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System Evaluation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of a Commercial-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

Description: Results of a system evaluation and lifecycle cost analysis are presented for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) central hydrogen production plant. The plant design relies on grid electricity to power the electrolysis process and system components, and industrial natural gas to provide process heat. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate the reference central plant design capable of producing 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen. The HYSYS software performs mass and energy balances across all components to allow optimization of the design using a detailed process flow sheet and realistic operating conditions specified by the analyst. The lifecycle cost analysis was performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes Microsoft Excel spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. The results of the lifecycle analyses indicate that for a 10% internal rate of return, a large central commercial-scale hydrogen production plant can produce 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen at an average cost of $2.68/kg. When the cost of carbon sequestration is taken into account, the average cost of hydrogen production increases by $0.40/kg to $3.08/kg.
Date: November 1, 2012
Creator: Harvego, Edwin A.; O'Brien, James E. & McKellar, Michael G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RECENT ADVANCES IN HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY: STACK TESTS

Description: High temperature steam electrolysis is a promising technology for efficient sustainable large-scale hydrogen production. Solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) are able to utilize high temperature heat and electric power from advanced high-temperature nuclear reactors or renewable sources to generate carbon-free hydrogen at large scale. However, long term durability of SOECs needs to be improved significantly before commercialization of this technology. A degradation rate of 1%/khr or lower is proposed as a threshold value for commercialization of this technology. Solid oxide electrolysis stack tests have been conducted at Idaho National Laboratory to demonstrate recent improvements in long-term durability of SOECs. Electrolytesupported and electrode-supported SOEC stacks were provided by Ceramatec Inc., Materials and Systems Research Inc. (MSRI), and Saint Gobain Advanced Materials (St. Gobain), respectively for these tests. Long-term durability tests were generally operated for a duration of 1000 hours or more. Stack tests based on technology developed at Ceramatec and MSRI have shown significant improvement in durability in the electrolysis mode. Long-term degradation rates of 3.2%/khr and 4.6%/khr were observed for MSRI and Ceramatec stacks, respectively. One recent Ceramatec stack even showed negative degradation (performance improvement) over 1900 hours of operation. A three-cell short stack provided by St. Gobain, however, showed rapid degradation in the electrolysis mode. Improvements on electrode materials, interconnect coatings, and electrolyteelectrode interface microstructures contribute to better durability of SOEC stacks.
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: X, Zhang; O'Brien, J. E.; O'Brien, R. C.; Hartvigsen, J. J.; Tao, G. & Petigny, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RECENT ADVANCES IN HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY: SINGLE CELL TESTS

Description: An experimental investigation on the performance and durability of single solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory. In order to understand and mitigate the degradation issues in high temperature electrolysis, single SOECs with different configurations from several manufacturers have been evaluated for initial performance and long-term durability. A new test apparatus has been developed for single cell and small stack tests from different vendors. Single cells from Ceramatec Inc. show improved durability compared to our previous stack tests. Single cells from Materials and Systems Research Inc. (MSRI) demonstrate low degradation both in fuel cell and electrolysis modes. Single cells from Saint Gobain Advanced Materials (St. Gobain) show stable performance in fuel cell mode, but rapid degradation in the electrolysis mode. Electrolyte-electrode delamination is found to have significant impact on degradation in some cases. Enhanced bonding between electrolyte and electrode and modification of the microstructure help to mitigate degradation. Polarization scans and AC impedance measurements are performed during the tests to characterize the cell performance and degradation.
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: Zhang, X.; O'Brien, J. E. & O'Brien, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Experimental Study of the Electrodeposition of Lead

Description: This thesis aimed to study some of the general principles underlying electrodeposition together with experimental facts regarding the effects of changing constituents of the plating solutions, variations in hydrogen-ion concentrations, and variation in current density used in the electrodeposition of lead.
Date: June 1937
Creator: Roberts, Ira Clifford
Partner: UNT Libraries

Special Studies in Electrolysis Mitigation: 4. A Preliminary Report on Electrolysis Mitigation in Elyria, Ohio, with Recommendations for Mitigation

Description: Technical paper issued by the Bureau of Standards over surveys conducted on the electrical conditions of railway tracks in Elyria, Ohio. The results of the surveys are presented and discussed. This paper includes tables, maps, and illustrations.
Date: January 22, 1916
Creator: McCollum, Burton & Logan, K. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Carbon Neutral Production Of Syngas Via High Temperature Electrolytic Reduction Of Steam And CO2

Description: This paper presents the most recent results of experiments conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) studying coelectrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide in solid-oxide electrolysis stacks. Two 10-cell planar stacks were tested under various gas compositions, operating voltages, and operating temperatures. The tests were heavily instrumented, and outlet gas compositions were monitored with a gas chromatograph. Measured outlet compositions, open cell potentials, and coelectrolysis thermal neutral voltages compared reasonably well with a coelectrolysis computer model developed at the INL. Stack ASRs did not change significantly when switching from electrolysis to coelectrolysis operation.
Date: November 1, 2007
Creator: Stoots, C.; O'Brien, J. & Hartvigsen, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Temperature Solid-Oxide Electrolyzer 2500 Hour Test Results At The Idaho National Laboratory

Description: The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing the concept of using solid oxide fuel cells as electrolyzers for large-scale, high-temperature (efficient), hydrogen production. This program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Utilizing a fuel cell as an electrolyzer introduces some inherent differences in cell operating conditions. In particular, the performance of fuel cells operated as electrolyzers degrades with time faster. This issue of electrolyzer cell and stack performance degradation over time has been identified as a major barrier to technology development. Consequently, the INL has been working together with Ceramatec, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah) to improve the long-term performance of high temperature electrolyzers. As part of this research partnership, the INL conducted a 2500 hour test of a Ceramatec designed and produced stack operated in the electrolysis mode. This paper will provide a summary of experimental results to date for this ongoing test.
Date: November 1, 2009
Creator: Stoots, Carl; O'Brien, James; Herring, Stephen; Condie, Keith; Moore-McAteer, Lisa; Hartvigsen, Joseph J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis

Description: This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production.
Date: April 1, 2006
Creator: O'Brien, James E.; Stoots, Carl M.; Herring, J. Stephen & Hawkes, Grant L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

4 kW Test of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Stacks with Advanced Electrode-Supported Cells

Description: A new test stand has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for multi-kW testing of solid oxide electrolysis stacks. This test stand will initially be operated at the 4 KW scale. The 4 kW tests will include two 60-cell stacks operating in parallel in a single hot zone. The stacks are internally manifolded with an inverted-U flow pattern and an active area of 100 cm2 per cell. Process gases to and from the two stacks are distributed from common inlet/outlet tubing using a custom base manifold unit that also serves as the bottom current collector plate. The solid oxide cells incorporate a negative-electrode-supported multi-layer design with nickel-zirconia cermet negative electrodes, thin-film yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolytes, and multi-layer lanthanum ferrite-based positive electrodes. Treated metallic interconnects with integral flow channels separate the cells and electrode gases. Sealing is accomplished with compliant mica-glass seals. A spring-loaded test fixture is used for mechanical stack compression. Due to the power level and the large number of cells in the hot zone, process gas flow rates are high and heat recuperation is required to preheat the cold inlet gases upstream of the furnace. Heat recuperation is achieved by means of two inconel tube-in-tube counter-flow heat exchangers. A current density of 0.3 A/cm2 will be used for these tests, resulting in a hydrogen production rate of 25 NL/min. Inlet steam flow rates will be set to achieve a steam utilization value of 50%. The 4 kW test will be performed for a minimum duration of 1000 hours in order to document the long-term durability of the stacks. Details of the test apparatus and initial results will be provided.
Date: June 1, 2012
Creator: O'Brien, J. E.; Zhang, X.; Housley, G. K.; Moore-McAteer, L. & Tao, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Results From The Idaho National Laboratory 15kW High Temperature Electrolysis Test Facility

Description: A 15kW high temperature electrolysis test facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory under the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. This facility is intended to study the technology readiness of using high temperature solid oxide cells for large scale nuclear powered hydrogen production. It is designed to address larger-scale issues such as thermal management (feed-stock heating, high temperature gas handling, heat recuperation), multiple-stack hot zone design, multiple-stack electrical configurations, etc. Heat recuperation and hydrogen recycle are incorporated into the design. The facility was operated for 1080 hours and successfully demonstrated the largest scale high temperature solid-oxide-based production of hydrogen to date.
Date: July 1, 2009
Creator: Stoots, Carl M.; Condie, Keith G.; O'Brien, James E.; Herring, J. Stephen & Hartvigsen, Joseph J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

2500-Hour High Temperature Solid-Oxide Electrolyzer Long Duration Test

Description: The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing the concept of using solid oxide fuel cells as electrolyzers for large-scale, high-temperature (efficient), hydrogen production. This program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Utilizing a fuel cell as an electrolyzer introduces some inherent differences in cell operating conditions. In particular, the performance of fuel cells operated as electrolyzers degrades with time faster. This issue of electrolyzer cell and stack performance degradation over time has been identified as a major barrier to technology development. Consequently, the INL has been working together with Ceramatec, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah) to improve the long-term performance of high temperature electrolyzers. As part of this research partnership, the INL conducted a 2500 hour test of a Ceramatec designed and produced stack operated in the electrolysis mode. This report will provide a summary of experimental results for this long duration test.
Date: November 1, 2009
Creator: Stoots, C. M.; O'Brien, J. E.; Condie, K. G.; Moore-McAteer, L.; Hartvigsen, J. J. & Larsen, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initial Operation of the High Temperature Electrolysis Integrated Laboratory Scale Experiment at INL

Description: An integrated laboratory scale, 15 kW high-temperature electrolysis facility has been developed at the Idaho National Laboratory under the U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Initial operation of this facility resulted in over 400 hours of operation with an average hydrogen production rate of approximately 0.9 Nm3/hr. The integrated laboratory scale facility is designed to address larger-scale issues such as thermal management (feed-stock heating, high-temperature gas handling), multiple-stack hot-zone design, multiple-stack electrical configurations, and other “integral” issues. This paper documents the initial operation of the ILS, with experimental details about heat-up, initial stack performance, as well as long-term operation and stack degradation.
Date: June 1, 2008
Creator: Stoots, C. M.; O'Brien, J. E.; Condie, K. G.; Herring, J. S. & Hartvigsen, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Plan for Long-Term Operation of a Ten-Cell High Temperature Electrolysis Stack

Description: This document defines a test plan for a long-term (2500 Hour) test of a ten-cell high-temperature electrolysis stack to be performed at INL during FY09 under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. This test was originally planned for FY08, but was removed from our work scope as a result of the severe budget cuts in the FY08 NHI Program. The purpose of this test is to evaluate stack performance degradation over a relatively long time period and to attempt to identify some of the degradation mechanisms via post-test examination. This test will be performed using a planar ten-cell Ceramatec stack, with each cell having dimensions of 10 cm × 10 cm. The specific makeup of the stack will be based on the results of a series of shorter duration ten-cell stack tests being performed during FY08, funded by NGNP. This series of tests was aimed at evaluating stack performance with different interconnect materials and coatings and with or without brazed edge rails. The best performing stack from the FY08 series, in which five different interconnect/coating/edge rail combinations were tested, will be selected for the FY09 long-term test described herein.
Date: July 1, 2008
Creator: O'Brien, James E.; Stoots, Carl M. & Herring, J. Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Idaho National Laboratory Experimental Research In High Temperature Electrolysis For Hydrogen And Syngas Production

Description: The Idaho National Laboratory (Idaho Falls, Idaho, USA), in collaboration with Ceramatec, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah, USA), is actively researching the application of solid oxide fuel cell technology as electrolyzers for large scale hydrogen and syngas production. This technology relies upon electricity and high temperature heat to chemically reduce a steam or steam / CO2 feedstock. Single button cell tests, multi-cell stack, as well as multi-stack testing has been conducted. Stack testing used 10 x 10 cm cells (8 x 8 cm active area) supplied by Ceramatec and ranged from 10 cell short stacks to 240 cell modules. Tests were conducted either in a bench-scale test apparatus or in a newly developed 5 kW Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) test facility. Gas composition, operating voltage, and operating temperature were varied during testing. The tests were heavily instrumented, and outlet gas compositions were monitored with a gas chromatograph. The ILS facility is currently being expanded to ~15 kW testing capacity (H2 production rate based upon lower heating value).
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Stoots, Carl M.; O'Brien, James E.; Herring, J. Stephen & Hartvigsen, Joseph J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrolysis of aluminum solutions in a magnetic field

Description: This investigation is an attempt to verify the original work done by George Antonoff and Anne Rowley, and to contribute specific data on the action of a magnetic field on aluminum cells. Experiments of the type they have described have been performed and an extensive set of data has been collected. It was thought that if the results of Antonoff and Rowley could be duplicated, further investigation would be warranted. However, the experiments have produced negative results. These results are described in detail in these chapters.
Date: May 1950
Creator: Wood, Charles E.
Partner: UNT Libraries

Electrolysis and its Mitigation

Description: Technical paper issued by the Bureau of Standards over studies conducted on electrolysis. As stated in the introduction, "this investigation has included a study of the physical laws governing electrolytic and self-corrosion in soils, an extended investigation of the effects of electric currents on plain and reinforced concrete, and a study of the work of previous investigators relating to the subject of electrolysis and its prevention" (p. 5). This paper includes tables, illustrations, and photographs.
Date: November 25, 1918
Creator: Rosa, Edward B. & McCollum, Burton
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alkaline Electrolysis Final Technical Report

Description: In this project, GE developed electrolyzer stack technologies to meet DOE’s goals for low cost electrolysis hydrogen. The main barrier to meeting the targets for electrolyzer cost was in stack assembly and construction. GE’s invention of a single piece or “monolithic” plastic electrolyzer stack reduces these costs considerably. In addition, GE developed low cost cell electrodes using a novel application of metal spray coating technology. Bench scale stack testing and cost modeling indicates that the DOE targets for stack capital cost and efficiency can be met by full-scale production of industrial electrolyzers incorporating GE’s stack technology innovations.
Date: July 13, 2006
Creator: Bourgeois, RIchard; Sanborn, Steven & Assimakopoulos, Eliot
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Temperature Steam Electrolysis: Demonstration of Improved Long-Term Performance

Description: Long-term performance is an ongoing issue for hydrogen production based on high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE). For commercial deployment, solid-oxide electrolysis stacks must achieve high performance with long-term degradation rates of {approx}0.5%/1000 hours or lower. Significant progress has been achieved toward this goal over the past few years. This paper will provide details of progress achieved under the Idaho National Laboratory high temperature electrolysis research program. Recent long-term stack tests have achieved high initial performance with degradation rates less than 5%/khr. These tests utilize internally manifolded stacks with electrode-supported cells. The cell material sets are optimized for the electrolysis mode of operation. Details of the cells and stacks will be provided along with details of the test apparatus, procedures, and results.
Date: November 1, 2011
Creator: O'Brien, J. E.; Zhang, X.; O'Brien, R. C. & Tao, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SYNGAS PRODUCTION VIA HIGH-TEMPERATURE CO-ELECTROLYSIS OF STEAM AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN A SOLID-OXIDE STACK

Description: This paper presents results of recent experiments conducted at the INL studying coelectrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide in a 10-cell high-temperature solid-oxide electrolysis stack. Coelectrolysis is complicated by the fact that the reverse shift reaction occurs concurrently with the electrolytic reduction reactions. All reactions must be properly accounted for when evaluating results. Electrochemical performance of the stack was evaluated over a range of temperatures, compositions, and flow rates. The apparatus used for these tests is heavily instrumented, with precision mass-flow controllers, on-line dewpoint and CO2 sensors, and numerous pressure and temperature measurement stations. It also includes a gas chromatograph for analyzing outlet gas compositions. Comparisons of measured compositions to predictions obtained from a chemical equilibrium co-electrolysis model are presented, along with corresponding polarization curves. Results indicate excellent agreement between predicted and measured outlet compositions. Coelectrolysis significantly increases the yield of syngas over the reverse water gas shift reaction equilibrium composition. The process appears to be a promising technique for large-scale syngas production.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Stoots, Carl M.; O'Brien, James E. & Hartvigsen, Joseph J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results Of Recent High Temperature Co-Electrolysis Studies At The Idaho National Laboratory

Description: For the past several years, the Idaho National Laboratory and Ceramatec, Inc. have been studying the feasibility of high temperature solid oxide electrolysis for large-scale, nuclear-powered hydrogen production. Parallel to this effort, the INL and Ceramatec have been researching high temperature solid oxide co-electrolysis of steam/CO2 mixtures to produce syngas, the raw material for synthetic fuels production. When powered by nuclear energy, high temperature co-electrolysis offers a carbon-neutral means of syngas production while consuming CO2. The INL has been conducting experiments to characterize the electrochemical performance of co-electrolysis, as well as validate INL-developed computer models. An inline methanation reactor has also been tested to study direct methane production from co-electrolysis products. Testing to date indicate that high temperature steam electrolysis cells perform equally well under co-electrolysis conditions. Process model predictions compare well with measurements for outlet product compositions. The process appears to be a promising technique for large-scale syngas production.
Date: November 1, 2007
Creator: Stoots, C. M.; O'Brien, James E. & Hartvigsen, Joseph J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Engineering Process Model for High-Temperature Electrolysis System Performance Evaluation

Description: In order to evaluate the potential hydrogen production performance of large-scale High-Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) operations, we have developed an engineering process model at INL using the commercial systems-analysis code HYSYS. Using this code, a detailed process flowsheet has been defined that includes all of the components that would be present in an actual plant such as pumps, compressors, heat exchangers, turbines, and the electrolyzer. Since the electrolyzer is not a standard HYSYS component, a custom one-dimensional electrolyzer model was developed for incorporation into the overall HYSYS process flowsheet. This electrolyzer model allows for the determination of the operating voltage, gas outlet temperatures, and electrolyzer efficiency for any specified inlet gas flow rates, current density, cell active area, and external heat loss or gain. The one-dimensional electrolyzer model was validated by comparison with results obtained from a fully 3-D computational fluid dynamics model developed using FLUENT. This report provides details on the one-dimensional electrolyzer model, the HYSYS process model for a 300 MW HTE plant, and some representative results of parametric studies performed using the HYSYS process model.
Date: November 1, 2005
Creator: Stoots, Carl M.; O'Brien, James E.; McKellar, Michael G. & Hawkes, Grant L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of the Transient Response of the ILS with One Module Installed to Heatup Changes in Power Level and Cooldown

Description: This report provides documentation of the initial startup and testing of the first electrolysis module in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) High Temperature Steam Electrolysis Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) facility. Initial shakedown testing of the INL ILS experimental facility commenced on August 22, 2007. This fulfilled a DOE Level 2 milestone. Heatup of the first ILS module started at approximately 4:10 PM on September 24, 2007. Initial module testing continued for 420 hours. The test average H2 production rate was approximately 1.3 Nm3/hr (0.116 kg H2/hr), with a peak measured value of over 2 Nm3/hr (0.179 kg H2/hr). Significant module performance degradation was observed over the first 250 hours, after which no further degradation was noted for the remainder of the test. Once all test objectives had been successfully met, the test was terminated in a controlled fashion. Discussion is included concerning several modifications that will be incorporated into the facility components to improve reliability and ease of operation for future long term testing.
Date: December 1, 2007
Creator: Condie, K. G.; Stoots, C. M.; O'Brien, J. E. & Herring, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department