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RTA gun performance

Description: The technical challenge for making two-beam accelerators into realizable power sources for high-energy colliders lie in the creation of the drive beam and in its propagation over long distances through multiple extraction sections. This year we have constructed a 1.2-kA, 1-MeV, electron induction injector for the RTA accelerator. The electron source will be a 8.9 cm diameter, thermionic, flat-surface cathode with a maximum shroud field stress of approximately 165 kV/cm. The injector� s pulse length should be over 120-ns flat top (1% energy variation) with a normalized edge emittance of less than 200 (small pi)-mm-mr. Details of the design and performance of the injector, beam line, and diagnostics will be presented.
Date: August 10, 1998
Creator: Andersen, D E; Eylon, S; Henestroza, E; Houck, T L; Lidia, S M; Vanecek, D L et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering Design and Fabrication of an Ampere-Class Superconducting Photocathode Electron Gun

Description: Over the past three years, Advanced Energy Systems and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have been collaborating on the design of an Ampere- class superconducting photocathode electron gun. BNL performed the physics design of the overall system and RF cavity under prior programs. Advanced Energy Systems (AES) is currently responsible for the engineering design and fabrication of the electron gun under contract to BNL. We will report on the engineering design and fabrication status of the superconducting photocathode electron gun. The overall configuration of the cryomodule will be reviewed. The layout of the hermitic string, space frame, shielding package, and cold mass will be discussed. The engineering design of the gun cavity and removable cathode will be presented in detail and areas of technical risk will be highlighted. Finally, the fabrication sequence and fabrication status of the gun cavity will be discussed.
Date: November 17, 2008
Creator: Ben-Zvi,I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proof-of-principle Experiment of a Ferroelectric Tuner for the 1.3 GHz Cavity

Description: A novel tuner has been developed by the Omega-P company to achieve fast control of the accelerator RF cavity frequency. The tuner is based on the ferroelectric property which has a variable dielectric constant as function of applied voltage. Tests using a Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) 1.3 GHz electron gun cavity have been carried out for a proof-of-principle experiment of the ferroelectric tuner. Two different methods were used to determine the frequency change achieved with the ferroelectric tuner (FT). The first method is based on a S11 measurement at the tuner port to find the reactive impedance change when the voltage is applied. The reactive impedance change then is used to estimate the cavity frequency shift. The second method is a direct S21 measurement of the frequency shift in the cavity with the tuner connected. The estimated frequency change from the reactive impedance measurement due to 5 kV is in the range between 3.2 kHz and 14 kHz, while 9 kHz is the result from the direct measurement. The two methods are in reasonable agreement. The detail description of the experiment and the analysis are discussed in the paper.
Date: January 1, 2009
Creator: Choi,E.M.; Hahn, H.; Shchelkunov, S. V.; Hirshfield, J. & Kazakov, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experience at Fermilab with high quantum efficiency photo-cathodes for rf electron guns

Description: As part of the A0 Photo-injector collaboration at Fermi-lab [1, 2] and the TeSLA collaboration [3], a high bright-ness, low emittance electron source has been developed. In the process, a system was constructed for coating molybde-num cathodes with a layer of cæsium telluride (Cs2 Te), a photo-emissive material of high quantum efficiency (QE). The use of Cs2 Te was first investigated at CERN [4] and LANL [5]. The development of the systems for the TeSLA Test Facility Linac and the Fermilab Photo-injector was done in Milano [6]. The system at Fermilab incorporates manipulator arms to transfer a cathode from the preparation chamber into a 1.3 GHz photo-electron RF gun while it re-mains in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environment, in or-der to avoid the deleterious effects of residual gases on the QE. A first prototype electron gun has been operated with a photo-cathode for several months [1]. This paper describes preliminary results obtained with the first 2 photo-cathodes and the first gun. Some of the desired parameters for the TeSLA Test Fa-cility beam are given in Table 1. The desired characteristics for the photo-cathodes include (i) high QE, (ii) high current density (>500 A/cm{sup 2} ), (iii) long lifetime, and (iv) low field emission. The choice of Cs2 Te is a compromise between long lifetime, rugged metal cathodes with low QE (typi-cally between 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -4} and semiconductor cathodes with high QE (>10%), which generally have a short life-time because of their sensitivity to contamination.
Date: October 1998
Creator: Fry, A.; Hahn, E.; Hartung, W.; Kuchnir, M.; Michelato, P. & Sertore, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PPM focused X-band klystron development at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

Description: X-band klystrons capable of 50 MW and utilizing Periodic Permanent Magnet (PPM) focusing are undergoing design and fabrication at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The klystron development is part of an effort to realize components necessary for the construction of the Next Linear Collider (NLC). The first klystron to be tested this year has a 0.6 microK beam at 465 kV, a 5 cells traveling wave output structure and a predicted efficiency of 63%. A 465 kV, 190 A beam stick with 12 periods of PPM focusing has recently operated to verify the gun optics and transmission of the beam in the absence of rf bunching. Beam transmission greater than 99.8% has been measured. Design and simulation of the beam stick and klystron are discussed, along with performance of the beam stick under confined flow and shielded conditions.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Sprehn, D.; Caryotakis, G.; Eppley, K. & Phillips, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulated Performance of the Wisconsin Superconducting Electron Gun

Description: The Wisconsin superconducting electron gun is modeled with multiparticle tracking simulations using the ASTRA and GPT codes. To specify the construction of the emittance-compensation solenoid, we studied the dependence of the output bunch's emittance upon the solenoid's strength and field errors. We also evaluated the dependence of the output bunch's emittance upon the bunch's initial emittance and the size of the laser spot on the photocathode. The results suggest that a 200-pC bunch with an emittance of about one mm-mrad can be produced for a free-electron laser.
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: R.A. Bosch, K.J. Kleman, R.A. Legg
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HOM damping properties of fundamental power couplers in the superconducting electron gun of the energy recovery LINAC at Brookhaven National Laboratory

Description: Among the accelerator projects under construction at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is an R and D energy recovery LINAC (ERL) test facility. The ERL includes both a five-cell superconducting cavity as well as a superconducting, photoinjector electron gun. Because of the high-charge and high-current demands, effective higher-order mode (HOM) damping is essential, and several strategies are being pursued. Among these is the use of the fundamental power couplers as a means for damping some HOMs. Simulation studies have shown that the power couplers can play a substantial role in damping certain HOMs, and this presentation discusses these studies along with measurements.
Date: March 28, 2011
Creator: Hammons, L. & Hahn, H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Summary report of working group 5: Beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control

Description: This paper summarizes the activities and presentations of Working Group 5 of the Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop held at Annapolis, Maryland in June 2010. Working Group 5 touched on a broad range of topics in the fields of beam and radiation generation and their monitoring and control. These topics were not comprehensively covered in this Workshop, but rather the Working Group concentrated on specific new developments and recent investigations. The Working Group divided its sessions into four broad categories: cathodes and electron guns, radiation generation, beam diagnostics, and beam control and dynamics. This summary is divided into the same structure.
Date: January 1, 2010
Creator: Church, Mike; /Fermilab; Kim, Ki-Yong & U., /Maryland
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Survey of SRF guns

Description: Developing Superconducting RF (SRF) electron guns is an active field with several laboratories working on different gun designs. While the first guns were based on elliptic cavity geometries, Quarter Wave Resonator (QWR) option is gaining popularity. QWRs are especially well suited for producing beams with high charge per bunch. In this talk we will describe recent progress in developing both types of SRF guns. SRF guns made excellent progress in the last two years. Several guns generated beams and one, at HZDR, injected beam into an accelerator. By accomplishing this, HZDR/ELBE gun demonstrated feasibility of the SRF gun concept with a normal-conducting Cs{sub 2}Te cathode. The cathode demonstrated very good performance with the lifetime of {approx}1 year. However, for high average current/high bunch charge operation CsK{sub 2}Sb is preferred as it needs green lasers, unlike UV laser for the Cs{sub 2}Te, which makes it easier to build laser/optics systems. Other high QE photocathodes are being developed for SRF guns, most notably diamond-amplified photocathode. Several QWR guns are under development with one producing beam already. They are very promising for high bunch charge operation. The field is very active and we should expect more good results soon.
Date: July 25, 2011
Creator: Belomestnykh, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status and Plans for an SRF Accelerator Test Facility at Fermilab

Description: A superconducting RF accelerator test facility is currently under construction at Fermilab. The accelerator will consist of an electron gun, 40 MeV injector, beam acceleration section consisting of 3 TTF-type or ILC-type cryomodules, and multiple downstream beam lines for testing diagnostics and performing beam experiments. With 3 cryomodules installed this facility will initially be capable of generating an 810 MeV electron beam with ILC beam intensity. The facility can accommodate up to 6 cryomodules for a total beam energy of 1.5 GeV. This facility will be used to test SRF cryomodules under high intensity beam conditions, RF power equipment, instrumentation, and LLRF and controls systems for future SRF accelerators such as the ILC and Project-X. This paper describes the current status and overall plans for this facility.
Date: July 29, 2011
Creator: Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Nagaitsev, S. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: We report recent progress on the Diamond Amplified Photo-cathode (DAP). The use of a pulsed electron gun provides detailed information about the DAP physics. The secondary electron gain has been measured under various electric fields. We have achieved gains of a few hundred in the transmission mode and observed evidence of emission of electrons from the surface. A model based on recombination of electrons and holes during generation well describes the field dependence of the gain. The emittance measurement system for the DAP has been designed, constructed and is ready for use. The capsule design of the DAP is also being studied in parallel.
Date: June 25, 2007
Creator: CHANG,X.; BEN-ZVI, I.; BURRILL, A.; GRIMES, J.; RAO, T.; SEGALOV, Z. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cathode Ion Bombardment in RF Photoguns

Description: In this paper, we use the method of rapid oscillating field to solve the equation of ion motion in an RF gun. We apply the method to the BNL 1/2-cell SRF photogun and demonstrate that a significant portion of ions produced in the gun can reach the cathode if no special precautions are taken. Also, the paper proposes a simple mitigation recipe that can reduce the rate of ion bombardment.
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Pozdeyev,E.; Kayran, D. & Litvinenko, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Conceptual design of a bright electron injector for the 1 GeV high gradient test experiment. envisaged by the LLNL-SLAC-LBL collaboration on the Relativistic Klystron is presented. The design utilizes a high-brightness laser-driven RF photocathode electron gun, similar to the pioneering LANL early studies in concept (different parametrically however), together with achromatic magnetic bunching and transport systems and diagnostics. The design is performed with attention to possible use in an FEL as well. A simple but realistic analytic model including longitudinal and transverse space-charge and RF effects and extensive computer simulation form the basis of the parametric choice for the source. These parameters are used as guides for the design of the pico-second laser system and magnetic bunching section.
Date: September 1, 1988
Creator: Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, Y.J.; Hopkins, D.; Kim, K.J.; Kung, A.; Miller, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Negative Transconductance in Apertured Electron Guns

Description: Passing an electron beam through an aperture can serve to reduce the beam current or change the transverse beam profile. For a sufficiently intense beam, space charge will drive a radial expansion of the beam, which may cause the current passing through the aperture to increase even though the current arriving at the aperture is decreasing. When a gridded electron gun is used, this may be expressed by stating that the transconductance of the apertured gun is negative. Here we explain this effect, and explore some of the key factors governing when it can occur and influencing its strength.
Date: September 21, 2007
Creator: Harris, J R & O'Shea, P G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A solid state Marx generator for TEL2

Description: The solid-state Marx generator modulates the anode of the electron gun to produce the electron beam pulses in the second Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL2). It is capable of driving the 60 pF terminal with 600 ns pulses of up to 6 kV with a p.r.r. of 50 kHz. The rise and fall times are 150 ns. Stangenes Industries developed the unit and is working on a second version which will go to higher voltage and have the ability to vary its output in 396 ns intervals over a 5 {micro}s pulse.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Kamerdzhiev, V.; Pfeffer, H.; Saewert, G.; Shiltsev, V. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Brightness Electron Beam Studies at the NSLS SDL

Description: Experimental optimization of electron beam brightness at the NSLS SDL is reported in this paper. Using a high quantum efficiency (QE) Mg metal cathode and the S-band BNL-type RF gun, we have systematically studied electron beams transverse and longitudinal emittance. The measured thermal emittance for the Mg cathode is 0.85{+-}0.04 mm-mrad/mm, which contradicts the current thermal emittance model. For a 50 pC beam, measured normalized transverse and longitudinal RMS emittance are 0.6 mm-mrd and 5.2 ps-keV, respectively. The smallest projected transverse emittance observed for a 20 pC charge is 0.15 {+-} 0.02 mm-mrad.
Date: May 4, 2009
Creator: Qian,H.; Hidaka, Y.; Murphy, J. B.; Podobedov, B.; Seletskiy, S.; Shen, Y. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressure Model for the Vacuum System for the Electron Gun and Injector for LCLS Final Design Report

Description: The vacuum system of the injector for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has been analyzed and configured by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's New Technologies Engineering Division (NTED) as requested by the SLAC/LCLS program. The vacuum system layout and detailed analyses for the injector are presented in this final design report. The vacuum system was analyzed and optimized using a coupled gas load balance model of sub-volumes of the components to be evacuated.
Date: April 28, 2006
Creator: Tung, L S & Eriksson, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gridded Electron Guns and Modulation of Intense Beams

Description: Gridded guns are useful for producing modulated electron beams. This modulation is generally limited to simple gating of the beam, but may be used to apply structure to the beam pulse shape. In intense beams, this structure spawns space charge waves whose dynamics depend in part on the relative strengths of the velocity and density variations which comprise the initial current modulation. In this paper, we calculate the strengths of beam current and velocity modulation produced in a gridded electron gun, and show that under normal conditions the initial modulation is dominated by density variation rather than velocity variation.
Date: May 2, 2006
Creator: Harris, J R & O'Shea, P G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Gridded Electron Gun for a Sheet Beam Klystron

Description: This paper describes the development of an electron gun for a sheet beam klystron. Initially intended for accelerator applications, the gun can operate at a higher perveance than one with a cylindrically symmetric beam. Results of 2D and 3D simulations are discussed.
Date: April 25, 2008
Creator: Read, M. E.; Miram, G.; Ives, R. L.; Ivanov, V. & Krasnykh, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solving the Accelerator-Condenser Coupling Problem in a Nanosecond Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope

Description: We describe a modification to a transmission electron microscope (TEM) that allows it to briefly (using a pulsed-laser-driven photocathode) operate at currents in excess of 10 mA while keeping the effects of condenser lens aberrations to a minimum. This modification allows real-space imaging of material microstructure with a resolution of order 10 nm over regions several {micro}m across with an exposure time of 15 ns. This is more than 6 orders of magnitude faster than typical video-rate TEM imaging. The key is the addition of a weak magnetic lens to couple the large-diameter high-current beam exiting the accelerator into the acceptance aperture of a conventional TEM condenser lens system. We show that the performance of the system is essentially consistent with models derived from ray tracing and finite element simulations. The instrument can also be operated as a conventional TEM by using the electron gun in a thermionic mode. The modification enables very high electron current densities in {micro}m-sized areas and could also be used in a non-pulsed system for high-throughput imaging and analytical TEM.
Date: December 29, 2009
Creator: Reed, B W; LaGrange, T; Shuttlesworth, R M; Gibson, D J; Campbell, G H & Browning, N D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pulsed WIP electron gun. Final report: design phase 1 x 70 cm cooled WIP electron gun, 1 December 1978--2 February 1979

Description: Presented here are design criteria for a full scale (70 cm) WIP electron gun system capable of long run operation with the following specifications: foil area approx. 70 x 1 cm, electron beam current density approx. 1 A/cm/sup 2/, pulse length < 200 ns FWHM, pulse tail < 25f f pulse energy, average current approx. 2 ma/cm/sup 2/, voltage -150 kV, voltage droop < 10%, Rep rate approx. 10 KHz, power approx. 20 kW, run time approx. 30 min, and jitter approx. 10 ..mu..s.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Wakalopulos, G. & Gresko, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of magnesium cathode in the S-band RF gun

Description: In this paper, the authors present the preliminary results of the performance of magnesium cathode in a high frequency RF gun. The quantum efficiency of Mg showed a dramatic improvement upon laser cleaning, increasing from 10{sup {minus}5} to 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} after two hours of cleaning, and to 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} after systematic cleaning. The cleaning procedure for this increase is described in detail. Charge measured as a function of the laser injection phase relative to the RF phase indicates that the temporal variation of the field on the cathode both due to the RF and the shielding effect of the emitted electrons play a critical role in the emission and extraction of electrons. A model that includes this variation is numerically fitted to the measured charge and the results are presented. The unexpected outcome of the fit was the low field enhancement factor (0.1) predicted by the model for the photoemission. The physical origin of this is still under investigation.
Date: May 1, 1997
Creator: Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Smedley, J.; Wang, X.J.; Woodle, M.; Palmer, D.T. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department