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An Assessment and Comparison of Fuel Cells for Transportation Applications

Description: Fuel cells offer the potential of a clean, efficient power source for buses, cars, and other transportation applications. When the fuel cell is run on methanol, refueling would be as rapid as with gasoline-powered internal combustion engines, providing a virtually unlimited range while still maintaining the smooth and quiet acceleration that is typical for electric vehicles.
Date: September 1989
Creator: Krumpelt, Mike & Christianson, C. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Description: This report discusses the increasing attention being paid to alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles, the proponents of which point to their potential to improve urban air quality, decrease dependence on foreign oil, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report also discusses the major barriers currently preventing widespread use of such technologies, and discusses these technologies in the particular contexts of the 2005 Gulf Coast hurricanes and the Energy Policy Act of 2005.
Date: November 22, 2005
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Description: This issue brief discusses the increasing attention being paid to alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles, the proponents of which point to their potential to improve urban air quality, decrease dependence on foreign oil, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The brief also discusses the major barriers currently preventing widespread use of such technologies, and discusses these technologies in the particular contexts of the 2005 Gulf Coast hurricanes and the Energy Policy Act of 2005.
Date: February 17, 2004
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Description: This issue brief discusses the increasing attention being paid to alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles, the proponents of which point to their potential to improve urban air quality, decrease dependence on foreign oil, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The brief also discusses the major barriers currently preventing widespread use of such technologies, and discusses these technologies in the particular contexts of the 2005 Gulf Coast hurricanes and the Energy Policy Act of 2005.
Date: February 28, 2005
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Description: This issue brief discusses the increasing attention being paid to alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles, the proponents of which point to their potential to improve urban air quality, decrease dependence on foreign oil, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The brief also discusses the major barriers currently preventing widespread use of such technologies, and discusses these technologies in the particular contexts of the 2005 Gulf Coast hurricanes and the Energy Policy Act of 2005.
Date: January 6, 2006
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

European Fuel Cells R & D Review. Final Report, Purchase Order No. 062014

Description: The aim of the Review is to present a statement on the status of fuel cell development in Europe, addressing the research, development and demonstration (RD & D) and commercialization activities being undertaken, identifying key European organizations active in development and commercialization of fuel cells and detailing their future plans. This document describes the RD & D activities in Europe on alkaline, phosphoric acid, polymer electrolyte, direct methanol, solid oxide, and molten carbonate fuel cell types. It describes the European Commission`s activities, its role in the European development of fuel cells, and its interaction with the national programs. It then presents a country-by-country breakdown. For each country, an overview is given, presented by fuel cell type. Scandinavian countries are covered in less detail. American organizations active in Europe, either in supplying fuel cell components, or in collaboration, are identified. Applications include transportation and cogeneration.
Date: September 1994
Creator: Michael, Philip D. & Maguire, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Johnson Controls Inc. Battery Division Annual Report, 1985: Research, Development and Demonstration of Lead-Acid Batteries for Electric Vehicle Propulsion

Description: Report on research and development of the lead-acid battery for electric vehicle propulsion, focusing on continuing development on the forced electrolyte flow-through concept with some work on the composite, plastic/lead grid.
Date: March 1986
Creator: Johnson Controls, Inc. Globe Battery Division.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Results for 36-V Li/FeS Battery

Description: This report describes a collaborative effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Westinghouse Naval Systems Division from 1986 to 1989. This effort resulted in the design, fabrication, and testing of two 36-V lithium-alloy/iron monosulfide (Li/FeS) batteries. The test results provided validation of a conceptual design for a full-scale electric van battery, as well as design and performance data for 12-V Li/FeS modules and fractional-scale battery components.
Date: January 1990
Creator: Chilenskas, A. A.; Malecha, R. F.; DeLuca, W. H.; Tummillo, A. F. & Hogrefe, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Plug-in Electric Vehicles

Description: This map shows states that have laws and regulations that incentivize the use of plug-in electric passenger vehicles. Policies include mandates for states to acquire plug-in electric vehicles for state fleets, access to High Occupancy Vehicle lanes or designated parking for plug-in electric vehicles, and financial incentives to private owners of such vehicles.
Date: 2010
Creator: Pew Center on Global Climate Change
Partner: UNT Libraries

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Description: Alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles are seen by proponents as integral to improving urban air quality, decreasing dependence on foreign oil, and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. However, major barriers—especially economics—currently prevent the widespread use of these fuels and technologies. The 112th Congress has debated alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles directly and as it has addressed other key topics. On June 16, 2011 the Senate approved S.Amdt. 476 which would have eliminated the excise tax credit for blending ethanol in gasoline before its December 31, 2011 expiration date. Although the underlying legislation failed a cloture vote in the Senate, the amendment was approved 73-27. The prospects for further action increasing or extending biofuels and alternative fuels tax incentives may be limited in light of that vote.
Date: January 19, 2012
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Description: This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.
Date: December 1, 2010
Creator: Belt, Jeffrey R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles

Description: Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gases, as well as to offer a financial benefit to the driver. However, assessing these potential benefits is complicated by several factors, including the driving habits of the operator. We focus on driver aggression, i.e., the level of acceleration and velocity characteristic of travel, to (1) assess its variation within large, real-world drive datasets, (2) quantify its effect on both vehicle efficiency and economics for multiple vehicle types, (3) compare these results to those of standard drive cycles commonly used in the industry, and (4) create a representative drive cycle for future analyses where standard drive cycles are lacking.
Date: January 1, 2013
Creator: Neubauer, J. & Wood, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Accounting for the Variation of Driver Aggression in the Simulation of Conventional and Advanced Vehicles: Preprint

Description: Hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and battery electric vehicles offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gases, as well as to offer a financial benefit to the driver. However, assessing these potential benefits is complicated by several factors, including the driving habits of the operator. We focus on driver aggression, i.e., the level of acceleration and velocity characteristic of travel, to (1) assess its variation within large, real-world drive datasets, (2) quantify its effect on both vehicle efficiency and economics for multiple vehicle types, (3) compare these results to those of standard drive cycles commonly used in the industry, and (4) create a representative drive cycle for future analyses where standard drive cycles are lacking.
Date: March 1, 2013
Creator: Neubauer, J. & Wood, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System

Description: HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.
Date: January 4, 2012
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Energy Density Thermal Batteries: Thermoelectric Reactors for Efficient Automotive Thermal Storage

Description: HEATS Project: Sheetak is developing a new HVAC system to store the energy required for heating and cooling in EVs. This system will replace the traditional refrigerant-based vapor compressors and inefficient heaters used in today’s EVs with efficient, light, and rechargeable hot-and-cold thermal batteries. The high energy density thermal battery—which does not use any hazardous substances—can be recharged by an integrated solid-state thermoelectric energy converter while the vehicle is parked and its electrical battery is being charged. Sheetak’s converters can also run on the electric battery if needed and provide the required cooling and heating to the passengers—eliminating the space constraint and reducing the weight of EVs that use more traditional compressors and heaters.
Date: November 15, 2011
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles: Electric-Powered Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles

Description: HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a new class of advanced nanomaterial called an electrical metal organic framework (EMOF) for EV heating and cooling systems. The EMOF would function similar to a conventional heat pump, which circulates heat or cold to the cabin as needed. However, by directly controlling the EMOF's properties with electricity, the PNNL design is expected to use much less energy than traditional heating and cooling systems. The EMOF-based heat pumps would be light, compact, efficient, and run using virtually no moving parts.
Date: November 21, 2011
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Performance Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage and Electric-Vehicle Propulsion, Progress Report: October 1978-September 1979

Description: This report covers the research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at contractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1978-September 1979. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary energy-storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400-500 C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS2, facing negative electrodes of lithium-aluminum or lithium-silicon alloy, and molten LiCl-KC1 electrolyte.
Date: March 1980
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-Performance Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage and Electric-Vehicle Propulsion, Progress Report: October 1978-March 1979

Description: This report covers the research, development, and management activities of the programs at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and at subcontractors' laboratories on high-temperature batteries during the period October 1978 - March 1979. These batteries are being developed for electric-vehicle propulsion and for stationary energy--storage applications. The present cells, which operate at 400-500 C, are of a vertically oriented, prismatic design with one or more inner positive electrodes of FeS or FeS2, facing electrodes of lithium-aluminum alloy, and molten LiCl-KC1 electrolyte.
Date: May 1979
Creator: Nelson, P. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Vehicle Technologies: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues

Description: This report discusses four major vehicle technologies — electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrids, and fuel cell vehicles — as well as advanced component technologies. Each technology is discussed in terms of cost, fueling and maintenance infrastructure, and performance.
Date: December 6, 2007
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of PNGV Battery Development and Test Programs

Description: Affordable, safe, long-lasting, high-power batteries are requisites for successful commercialization of hybrid electric vehicles. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Advance Automotive Technologies and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles are funding research and development programs to address each of these issues. An overview of these areas is presented along with a summary of battery development and test programs, as well as recent performance data from several of these programs.
Date: February 1, 2002
Creator: Motloch, Chester George; Murphy, Timothy Collins; Sutula, Raymond & Miller, Ted J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multilevel Inverters for Electric Vehicle Applications

Description: This paper presents multilevel inverters as an application for all-electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) motor drives. Diode-clamped inverters and cascaded H-bridge inverters, (1) can generate near-sinusoidal voltages with only fundamental frequency switching; (2) have almost no electromagnetic interference (EMI) and common-mode voltage; and (3) make an EV more accessible/safer and open wiring possible for most of an EV'S power system. This paper explores the benefits and discusses control schemes of the cascade inverter for use as an EV motor drive or a parallel HEV drive and the diode-clamped inverter as a series HEV motor drive. Analytical, simulated, and experimental results show the superiority of these multilevel inverters for this new niche.
Date: October 22, 1998
Creator: Habetler, T.G.; Peng, F.Z. & Tolbert, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department