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SunEdison Photovoltaic Grid Integration Evaluation: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-302

Description: Under this Agreement, NREL will work with SunEdison to monitor and analyze the performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems as they relate to grid integration. Initially this project will examine the performance of PV systems with respect to evaluating the benefits and impacts on the electric power grid.
Date: September 1, 2012
Creator: Kroposki, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dew Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling: Report and Summary Report

Description: The project objective was to demonstrate the capabilities of the high-performance multi-staged IEC technology and its ability to enhance energy efficiency and interior comfort in dry climates, while substantially reducing electric-peak demand. The project was designed to test 24 cooling units in five commercial building types at Fort Carson Army Base in Colorado Springs, Colorado.
Date: November 1, 2012
Creator: Dean, J.; Herrmann, L.; Kozubal, E.; Geiger, J.; Eastment, M. & Slayzak, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measure Guideline: Wall Air Sealing and Insulation Methods in Existing Homes; An Overview of Opportunity and Process

Description: This guide provides renovators and retrofit contractors an overview of considerations when including wall air sealing and insulation in an energy retrofit project. It also outlines the potential project risks, various materials for insulating, possible field inspections needed, installation procedures, as well as the benefits and drawbacks. The purpose of this document is to provide the outline of the overview and process of insulating and air sealing walls so that home retrofit professionals can identify approaches to air sealing and insulation measures.
Date: September 1, 2012
Creator: Roberts, S. & Stephenson, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

Description: The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.
Date: July 1, 2012
Creator: Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D. & Osser, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Housing Stock Characterization Study: An Innovative Approach to Measuring Retrofit Impact

Description: A residential energy efficiency retrofit loan program depends on a self-sustaining finance option and optimized retrofit measures that recoup their unsubsidized costs through energy bill savings alone within the useful life of the retrofit. A first step in evaluating retrofit options is to measure and verify their energy savings. This report evaluates Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) residential energy-efficiency demand side management (DSM) programs to assess their relative energy and economic performance.
Date: September 1, 2012
Creator: Jones, P.; Taylor, N. & Kipp, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

Description: This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.
Date: November 1, 2012
Creator: Carmody, J. & Haglund, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Byggmeister Test Home: Cold Climate Multifamily Masonry Building Condition Assessment and Retrofit Analysis

Description: This report describes a retrofit project undertaken by Building Science Corporation and partner Byggmeister on a multifamily brick row house located in Jamaica Plain, MA. This project studied the row house to determine the right combination of energy efficiency measures that are feasible, affordable, and suitable for this type of construction and acceptable to homeowners.
Date: September 1, 2012
Creator: Wytrykowska, H.; Ueno, K. & Van Straaten, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Penetration Photovoltaic Case Study Report

Description: Technical concerns with integrating higher penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) systems include grid stability, voltage regulation, power quality (voltage rise, sags, flicker, and frequency fluctuations), and protection and coordination. The current utility grid was designed to accommodate power flows from the central generation source to the transmission system and eventually to the distribution feeders. At the distribution level, the system was designed to carry power from the substation toward the load. Renewable distributed generation, particularly solar PV, provides power at the distribution level challenging this classical paradigm. As these resources become more commonplace the nature of the distribution network and its operation is changing to handle power flow in both directions. This report is focused on large PV installations in which penetration is significantly greater than 15% of maximum daytime feeder load. These case studies are intended to demonstrate success stories with integration of large PV plants at the distribution level as well as some of the solutions used by the utility to ensure safe, reliable operation of both the PV system and the distribution network.
Date: January 1, 2013
Creator: Bank, J.; Mather, B.; Keller, J. & Coddington, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Job/Task Analysis: Enhancing the Commercial Building Workforce Through the Development of Foundational Materials; Preprint

Description: For many commercial building operation job categories, industry consensus has not been reached on the knowledge, skills, and abilities that practitioners should possess. The goal of this guidance is to help streamline the minimum competencies taught or tested by organizations catering to building operations and maintenance personnel while providing a basis for developing and comparing new and existing training programs in the commercial building sector. The developed JTAs will help individuals identify opportunities to enhance their professional skills, enable industry to identify an appropriately skilled workforce, and allow training providers to ensure that they are providing the highest quality product possible.
Date: September 1, 2012
Creator: Studer, D. & Kemkar, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reducing Plug Loads in Office Spaces: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

Description: As part of its overall strategy to meet its energy goals, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) partnered with the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. This project was one of several demonstrations of new or underutilized commercial energy technologies. The common goal was to demonstrate and measure the performance and economic benefit of the system while monitoring any ancillary impacts to related standards of service and operation and maintenance (O&M) practices. In short, demonstrations at naval facilities simultaneously evaluate the benefits and compatibility of the technology with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) mission, and with NAVFAC's design, construction, operations, and maintenance practices, in particular. This project demonstrated the performance of commercially available advanced power strips (APSs) for plug load energy reductions in building A4 at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH), Hawaii.
Date: January 2014
Creator: Sheppy, M.; Metzger, I.; Cutler, D.; Holland, G. & Hanada, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Algorithm for Screening Phasor Measurement Unit Data for Power System Events and Categories and Common Characteristics for Events Seen in Phasor Measurement Unit Relative Phase-Angle Differences and Frequency Signals

Description: A network of multiple phasor measurement units (PMU) was created, set up, and maintained at the University of Texas at Austin to obtain actual power system measurements for power system analysis. Power system analysis in this report covers a variety of time ranges, such as short- term analysis for power system disturbances and their effects on power system behavior and long- term power system behavior using modal analysis. The first objective of this report is to screen the PMU data for events. The second objective of the report is to identify and describe common characteristics extracted from power system events as measured by PMUs. The numerical characteristics for each category and how these characteristics are used to create selection rules for the algorithm are also described. Trends in PMU data related to different levels and fluctuations in wind power output are also examined.
Date: August 1, 2013
Creator: Allen, A.; Santoso, S. & Muljadi, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Platform for Development and Evaluation of Grid Interconnection Systems Using Hardware-in-the-Loop: Part III - Grid Interconnection System Evaluator

Description: This paper describes a Grid Interconnection System Evaluator (GISE) that leverages hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation techniques to rapidly evaluate the grid interconnection standard conformance of an ICS according to the procedures in IEEE Std 1547.1. The architecture and test sequencing of this evaluation tool, along with a set of representative ICS test results from three different photovoltaic (PV) inverters, are presented. The GISE adds to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) evaluation platform that now allows for rapid development of ICS control algorithms using controller HIL (CHIL) techniques, the ability to test the dc input characteristics of PV-based ICSs through the use of a PV simulator capable of simulating real-world dynamics using power HIL (PHIL), and evaluation of ICS grid interconnection conformance.
Date: January 1, 2013
Creator: Lundstrom, B.; Shirazi, M.; Coddington, M. & Kroposki, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of High-Penetration Levels of Photovoltaics into the Distribution Grid on Oahu, Hawaii: Detailed Analysis of HECO Feeder WF1

Description: Renewable generation is growing at a rapid rate due to the incentives available and the aggressive renewable portfolio standard targets implemented by state governments. Distributed generation in particular is seeing the fastest growth among renewable energy projects, and is directly related to the incentives. Hawaii has the highest electricity costs in the country due to the high percentage of oil burning steam generation, and therefore has some of the highest penetration of distributed PV in the nation. The High Penetration PV project on Oahu aims to understand the effects of high penetration PV on the distribution level, to identify penetration levels creating disturbances on the circuit, and to offer mitigating solutions based on model results. Power flow models are validated using data collected from solar resources and load monitors deployed throughout the circuit. Existing interconnection methods and standards are evaluated in these emerging high penetration scenarios. A key finding is a shift in the level of detail to be considered and moving away from steady-state peak time analysis towards dynamic and time varying simulations. Each level of normal interconnection study is evaluated and enhanced to a new level of detail, allowing full understanding of each issue.
Date: May 1, 2013
Creator: Stewart, E.; MacPherson, J.; Vasilic, S.; Nakafuji, D. & Aukai, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improving the Accuracy of Software-Based Energy Analysis for Residential Buildings (Presentation)

Description: This presentation describes the basic components of software-based energy analysis for residential buildings, explores the concepts of 'error' and 'accuracy' when analysis predictions are compared to measured data, and explains how NREL is working to continuously improve the accuracy of energy analysis methods.
Date: September 1, 2011
Creator: Polly, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Retail Building Guide for Entrance Energy Efficiency Measures

Description: This booklet is based on the findings of an infiltration analysis for supermarkets and large retail buildings without refrigerated cases. It enables retail building managers and engineers to calculate the energy savings potential for vestibule additions for supermarkets; and bay door operation changes in large retail stores without refrigerated cases. Retail managers can use initial estimates to decide whether to engage vendors or contractors of vestibules for pricing or site-specific analyses, or to decide whether to test bay door operation changes in pilot stores, respectively.
Date: March 1, 2012
Creator: Stein, J. & Kung, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hawaii-Okinawa Building Evaluations

Description: NREL conducted energy evaluations at the Itoman City Hall building in Itoman, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the Hawaii State Capitol building in Honolulu, Hawaii. This report summarizes the findings from the evaluations, including the best practices identified at each site and opportunities for improving energy efficiency and renewable energy. The findings from this evaluation are intended to inform energy efficient building design, energy efficiency technology, and management protocols for buildings in subtropical climates.
Date: May 1, 2013
Creator: Metzger, I. & Salasovich, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Eastern Frequency Response Study

Description: This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.
Date: May 1, 2013
Creator: Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S. & D'Aquila, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

Description: The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.
Date: April 1, 2012
Creator: Springer, D.; Dakin, B. & German, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department