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Tools for Nanotechnology Education Development Program

Description: The overall focus of this project was the development of reusable, cost-effective educational modules for use with the table top scanning electron microscope (TTSEM). The goal of this project's outreach component was to increase students' exposure to the science and technology of nanoscience.
Date: September 27, 2010
Creator: Moore, Dorothy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comment on "Modification of graphene properties due to electron-beam irradiation"

Description: This article gives comment to a previous article entitled 'Modification of graphene properties due to electron-beam irradiation'. These articles discuss the modification of graphene properties due to electron-beam irradiation.
Date: December 17, 2009
Creator: Jones, Jason D.; Ecton, Philip A.; Mo, Yudong & Pérez, José M.
Partner: UNT College of Arts and Sciences

In-Situ TEM Study of Interface Sliding and Migration in an Ultrafine Lamellar Structure

Description: The instability of interfaces in an ultrafine TiAl-({gamma})/Ti{sub 3}Al-({alpha}{sub 2}) lamellar structure by straining at room temperature has been investigated using in-situ straining techniques performed in a transmission electron microscope. The purpose of this study is to obtain experimental evidence to support the creep mechanisms based upon the interface sliding in association with a cooperative movement of interfacial dislocations previously proposed to interpret the nearly linear creep behavior observed from ultrafine lamellar TiAl alloys. The results have revealed that both the sliding and migration of lamellar interfaces can take place simultaneously as a result of the cooperative movement of interfacial dislocations.
Date: December 6, 2005
Creator: Hsiung, L M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pu Workshop Letter

Description: In preparation for the upcoming Pu Workshop in Livermore, CA, USA, during July 14 and 15, 2006, we have begun to give some thought as to how the meeting will be structured and what will be discussed. Below, you will find our first proposal as to the agenda and contents of the meeting. From you, we need your feedback and suggestions concerning the desirability of each aspect of our proposal. Hopefully, we will be able to converge to a format that is acceptable to all parties. First, it now appears that we will be limited to three main sessions, Friday morning (July 14), Friday afternoon (July 14) and Saturday morning (July 15). The Pu Futures Meeting will conclude on Thursday, July 13. Following a social excursion, the Russian participants will be transported from Monterey Bay to their hotel in Livermore. We anticipate that the hotel will be the Residence Inn at 1000 Airway Blvd in Livermore. However, the hotel arrangements still need to be confirmed. We expect that many of our participants will begin their travels homeward in the afternoon of Saturday, July 15 and the morning of Sunday, July 16. Associated with the three main sessions, we propose that there be three main topics. Each session will have an individual focus. Because of the limited time available, we will need to make some judicious choices concerning the focus and the speakers for each session. We will also have a poster session associated with each session, to facilitate discussions, and a rotating set of Lab Tours, to maximize participation in the tour and minimize the disruption of the speaking schedule. Presently, we are planning a tour of the Dynamical Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) facilities, but this is still in a preliminary stage. We estimate that for each session and topic, ...
Date: March 6, 2006
Creator: Tobin, J G; Schwartz, A J & Fluss, M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Beam-induced specimen movement may be the major factor that limits the quality of high-resolution images of organic specimens. One of the possible measures to improve the situation that was proposed by Henderson and Glaeser (Henderson and Glaeser, 1985), which we refer to here as 'stroboscopic image capture', is to divide the normal exposure into many successive frames, thus reducing the amount of electron exposure--and possibly the amount of beam-induced movement--per frame. The frames would then be aligned and summed. We have performed preliminary experiments on stroboscopic imaging using a 200-kV electron microscope that was equipped with a high dynamic range CCD camera for image recording and a liquid N{sub 2}-cooled cryoholder. Single-layer paraffin crystals on carbon film were used as a test specimen. The ratio F(g)/F(0) of paraffin reflections, calculated from the images, serves as our criterion for the image quality. In the series that were evaluated, no significant improvement of the F{sub image}(g)/F{sub image}(0) ratio was found, even though the electron exposure per frame was reduced by a factor of 30. A frame-to-frame analysis of image distortions showed that considerable beam-induced movement had still occurred during each frame. In addition, the paraffin crystal lattice was observed to move relative to the supporting carbon film, a fact that cannot be explained as being an electron-optical effect caused by specimen charging. We conclude that a significant further reduction of the dose per frame (than was possible with this CCD detector) will be needed in order to test whether the frame-to-frame changes ultimately become small enough for stroboscopic image capture to show its potential.
Date: August 1, 2006
Creator: Typke, Dieter; Gilpin, Christopher J.; Downing, Kenneth H. & Glaeser, Robert M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon contamination of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask and its effect on imaging

Description: Carbon contamination of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) masks and its effect on imaging is a significant issue due to lowered throughput and potential effects on imaging performance. In this work, a series of carbon contamination experiments were performed on a patterned EUV mask. Contaminated features were then inspected with a reticle scanning electron microscope (SEM) and printed with the SEMA TECH Berkeley Microfield-Exposure tool (MET) [1]. In addition, the mask was analyzed using the SEMA TECH Berkeley Actinic-Inspection tool (AIT) [2] to determine the effect of carbon contamination on the absorbing features and printing performance. To understand the contamination topography, simulations were performed based on calculated aerial images and resist parameters. With the knowledge of the topography, simulations were then used to predict the effect of other thicknesses of the contamination layer, as well as the imaging performance on printed features.
Date: February 2, 2009
Creator: Fan, Yu-Jen; Yankulin, Leonid; Antohe, Alin; Garg, Rashi; Thomas, Petros; Mbanaso, Chimaobi et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron Microscopy Study of Annealed (Ni, Zn, Co)Fe204

Description: (Ni,Zn)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples containing small amounts of Co were characterized in a transmission electron microscope to ascertain the micro structural changes accompanying low-temperature oxidation of the samples. Although no new features resulting from oxidation were observed, prominent surface reduction occurred in the thin foil specimens. Formation and growth of Ni particles on the ferrite surface are explained using the heats of formation of the oxides.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Harmer, M. H.; Mishra, R. K. & Thomas, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thorough characterization of a EUV mask

Description: We reported that we were successful in our 45nm technology node device demonstration in February 2008 and 22nm node technology node device patterning in February 2009 using ASML's Alpha Demo Tool (ADT). In order to insert extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography at the 15nm technology node and beyond, we have thoroughly characterized one EUV mask, a so-called NOVACD mask. In this paper, we report on three topics, The first topic is an analysis of line edge roughness (LER) using a mask Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and the Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) to compare resist images printed with the ASML ADT. The results of the analysis show a good correlation between the mask AFM and the mask SEM measurements, However, the resist printing results for the isolated space patterns are slightly different. The cause ofthis discrepancy may be resist blur, image log slope and SEM image quality and so on. The second topic is an analysis of mask topography using an AFM and relative reflectivity of mirror and absorber surface using the AIT, The AFM data show 6 and 7 angstrom rms roughness for mirror and absorber, respectively. The reflectivity measurements show that the mirror reflects EUV light about 20 times higher than absorber. The last topic is an analysis of a 32nm technology node SRAM cell which includes a comparison of mask SEM image, AIT image, resist image and simulation results. The ADT images of the SRAM pattern were of high quality even though the mask patters were not corrected for OPC or any EUV-specific effects. Image simulation results were in good agreement with the printing results.
Date: June 25, 2009
Creator: Mizuno, H.; McIntyre, G.; Koay, C.-W.; Burkhardt, M.; He, L.; Hartley, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In situ nanoindentation in a transmission electron microscope

Description: This dissertation presents the development of the novel mechanical testing technique of in situ nanoindentation in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This technique makes it possible to simultaneously observe and quantify the mechanical behavior of nano-scale volumes of solids.
Date: December 2, 2002
Creator: Minor, Andrew M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quantitative in situ nanoindentation of aluminum films

Description: We report the development of a method for quantitative, in situ nanoindentation in an electron microscope and its application to study the onset of deformation during the nanoindentation of aluminum films. The load-displacement curve developed during in situ nanoindentation shows the characteristic ''staircase'' instability at the onset of plastic deformation. The instability corresponds to the first appearance of dislocations in previously defect-free grains, and occurs at a force near that measured in conventional nanoindentation experiments on similarly oriented Al grains. Plastic deformation proceeds through the formation and propagation of prismatic loops punched into the material, and half-loops that emanate from the sample surface. This new experimental technique permits the direct observation of the microstructural mechanisms that operate at the onset of deformation.
Date: April 4, 2001
Creator: Minor, Andrew M.; Stach, Eric A. & Morris, J. W., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fastest Electropolishing Technique on Niobium for Particle Accelerators

Description: Field emission on the inner surfaces of niobium (Nb) superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities is still one of the major obstacles for reaching high accelerating gradients for SRF community. Our previous experimental results [1] seemed to imply that the threshold of field emission was related to the thickness of Nb surface oxide layers. In this contribution, a more detailed study on the influences of the surface oxide layers on the field emission on Nb surfaces will be reported. By anodization technique, the thickness of the surface pentoxide layer was artificially fabricated from 3nm up to 460nm. A home-made scanning field emission microscope (SFEM) was employed to perform the scans on the surfaces. Emitters were characterized using a scanning electron microscope together with an energy dispersive x-ray analyzer. The experimental results could be understood by a simple model calculation based on classic electromagnetic theory as shown in Ref.1. Possibly implications for Nb SRF cavity applications from this study will be discussed.
Date: September 1, 2011
Creator: A.T. Wu, S. Jin, R.A. Rimmer, X.Y. Lu, K. Zhao
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Markov Random Field Based Automatic Image Alignment for ElectronTomography

Description: Cryo electron tomography (cryo-ET) is the primary method for obtaining 3D reconstructions of intact bacteria, viruses, and complex molecular machines ([7],[2]). It first flash freezes a specimen in a thin layer of ice, and then rotates the ice sheet in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) recording images of different projections through the sample. The resulting images are aligned and then back projected to form the desired 3-D model. The typical resolution of biological electron microscope is on the order of 1 nm per pixel which means that small imprecision in the microscope's stage or lenses can cause large alignment errors. To enable a high precision alignment, biologists add a small number of spherical gold beads to the sample before it is frozen. These beads generate high contrast dots in the image that can be tracked across projections. Each gold bead can be seen as a marker with a fixed location in 3D, which provides the reference points to bring all the images to a common frame as in the classical structure from motion problem. A high accuracy alignment is critical to obtain a high resolution tomogram (usually on the order of 5-15nm resolution). While some methods try to automate the task of tracking markers and aligning the images ([8],[4]), they require user intervention if the SNR of the image becomes too low. Unfortunately, cryogenic electron tomography (or cryo-ET) often has poor SNR, since the samples are relatively thick (for TEM) and the restricted electron dose usually results in projections with SNR under 0 dB. This paper shows that formulating this problem as a most-likely estimation task yields an approach that is able to automatically align with high precision cryo-ET datasets using inference in graphical models. This approach has been packaged into a publicly available software called RAPTOR-Robust Alignment and Projection ...
Date: November 30, 2007
Creator: Moussavi, Farshid; Amat, Fernando; Comolli, Luis R.; Elidan, Gal; Downing, Kenneth H. & Horowitz, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atomic Structure of Pyramidal Defects in GaN:Mg; Influence ofAnnealing

Description: The atomic structure of the characteristic defects (Mg-rich hexagonal pyramids) in p-doped bulk and MOCVD GaN:Mg thin films grown with Ga polarity was determined at atomic resolution by direct reconstruction of the scattered electron wave in a transmission electron microscope. Small cavities were present inside the defects, confirmed also with positron annihilation. The inside walls of the cavities were covered by GaN of reverse polarity compared to the matrix. Defects in bulk GaN:Mg were almost one order of magnitude larger than in thin films. An exchange of Ga and N sublattices within the defect compared to the matrix lead to a 0.6 {+-} 0.2 {angstrom} displacement between the Ga sublattices of these two areas. A [1100]/3 shift with change from AB stacking in the matrix to BC within the entire pyramid was observed. Annealing of the MOCVD layers lead to slight increase of the defect size and an increase of the photoluminescence intensity. Positron annihilation confirms presence of vacancies of different sizes triggered by the Mg doping in as-grown samples and decrease of their concentration upon annealing at 900 and 1000 C.
Date: October 3, 2005
Creator: Liliental-Weber, Z.; Tomaszewicz, T.; Zakharov, D.; O'Keefe, M.; Hautakangas, S.; Saarinen, K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Three-Dimensional Aberration-Corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy for Biology

Description: Recent instrumental developments have enabled greatly improved resolution of scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEM) through aberration correction. An additional and previously unanticipated advantage of aberration correction is the greatly improved depth sensitivity that has led to the reconstruction of a three-dimensional (3D) image from a focal series. In this chapter the potential of aberration-corrected 3D STEM to provide major improvements in the imaging capabilities for biological samples will be discussed. This chapter contains a brief overview ofthe various high-resolution 3D imaging techniques, a historical perspective of the development of STEM, first estimates of the dose-limited axial and lateral resolution on biological samples and initial experiments on stained thin sections.
Date: January 1, 2007
Creator: De Jonge, Niels; Sougrat, Rachid; Pennycook, Stephen J; Peckys, Diana B & Lupini, Andrew R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Science & Technology Review November 2007

Description: This month's issue has the following articles: (1) Simulating the Electromagnetic World--Commentary by Steven R. Patterson; (2) A Code to Model Electromagnetic Phenomena--EMSolve, a Livermore supercomputer code that simulates electromagnetic fields, is helping advance a wide range of research efforts; (3) Characterizing Virulent Pathogens--Livermore researchers are developing multiplexed assays for rapid detection of pathogens; (4) Imaging at the Atomic Level--A powerful new electron microscope at the Laboratory is resolving materials at the atomic level for the first time; (5) Scientists without Borders--Livermore scientists lend their expertise on peaceful nuclear applications to their counterparts in other countries; and (6) Probing Deep into the Nucleus--Edward Teller's contributions to the fast-growing fields of nuclear and particle physics were part of a physics golden age.
Date: October 16, 2007
Creator: Chinn, D J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-Term Immersion Testing of Alloy 22 and Titanium Grade 7 Double U-bend Specimens

Description: Double U-bend specimens of Alloy 22 (N06022) and Titanium Grade 7 (R52400) were exposed to a naturally aerated concentrated Basic Saturated Water (BSW) electrolyte at 105 C for over six years. Different type of discoloration of the Ti Gr 7 and Alloy 22 specimens was observed. General Corrosion was minimal and not distinguishable under a scanning electron microscope. None of the tested specimens suffered environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) or localized corrosion under the tested conditions. The specimens retained their residual stress after the long environmental exposure.
Date: February 8, 2007
Creator: Evans, K J; Stuart, M L; Hailey, P D & Rebak, R B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: A miniature electrostatic element has been designed to selectively apply a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plane of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. The design involves a cylindrically shaped, biased-voltage electrode, which is surrounded by a concentric grounded electrode. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that the fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size is greater than 5:1. Unlike the planar, three-electrode einzel lens originally proposed by Boersch for the same purpose, this new design does not require insulating layers to separate the biased and grounded electrodes, and it can thus be produced by a very simple microfabrication process. Scanning electron microscope images confirm that mechanically robust devices with feature sizes of {approx}1 {micro}m can be easily fabricated. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a 90-degree phase shift between the scattered and unscattered electrons, as expected.
Date: September 20, 2006
Creator: Cambie, Rossana; Downing, Kenneth H.; Typke, Dieter; Glaeser,Robert M. & Jin, Jian
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Three-fold diffraction symmetry in epitaxial graphene and the SiC substrate

Description: The crystallographic symmetries and spatial distribution of stacking domains in graphene films on 6H-SiC(0001) have been studied by low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and dark field imaging in a low energy electron microscope (LEEM). We find that the graphene diffraction spots from 2 and 3 atomic layers of graphene have 3-fold symmetry consistent with AB (Bernal or rhombohedral) stacking of the layers. On the contrary, graphene diffraction spots from the buffer layer and monolayer graphene have apparent 6-fold symmetry, although the 3-fold nature of the satellite spots indicates a more complex periodicity in the graphene sheets.
Date: December 10, 2009
Creator: Siegel, D A; Zhou, S Y; El Gabaly, F; Schmid, A K; McCarty, K F & Lanzara, A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solving the Accelerator-Condenser Coupling Problem in a Nanosecond Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope

Description: We describe a modification to a transmission electron microscope (TEM) that allows it to briefly (using a pulsed-laser-driven photocathode) operate at currents in excess of 10 mA while keeping the effects of condenser lens aberrations to a minimum. This modification allows real-space imaging of material microstructure with a resolution of order 10 nm over regions several {micro}m across with an exposure time of 15 ns. This is more than 6 orders of magnitude faster than typical video-rate TEM imaging. The key is the addition of a weak magnetic lens to couple the large-diameter high-current beam exiting the accelerator into the acceptance aperture of a conventional TEM condenser lens system. We show that the performance of the system is essentially consistent with models derived from ray tracing and finite element simulations. The instrument can also be operated as a conventional TEM by using the electron gun in a thermionic mode. The modification enables very high electron current densities in {micro}m-sized areas and could also be used in a non-pulsed system for high-throughput imaging and analytical TEM.
Date: December 29, 2009
Creator: Reed, B W; LaGrange, T; Shuttlesworth, R M; Gibson, D J; Campbell, G H & Browning, N D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron Backscatter Diffraction in Low Vacuum Conditions

Description: Most current scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) have the ability to analyze samples in a low vacuum mode, whereby a partial pressure of water vapor is introduced into the SEM chamber, allowing the characterization of nonconductive samples without any special preparation. Although the presence of water vapor in the chamber degrades electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns, the potential of this setup for EBSD characterization of nonconductive samples is immense. In this chapter we discuss the requirements, advantages and limitations of low vacuum EBSD (LV-EBSD), and present how this technique can be applied to a two-phase ceramic composite as well as hydrated biominerals as specific examples of when LV-EBSD can be invaluable.
Date: July 17, 2008
Creator: El-Dasher, B S & Torres, S G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department