. Using a Monte-Carlo method to a impose a hydrogen environment produces much stronger segregation of hydrogen to the deeper traps. When compared to recent experimental studies showing that a binding energy between 0.3-0.4 eV is required for trap site controlled fracture in IN903, it can be concluded that the embrittlement process is most probably associated with trapping of hydrogen to the Lomer-Cottrell Locks.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Angelo, J.E.; Moody, N.R. & Baskes, M.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Cold Work Embrittlement of Interstitial Free Steel

Description: This work addresses the issues of measurement of secondary cold work embrittlement (SCWE) of an IF steel in deep-drawn parts using laboratory tests, and its correlation with real part fracture. It aimed at evaluating the influence of the steel chemistry and processing condition, microstructure, and test conditions, on SCWE as well as the effect of SCWE on fatigue properties. Size 6-in. cups produced with various draw ratios or trimmed at different heights were tested to determine the ductile-to-brittle-transition temperature (DBTT) as a function of strain. The 2-in. cup/expansion test, bend test and fracture of notched specimens were also used to generate information complementary to that provided by the 6-inch cup/expansion test. The relationship between laboratory tests and fracture in real parts was established by testing large-scale parts. The fatigue behavior was investigated in the as-rolled and deep drawn (high stain) conditions, using prestrained specimens taken from the wall of a formed part.
Date: October 31, 2002
Creator: Bowker, John T & Martin, Pierre
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of low temperature, low flux radiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor structural materials. Final report

Description: There are several existing research programs which have components pertinent to the issue of low flux/low temperature embrittlement; in particular, examination of the Shippingport shield tank which has been exposed to low flux and relatively low temperature is being performed by ANL, and evaluation of low temperature embrittlement in A508 and A533B steels in support of the HTGR is currently being performed by ORNL. However, these programs are not specifically directed at the broader issue of low flux/low temperature embrittlement in a range of structural steels. Hence, the authors coordinated their effort with these programs so that their investigations were complementary to existing programs, and they focused on a set of materials which expand the data base developed in these programs. In particular, the authors have investigated embrittlement phenomena in steels that are similar to those used in support structure.
Date: June 1, 1993
Creator: Odette, G. R. & Lucas, G. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Unstable austenitic stainless steels undergo a strain-induced martensite transformation. The effect of hydrogen on this transformation is not well understood. Some researchers believe that hydrogen makes the transformation to martensite more difficult because hydrogen is an austenite stabilizer. Others believe that hydrogen has little or no effect at all on the transformation and claim that the transformation is simply a function of strain and temperature. Still other researchers believe that hydrogen should increase the ability of the metal to transform due to hydrogen-enhanced dislocation mobility and slip planarity. While the role of hydrogen on the martensite transformation is still debated, it has been experimentally verified that this transformation does occur in hydrogen-charged materials. What is the effect of strain-induced martensite on hydrogen embrittlement? Martensite near crack-tips or other highly strained regions could provide much higher hydrogen diffusivity and allow for quicker hydrogen concentration. Martensite may be more intrinsically brittle than austenite and has been shown to be severely embrittled by hydrogen. However, it does not appear to be a necessary condition for embrittlement since Type 21-6-9 stainless steel is more stable than Type 304L stainless steel but susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. In this study, the effect of hydrogen on strain-induced martensite formation in Type 304L stainless steel was investigated by monitoring the formation of martensite during tensile tests of as-received and hydrogen-charged samples and metallographically examining specimens from interrupted tensile tests after increasing levels of strain. The effect of hydrogen on the fracture mechanisms was also studied by examining the fracture features of as-received and hydrogen-charged specimens and relating them to the stress-strain behavior.
Date: December 11, 2008
Creator: Morgan, M & Ps Lam, P
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The impact of process parameters on gold elimination from soldered connector assemblies

Description: Minimizing the likelihood of solder joint embrittlement in connectors is realized by reducing or eliminating retained Au plating and/or Au-Sn intermetallic compound formation from the assemblies. Gold removal is performed most effectively by using a double wicking process. When only a single wicking procedure can be used, a higher soldering temperature improves the process of Au removal from the connector surfaces and to a nominal extent, removal of Au-contaminated solder from the joint. A longer soldering time did not appear to offer any appreciable improvement toward removing the Au-contaminated solder from the joint. Because the wicking procedure was a manual process, it was operator dependent.
Date: February 2, 2000
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Li, He and Ca on Grain Boundary Cohesive Strength in Ni

Description: Boron is added to nickel-base superalloys such as Alloy X-750 in order to enhance high temperature strength and ductility so that the alloy may be more easily hot worked[1]. Boron additions also have been shown to ameliorate intergranular hydrogen embrittlement in nickel[2], and to improve the high temperature resistance of Alloy X-750 to aqueous stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the absence of irradiation[3]. Recent quantum mechanical calculations demonstrate that boron strengthens grain boundaries in pure nickel[4], and may contribute to the observed benefits of boron on workability and fracture resistance of nickel alloys. Alloy X-750 exhibits greater susceptibility to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) when irradiated[5], and it has been proposed that the presence of grain boundary helium and/or lithium is responsible. Arguments have been advanced that helium embrittlement of the grain boundaries is primarily responsible for the greater observed susceptibility to IGSCC in irradiated X-750[1]. Alternatively, it has been proposed that lithium promotes IGSCC either by entering the water at the crack tip and lowering the local pH, or by inducing a restructuring of the grain boundary itself[1]. Direct embrittlement of grain boundaries by lithium also has been investigated by ion bombardment in Nimonic PE16, illustrating that under certain conditions lithium can produce degrees of embrittlement in nickel comparable to that produced by helium[6]. It is important to understand the relative roles of these species in grain boundary embrittlement in nickel alloys so that better predictive abilities and mitigation strategies can be developed. Toward that end, quantum mechanical calculations have been performed to investigate the influence of isolated lithium and helium atoms on the cohesive strength of an ideal grain boundary in pure nickel.
Date: April 1, 2000
Creator: Smith, Richard W.; Geng, W. T.; Geller, Clint B.; Wu, R. & Freeman, A. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

U.S. NRC Embrittlement Data Base (EDB)

Description: Large amounts of data obtained from surveillance capsules and test reactor experiments are needed, comprising many different materials and different irradiation conditions, to develop generally applicable damage prediction models that can be used for industry standards and regulatory guides. Version 1 of the Embrittlement Data Base (EDB) [I] is such a comprehensive collection of such data resulting from the merging of the Power Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (PR-EDB) [2] and the Test Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (TR-EDB) [3]. Fracture toughness data were also integrated into Version 1 of the EDB. The EDB data files are in dBASE format and can be accessed with a personal computer using the DOS or WINDOWS operating system. A utility program has been written to investigate radiation embrittlement using this data base. The utility program is used to retrieve and select specific data, manipulate data, display data to the screen or printer, and to tit and plot Charpy impact data.
Date: September 12, 1999
Creator: Pace, J.V.; Rosseel, T.M. & Wang, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Irradiation, Annealing, and Reirradiation Effects on American and Russian Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

Description: One of the options to mitigate the effects of irradiation on reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is to thermally anneal them to restore the toughness properties that have been degraded by neutron irradiation. Even though a postirradiation anneal may be deemed successful, a critical aspect of continued RPV operation is the rate of embrittlement upon reirradiation. There are insufficient data available to allow for verification of available models of reirradiation embrittlement or for the development of a reliable predictive methodology. This is especially true in the case of fracture toughness data. Under the U.S.-Russia Joint Coordinating Committee for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety (JCCCNRS), Working Group 3 on Radiation Embrittlement, Structural Integrity, and Life Extension of Reactor Vessels and Supports agreed to conduct a comparative study of annealing and reirradiation effects on RPV steels. The Working Group agreed that each side would irradiate, anneal, reirradiate (if feasible ), and test two materials of the other. Charpy V-notch (CVN) and tensile specimens were included. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted such a program (irradiation and annealing, including static fracture toughness) with two weld metals representative of VVER-440 and VVER-1000 RPVs, while the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute (RRC-KI) conducted a program (irradiation, annealing, reirradiation, and reannealing) with Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program Plate 02 and Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) Program Weld 73W. The results for each material from each laboratory are compared with those from the other laboratory. The ORNL experiments with the VVER welds included irradiation to about 1 x 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV), while the RRC-KI experiments with the U.S. materials included irradiations from about 2 to 18 x 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} (>l MeV). In both cases, irradiations were conducted at {approximately}290 C and annealing treatments were conducted at {approximately}454 C. The ORNL and RRC-RI experiments have shown generally ...
Date: June 16, 1998
Creator: Chernobaeva, A.A.; Korolev, Y.N.; Nanstad, R.K.; Nikolaev, Y.A. & Sokolov, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Grain-boundary engineering markedly reduces susceptibility to intergranular hydrogen embrittlement in metallic materials

Description: The feasibility of using 'grain-boundary engineering' techniques to reduce the susceptibility of a metallic material to intergranular embrittlement in the presence of hydrogen is examined. Using thermomechanical processing, the fraction of 'special' grain boundaries was increased from 46% to 75% (by length) in commercially pure nickel samples. In the presence of hydrogen concentrations between 1200 and 3400 appm, the high special fraction microstructure showed almost double the tensile ductility; also, the proportion of intergranular fracture was significantly lower and the J{sub c} fracture toughness values were some 20-30% higher in comparison with the low special fraction microstructure. We attribute the reduction in the severity of hydrogen-induced intergranular embrittlement to the higher fraction of special grain boundaries, where the degree of hydrogen segregation at these boundaries is reduced.
Date: May 10, 2009
Creator: Bechtle, Sabine; Kumar, Mukul; Somerday, Brian P.; Launey, Maximilien E. & Ritchie, Robert O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: In this paper, we first present the status of our computational modeling study of the thermal expansion coefficient of Fe{sub 3}Al over a wide range of temperature and evaluate its dependence on selected additives. This will be accomplished by applying an isobaric Monte Carlo technique. The required total energy of the sample will be computed by using a tight-binding (TB) method that allows us to significantly increase the size of the computational data base without reducing the accuracy of the calculations. The parameters of the TB Hamiltonian are fitted to reproduce the band structure obtained by our quantum mechanical full-potential LMTO calculations. The combination of the three methods mentioned above creates an effective approach to the computation of the physical properties of the transition-metal aluminides and it can be extended to alloys with more than two components. At present, we are using a simplified approach for a first-round of results; and as a test of the simplified approach, have obtained excellent agreement with experiment for aluminum. Our previous experimental results showed that, because of their smaller grain size, FA-187 and FA-189 are extrinsically more susceptible to environmental embrittlement than FA-186 under low strain loading condition. To further investigate the grain boundary size effect as related to the susceptibility of hydrogen embrittlement, we conducted comparative finite element modeling simulations of initial intergranular fracture of two iron aluminides (FA186 and FA189) due to hydrogen embrittlement. Sequentially coupled stress and mass diffusion analyses are carried out to determine crack-tip stress state and the extent of hydrogen diffusion at the crack tip region, and a proper failure criteria is then adopted to simulate the intergranular fracture. Good qualitative agreement between the modeling predictions and experimental results is observed.
Date: May 16, 2000
Creator: Cooper, B.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Slow strain rate fracture of high-strength steel at controlled electrochemical potentials in ammonium chloride, potassium chloride, and ammonium nitrate solutions

Description: Slow strain rate testing has been undertaken to determine the effects of individual chemical species on the fracture process of high-strength 4340 steel. Test environments included potassium chloride, ammonium nitrate, and ammonium chloride at concentrations from 0.001 to 1.0 mole por liter at ambient temperature. Tests were performed at cathodic and anodic controlled potentials, as well as at the open-circuit potential, to delineate the stress corrosion cracking range.
Date: August 15, 1992
Creator: Nguyen, D. T.; Nichols, D. E. & Daniels, R. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing Fatigue Pre-crack Procedure to Evaluate Fracture Toughness of Pipeline Steels Using Spiral Notch Torsion Test

Description: The spiral notch torsion test (SNTT) has been utilized to investigate the crack growth behavior of X52 steel base and welded materials used for hydrogen infrastructures. The X52 steel materials are received from a welded pipe using friction stir welding techniques. Finite element models were established to study the crack growth behavior of steel SNTT steel samples, which were assumed to be isotropic material. A series SNTT models were set up to cover various crack penetration cases, of which the ratios between crack depth to diameter (a/D ratio) ranging from 0.10 to 0.45. The evolution of compliance and energy release rates in the SNTT method have been investigated with different cases, including different geometries and materials. Indices of characteristic compliance and energy release rates have been proposed. Good agreement has been achieved between predictions from different cases in the same trend. These work shed lights on a successful protocol for SNTT application in wide range of structural materials. The further effort needed for compliance function development is to extend the current developed compliance function to the deep crack penetration arena, in the range of 0.55 to 0.85 to effectively determine fracture toughness for extremely tough materials.
Date: October 1, 2012
Creator: Wang, Jy-An John; Tan, Ting; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Wei & Feng, Zhili
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of membranes for hydrogen separation: Pd-coated V-10Pd

Description: Numerous Group IVB and VB alloys were prepared and tested as potential membrane materials but most of these materials were brittle or exhibited cracking during hydrogen exposure. One of the more ductile alloys, V-10Pd (at. %), was fabricated into a thin (107-{micro}m thick) composite membrane coated with 100 nm of Pd on each side. The material was tested for hydrogen permeability, resistance to hydrogen embrittlement, and long term hydrogen flux stability. The hydrogen permeability, {phi}, of the V-10Pd membrane was 3.86 x 10{sup -8} mol H{sub 2} m{sup -1} s{sup -1} Pa{sup -0.5} (avg. of three different samples) at 400 C, which is slightly higher than the permeability of Pd-23Ag at that temperature. A 1400 h hydrogen flux test at 400 C demonstrated that the rate of metallic interdiffusion was slow between the V-10Pd foil and the 100-nm-thick Pd coating on the surface. However, at the end of testing the membrane cracked at 118 C because of hydrogen embrittlement.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Paglieri, Stephen N; Wermer, Joseph R; Buxbaum, Robert E; Ciocco, Michael V; Howard, Bret H & Morreale, Bryan D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: This report summarizes the research and development accomplishments during FY12 for the tritium effects on materials program. The tritium effects on materials program is designed to measure the long-term effects of tritium and its radioactive decay product, helium-3, on the structural properties of forged stainless steels which are used as the materials of construction for tritium reservoirs. The FY12 R&D accomplishments include: (1) Fabricated and Thermally-Charged 150 Forged Stainless Steel Samples with Tritium for Future Aging Studies; (2) Developed an Experimental Plan for Measuring Cracking Thresholds of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Steels in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas; (3) Calculated Sample Tritium Contents For Laboratory Inventory Requirements and Environmental Release Estimates; (4) Published report on “Cracking Thresholds and Fracture Toughness Properties of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Stainless Steels”; and, (5) Published report on “The Effects of Hydrogen, Tritium, and Heat Treatment on the Deformation and Fracture Toughness Properties of Stainless Steels”. These accomplishments are highlighted here and references given to additional reports for more detailed information.
Date: January 31, 2013
Creator: Morgan, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tensile-property characterization of thermally aged cast stainless steels.

Description: The effect of thermal aging on tensile properties of cast stainless steels during service in light water reactors has been evaluated. Tensile data for several experimental and commercial heats of cast stainless steels are presented. Thermal aging increases the tensile strength of these steels. The high-C Mo-bearing CF-8M steels are more susceptible to thermal aging than the Mo-free CF-3 or CF-8 steels. A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting the change in tensile flow and yield stresses and engineering stress-vs.-strain curve of cast stainless steel as a function of time and temperature of service. The tensile properties of aged cast stainless steel are estimated from known material information, i.e., chemical composition and the initial tensile strength of the steel. The correlations described in this report may be used for assessing thermal embrittlement of cast stainless steel components.
Date: March 3, 1994
Creator: Michaud, W. F.; Toben, P. T.; Soppet, W. K.; Chopra, O. K. & Technology, Energy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department