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Self-Assembled Silica Nano-Composite Polymer Electrolytes: Synthesis, Rheology & Electrochemistry

Description: The ultimate objectives of this research are to understand the principles underpinning nano-composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) and facilitate development of novel CPEs that are low-cost, have high conductivities, large Li+ transference numbers, improved electrolyte-electrode interfacial stability, yield long cycle life, exhibit mechanical stability and are easily processable. Our approach is to use nanoparticulate silica fillers to formulate novel composite electrolytes consisting of surface-modified fumed silica nano-particles in polyethylene oxides (PEO) in the presence of lithium salts. We intend to design single-ion conducting silica nanoparticles which provide CPEs with high Li+ transference numbers. We also will develop low-Mw (molecular weight), high-Mw and crosslinked PEO electrolytes with tunable properties in terms of conductivity, transference number, interfacial stability, processability and mechanical strength
Date: January 24, 2007
Creator: Khan, Saad A.: Fedkiw Peter S. & Baker, Gregory L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Characterization of the SEI on a carbon film electrode by combinedEQCM and spectroscopic ellipsometry

Description: The electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) andcyclic voltammetry have been applied simultaneously to characterizeelectron-beam deposited carbon film electrodes in LiClO4 orLiPF6-containing mixed electrolytes of ethylene carbonate (EC) anddimethyl carbonate (DMC). The structure of the carbon electrode was foundto be amorphous/disordered using Raman spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetryin LiClO4 / EC+DMC demonstrated features typical of Liintercalation/deintercalation into/from the disordered carbon electrode,and EQCM showed a corresponding mass increase/decrease. Contrary to thecase of LiClO4 / EC+DMC electrolyte, LiPF6/EC+DMC electrolyte showed noLi deintercalation out of the thin-film carbon electrode. Combined EQCMand spectroscopic ellipsometry data were compared, and the solidelectrolyte interphase density after the first cycle in LiClO4 /EC+DMCwas estimated to be 1.3 g/cm3.
Date: January 1, 2002
Creator: Kwon, Kyungjung; Kong, Fanping; McLarnon, Frank & Evans, James W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Theoretical Studies of the Behavior of Ions in Aqueous Solutions of Mixed Electrolytes With Respect to Osmionic Cell Operation

Description: From Forward: "This is the seventy-sixth of a series of reports designed to present accounts of progress in saline water conversion with the expectation that the exchange of such data will contribute to the long-range development of economical processes applicable to large-scale, low-cost demineralization of sea or other saline water."
Date: July 1963
Creator: Murphy, George W. & Matthews, Robert R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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High-Temperature Transference Numbers in Pure and Mixed Aqueous Electrolytes

Description: From Abstract: "An electronic technique was used in determinations of transference numbers in aqueous electrolyte solutions by the moving-boundary method. Data for 0.1 N NaCl at temperature from 15 degrees to 125 degrees C are presented in this report. Probable causes of difficulty with the method were identified. and recommendations are made in this report for further research to overcome the difficulties."
Date: March 1964
Creator: Dismukes, Edward B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Description: The objective of this work was to obtain a stable materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density greater than 0.2 W/cm{sup 2}. The solid electrolyte chosen for this system was La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}, (LSGM). To select the right electrode materials from a group of possible candidate materials, AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed the LSGM electrolyte. Based on the results of the investigation, LSGM electrolyte supported SOFCs were fabricated with La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}-La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSCF-LSGM) composite cathode and Nickel-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (Ni-LDC) composite anode having a barrier layer of Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (LDC) between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-LDC anode. Electrical performance and stability of these cells were determined and the electrode polarization behavior as a function of cell current was modeled between 600-800 C. The electrical performance of the anode-supported SOFC was simulated assuming an electrode polarization behavior identical to the LSGM-electrolyte-supported SOFC. The simulated electrical performance indicated that the selected material system would provide a stable cell capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density between 0.2 to 1 W/cm{sup 2}.
Date: January 12, 2006
Creator: Pal, Uday B. & Gopalan, Srikanth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Effects of Common Electrolytes on Growth and Development of Selected Species of Aquatic Actinomycetes

Description: The role that aquatic actinomycetes play, in the production of tastes and odors in water supplies has been investigated since 1948. The ability of these organisms to produce by-products in lakes and streams, which renders the water unpalatable, is of considerable public health importance. It is desirable that the waterworks industry has as much information as possible concerning the factors that contribute to the growth of these organisms. Since it appears that the aquatic actinomycetes may be isolated from most fresh-water sources, the problem of diversified environments and nutritional requirements offers an excellent field of investigation. The fresh-waters of the world contain variable quantities of electrolytes that may determine in part the biological activity of these organisms. The unsolved questions in this instance are concerned with the electrolytes present and their quantitative effects on the growth and development of these forms.
Date: August 1959
Creator: Sissom, Stanley L.
Partner: UNT Libraries
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Evaluation and Consolidation of Electrolytic Thorium

Description: Abstract: "Sound, fabricable ingots of thorium were produced by triple are melting of electrolytic thorium. Consumable electrodes were fabricated by tack welding of cold-pressed and vacuum-sintered bars of the granular thorium electrodeposited from a molten-salt bath. The hydrogen content of the electrodeposited material was reduced from 80 to 4 ppm by vacuum sintering at 1250 C at pressures below 1 x 10-(-3) mm of mercury. Both sodium and chlorine content were reduced during melting; sodium from 250 to 25 ppm and chlorine from 1000 to 30 ppm. Oxygen and HCl acid-insoluble contents increased during sintering and melting. Oxygen content increased from 0.35 to 0.50 w/o and HCl acid-insoluble content from 0.8 to 4.0 w/o. A starlike includion revealed by metallographic examination of the as-cast thorium was identified as ThO2."
Date: June 15, 1955
Creator: Saller, Henry A.; Dickerson, Ronald F. & Foster, Ellis L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development of novel strategies for enhancing the cycle life of lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. Final report

Description: Lithium/solid polymer electrolyte (Li/SPE) secondary batteries are under intense development as power sources for portable electronic devices as well as electric vehicles. These batteries offer high specific energy, high energy density, very low self-discharge rates, and flexibility in packaging; however, problems have inhibited their introduction into the marketplace. This report summarizes findings to examine processes that occur with Li/SPE secondary batteries upon cyclic charging/discharging. The report includes a detailed analysis of the impedance measured on the Li/SPE/IC and IC/SPE/IC systems. The SPE was a derivative of methoxyethoxyethoxyphosphazene (MEEP) with lithium triflate salt as the electrolyte, while the intercalated cathodes (IC) comprised mixtures of manganese dioxide, carbon powder, and MEEP as a binder. Studies on symmetrical Li/SPE/Li laminates show that cycling results in a significant expansion of the structure over the first few tens of cycles; however, no corresponding increase in the impedance was noted. The cycle life of the intercalation cathode was found to be very sensitive to the method of fabrication. Results indicate that the cycle life is due to the failure of the IC, not to the failure of the lithium/SPE interface. A pattern recognition neural network was developed to predict the cycle life of a battery from the charge/discharge characteristics.
Date: April 30, 2001
Creator: Macdonald, Digby D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Allcock, Harry; Engelhard, George; Bomberger, N.; Gao, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Electrodeposition of nickel from low temperature sulfamate electrolytes.Part 1 :Electrochemistry and film stress.

Description: The film stress of Ni films deposited at near-ambient temperatures from sulfamate electrolytes was studied. The particulate filtering of the electrolyte, a routine industrial practice, becomes an important deposition parameter at lower bath temperatures. At 28 C, elevated tensile film stress develops at low current densities (<10 mA/cm{sup 2}) if the electrolyte is filtered. Filtering at higher current densities has a negligible effect on film stress. A similar though less pronounced trend is observed at 32 C. Sulfate-based Ni plating baths display similar film stress sensitivity to filtering, suggesting that this is a general effect for Ni electrodeposition. It is shown that filtering does not significantly change the current efficiency or the pH near the surface during deposition. The observed changes in film stress are thus attributed not to adsorbed hydrogen but instead to the effects of filtering on the formation and concentration of polyborate species due to the decreased solubility of boric acid at near-ambient temperatures.
Date: November 1, 2005
Creator: Hachman, John T.; Kelly, J.J. (IBM/T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY); Talin, Albert Alec & Goods, Steven Howard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Methods of Calculation of Resistance to Polarization (Corrosion Rate) Using ASTM G 59

Description: The corrosion rate of a metal (alloy) can be measured using: (1) Immersion tests or weight loss such as in ASTM G 1 and G 31 or (2) Electrochemical techniques such as in ASTM G 59. In the polarization resistance (PR) or linear polarization method (G 59), the resistance to polarization (Rp) of a metal is measured in the electrolyte of interest in the vicinity of the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}). This polarization resistance can be mathematically converted into corrosion rates (CR). A plot of E vs. I in the vicinity of E{sub corr} is generated by increasing the potential at a fixed rate of 0.1667 mV/s and measuring the output current. The polarization resistance (Rp) is defined as the slope of a potential (E) (Y axis) vs. Current (I) (X axis) plot in the vicinity of the corrosion potential (E{sub corr}). When the potential is ramped and the current is measured, E is the independent variable and I is the dependent variable. In a proper mathematical plot, E should be represented in the X axis and I in the Y axis. However, in the conventions of the corrosion community, E is always plotted in the Y axis and I in the X axis. Therefore, how this plot of Delta E/Delta I is analyzed is a matter of current debate.
Date: February 5, 2006
Creator: Wong, L L; King, K J; Martin, S I & Rebak, R B
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Highly Conductive Solvent-Free Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

Description: In order to obviate the deficiencies of currently used electrolytes in lithium rechargeable batteries, there is a compelling need for the development of solvent-free, highly conducting solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs). The problem will be addressed by synthesizing a new class of block copolymers and plasticizers, which will be used in the formulation of highly conducting electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. The main objective of this Phase-I effort is to determine the efficacy and commercial prospects of new specifically designed SPEs for use in electric and hybrid electric vehicle (EV/HEV) batteries. This goal will be achieved by preparing the SPEs on a small scale with thorough analyses of their physical, chemical, thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties. SPEs will play a key role in the formulation of next generation lithium-ion batteries and will have a major impact on the future development of EVs/HEVs and a broad range of consumer products, e.g., computers, camcorders, cell phones, cameras, and power tools.
Date: October 21, 2004
Creator: Filler, Robert; Shi, Zhong & Mandal, Braja
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Effect of Nitrate on the Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Chloride Containing Environments.

Description: The study of Alloy 22 was undertaken in several selected nitrate/chloride (NO{sub 3}{sup -}/Cl{sup -}) electrolytes with chloride concentrations [Cl{sup -}] of 1.0, 3.5 and 6.0 molal with [NO{sub 3} {sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] ratios of 0.05, 0.15 and 0.5 at temperatures up to 100 C. Results showed that the repassivation potentials increased with increase in [NO{sub 3} {sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] ratio and decreased with increase in temperature. The absolute [Cl{sup -}] was found to have less of an effect on the repassivation potential compared with temperature and the NO{sub 3} {sup -}/Cl{sup -}. Regression analyses were carried out and expressions were derived to describe the relationship between the repassivation potential, temperature, [Cl{sup -}] and [NO{sub 3} {sup -}] for the conditions tested.
Date: August 16, 2004
Creator: Ilevbare, G; King, K; Gordon, S; Elayat, H; Gdowski, G & Summers, T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Doped semiconductor material and method for doping same

Description: A method for doping semiconductor material and the semiconductor produced by the method are described. An interface is established between a solid electrolyte and a semiconductor to be doped. The electrolyte is chosen to be an ionic conductor of the selected impurity and the semiconductor material and electrolyte are jointly chosen so that any compound formed from the impurity and the semiconductor will have a free energy no lower than the electrolyte. A potential is then established across the interface so as to allow the impurity ions to diffuse into the semiconductor. In one embodiment the semiconductor and electrolyte may be heated so as to increase the diffusion coefficient.
Date: January 26, 1982
Creator: Yang, C.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Improved Electrodes and Electrolytes for Dye-Based Solar Cells

Description: The most important factor in limiting the stability of dye-sensitized solar cells is the use of volatile liquid solvents in the electrolytes, which causes leakage during extended operation especially at elevated temperatures. This, together with the necessary complex sealing of the cells, seriously hampers the industrial-scale manufacturing and commercialization feasibilities of DSSCs. The objective of this program was to bring about a significant improvement in the performance and longevity of dye-based solar cells leading to commercialization. This had been studied in two ways first through development of low volatility solid, gel or liquid electrolytes, second through design and fabrication of TiO2 sculptured thin film electrodes.
Date: October 26, 2011
Creator: Allcock, Harry R.; Mallouk, Thomas E. & Horn, Mark W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Toward a Molecular-Based Understanding of High-Temperature Solvation Phenomena in Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions

Description: The theoretical treatment of the solvation phenomenon of simple ions in aqueous solutions has been rather difficult, despite the apparent simplicity of the system. Long-range solvent-screened electrostatic interactions, coupled to the large variation (with state conditions) of the dielectric permittivity of water, give rise to a variety of rather complex solvation phenomena including dielectric saturation, electrostriction, and ion association. Notably, ion solvation in high-temperature/pressure aqueous solutions plays a leading role in hydrothermal chemistry, such as in the natural formation of ore deposits, the corrosion in boilers and reactors, and in high-temperature microbiology. Tremendous effort has been invested in the study of hydrothermal solutions to determine their thermodynamic, transport, and spectroscopic properties with the goal of elucidating the solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions over a wide range of state conditions. It is precisely at these conditions where our understanding and predictive capabilities are most precarious, in part, as a result of the coexistence of processes with two rather different length scales, i.e., short-ranged (solvation) and long-ranged (compressibility-driven) phenomena (Chialvo and Cummings 1994a). The latter feature makes hydrothermal systems extremely challenging to model, unless we are able to isolate the (compressibility-driven) propagation of the density perturbation from the (solvation-related) finite-density perturbation phenomena (Chialvo and Cummings 1995a).
Date: October 30, 1999
Creator: Chialvo, A. A.; Cummings, P. T.; Kusalik, P. G. & Simonson, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Polymer electrolytes, problems, prospects, and promises

Description: Ionically conducting polymer electrolytes have generated, in recent years, wide-spread interest as candidate materials for a number of applications including high energy density and power lithium batteries. In the early 70s the first measurements of ionic conductivity in polyethylene oxide (PEO)-salt complexes were carried out. However, Armand was the first one to realize potential of these complexes (polymer-salt complexes) as practical ionically conducting materials for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries. Subsequent research efforts identified the limitations and constraints of the polymer electrolytes. These limitations include poor ionic conductivity at RT (< 10{sup {minus}8} S/cm), low cation transport number (<0.2) etc. Several different approaches have been made to improving the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolytes while retaining the flexibility, processibility, ease of handling and relatively low impact on the environment that polymers inherently possess. This paper- reviews evolution of polymer electrolytes from conventional PEO-LiX slat complexes to the more conducting polyphosphazene and copolymers, gelled electrolytes etc. We also review the various chemical approaches including modifying PEO to synthesizing complicated polymer architecture. In addition, we discuss effect of various lithium salts on the conductivity of PEO-based polymers. Charge/discharge and cycle life data of polymer cells containing oxide and chalcogenide cathodes and lithium (Li) anode are reviewed. Finally, future research directions to improve the electrolyte properties are discussed.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Nagasubramanian, G. & Boone, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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