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Development of a High-Pressure/High-Temperature Downhole Turbine Generator

Description: The objective of this project as originally outlined has been to achieve a viable downhole direct current (DC) power source for extreme high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) environments of >25,000 psi and >250 C. The Phase I investigation posed and answered specific questions about the power requirements, mode of delivery and form factor the industry would like to see for downhole turbine generator tool for the HPHT environment, and noted specific components, materials and design features of that commercial system that will require upgrading to meet the HPHT project goals. During the course of Phase I investigation the scope of the project was HPHT downhole DC power. Phase I also investigated the viability of modifying a commercial expanded, without additional cost expected to the project, to include the addition of HT batteries to the power supply platform.
Date: February 1, 2007
Creator: Price, Timothy F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Generator acceptance test and inspection report

Description: This Acceptance Test Report(ATR) is the completed testing and inspection of the new portable generator. The testing and inspection is to verify that the generator provided by the vendor meets the requirements of specification WHC-S-0252, Revision 2. Attached is various other documentation to support the inspection and testing.
Date: July 24, 1997
Creator: Johns, B.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy scavenging from environmental vibration.

Description: The goal of this project is to develop an efficient energy scavenger for converting ambient low-frequency vibrations into electrical power. In order to achieve this a novel inertial micro power generator architecture has been developed that utilizes the bi-stable motion of a mechanical mass to convert a broad range of low-frequency (< 30Hz), and large-deflection (>250 {micro}m) ambient vibrations into high-frequency electrical output energy. The generator incorporates a bi-stable mechanical structure to initiate high-frequency mechanical oscillations in an electromagnetic scavenger. This frequency up-conversion technique enhances the electromechanical coupling and increases the generated power. This architecture is called the Parametric Frequency Increased Generator (PFIG). Three generations of the device have been fabricated. It was first demonstrated using a larger bench-top prototype that had a functional volume of 3.7cm3. It generated a peak power of 558{micro}W and an average power of 39.5{micro}W at an input acceleration of 1g applied at 10 Hz. The performance of this device has still not been matched by any other reported work. It yielded the best power density and efficiency for any scavenger operating from low-frequency (<10Hz) vibrations. A second-generation device was then fabricated. It generated a peak power of 288{micro}W and an average power of 5.8{micro}W from an input acceleration of 9.8m/s{sup 2} at 10Hz. The device operates over a frequency range of 20Hz. The internal volume of the generator is 2.1cm{sup 3} (3.7cm{sup 3} including casing), half of a standard AA battery. Lastly, a piezoelectric version of the PFIG is currently being developed. This device clearly demonstrates one of the key features of the PFIG architecture, namely that it is suitable for MEMS integration, more so than resonant generators, by incorporating a brittle bulk piezoelectric ceramic. This is the first micro-scale piezoelectric generator capable of <10Hz operation. The fabricated device currently generates a peak power ...
Date: October 1, 2009
Creator: Galchev, Tzeno (University of Michigan); Apblett, Christopher Alan & Najafi, Khalil (University of Michigan)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Special Conditions for HGP-A Wellhead Generator Proof-of-Feasibility Project, Specification S-00-001

Description: This specification applies to the general requirements of all purchased materials and equipment and provides general instructions for Suppliers. Purchaser as referred to here under is the Research Corp. of University of Hawaii. Rogers Engineering Co., Inc. is the authorized representative of the Research Corp. of University of Hawaii with respect to purchases made under this specification.
Date: October 25, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Rural Energy Conference Project

Description: Alaska remains, even at the beginning of the 21st century, a place with many widely scattered, small, remote communities, well beyond the end of both the road system and the power grid. These communities have the highest energy costs of any place in the United States, despite the best efforts of the utilities that service them. This is due to the widespread dependence on diesel electric generators, which require small capital investments, but recent increases in crude oil prices have resulted in dramatic increases in the cost of power. In the enabling legislation for the Arctic Energy Office in 2001, specific inclusion was made for the study of ways of reducing the cost of electrical power in these remote communities. As part of this mandate, the University of Alaska has, in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, the Denali Commission and the Alaska Energy Authority, organized a series of rural energy conferences, held approximately every 18 months. The goal of these meeting was to bring together rural utility operators, rural community leaders, government agency representatives, equipment suppliers, and researchers from universities and national laboratories to discuss the current state of the art in rural power generation, to discuss current projects, including successes as well as near successes. Many of the conference presenters were from industry and not accustomed to writing technical papers, so the typical method of organizing a conference by requesting abstracts and publishing proceedings was not considered viable. Instead, the organizing committee solicited presentations from appropriate individuals, and requested that (if they were comfortable with computers) prepare Power point presentations that were collected and posted on the web. This has become a repository of many presentations, and may be the best single source of information about current projects in the state of Alaska.
Date: December 31, 2008
Creator: Witmer, Dennis & Watson, Shannon
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prognostic Analysis of the Tactical Quiet Generator

Description: The U.S. Army needs prognostic analysis of mission-critical equipment to enable condition-based maintenance before failure. ORNL has developed and patented prognostic technology that quantifies condition change from noisy, multi-channel, time-serial data. This report describes an initial application of ORNL's prognostic technology to the Army's Tactical Quiet Generator (TQG), which is designed to operate continuously at 10 kW. Less-than-full power operation causes unburned fuel to accumulate on internal components, thereby degrading operation and eventually leading to failure. The first objective of this work was identification of easily-acquired, process-indicative data. Two types of appropriate data were identified, namely output-electrical current and voltage, plus tri-axial acceleration (vibration). The second objective of this work was data quality analysis to avoid the garbage-in-garbage-out syndrome. Quality analysis identified more than 10% of the current data as having consecutive values that are constant, or that saturate at an extreme value. Consequently, the electrical data were not analyzed further. The third objective was condition-change analysis to indicate operational stress under non-ideal operation and machine degradation in proportion to the operational stress. Application of ORNL's novel phase-space dissimilarity measures to the vibration power quantified the rising operational stress in direct proportion to the less-than-full-load power. We conclude that ORNL's technology is an excellent candidate to meet the U.S. Army's need for equipment prognostication.
Date: September 1, 2008
Creator: Hively, Lee M
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary design of a cryogenic thermoelectric generator.

Description: A cryogenic thermoelectric generator is proposed to increase the efficiency of a vehicle propulsion system that uses liquid nitrogen as its fuel. The proposed design captures some of the heat required for vaporizing or initial heating of the liquid nitrogen to produce electricity. The thermoelectric generator uses pressurized liquid nitrogen as its cold reservoir and ambient air as the high-temperature reservoir to generate power. This study concentrated on the selection of thermoelectric materials whose properties would result in the highest efficiency over the operating temperature range and on estimating the initial size of the generator. The preliminary selection of materials is based upon their figure of merit at the operating temperatures. The results of this preliminary design investigation of the cryogenic thermoelectric generator indicate that sufficient additional energy can be used to increase overall efficiency of the thermodynamic cycle of a vehicle propulsion system.
Date: May 2007
Creator: Sivapurapu, Sai Vinay Kumar
Partner: UNT Libraries

Halbach array motor/generators: A novel generalized electric machine

Description: In August 1979, Halbach submitted a paper entitled ``Design of Permanent Multipole Magnets with Oriented Rare Earth Cobalt Material.`` In this paper, he presented a novel method of generating multipole magnetic fields using non-intuitive geometrical arrangements of permanent magnets. In subsequent publications, he further defined these concepts. Of particular interest to one of the authors (RFP) was the special magnet array that generated a uniform dipole field. In 1990 Post proposed the construction of an electric machine (a motor/generator) using a dipole field based on Klaus Halbach`s array of permanent magnets. He further proposed that such a system should be employed as an integral part of ``an electromechanical battery`` (EMB), i.e., a modular flywheel system to be used as a device for storing electrical energy, as an alternative to the electrochemical storage battery. This paper reviews Halbach`s theory for the generation of a dipole field using an array of permanent magnet bars, presents a simple analysis of a family of novel ``ironless`` electric machines designed using the dipole Halbach array, and describes the results obtained when they were tested in the laboratory.
Date: October 28, 1994
Creator: Merritt, B.T.; Post, R.F.; Dreifuerst, G.R. & Bender, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DOE Backup Power Working Group Best Practices Handbook for Maintenance and Operation of Engine Generators, Volume II

Description: The lubricating oil system provides a means to introduce a lubricant in the form of a film to reduce friction and wear between surfaces that bear against each other as they move.1 The oil film which is established also cools the parts by carrying generated heat away from hot surfaces, cleans and carries dirt or metal wear particles to the filter media, and helps seal the piston to the cylinder during combustion. Most systems are pressure lubricated and distribute oil under pressure to bearings, gears, and power assemblies. Lubricating oil usually reaches main, connecting rod, and camshaft bearings through drilled passages in the cylinder block and crankshaft or through piping and common manifolds.Many parts rely on oil for cooling, so if the lube oil system fails to perform its function the engine will overheat. Metal to metal surfaces not separated by a thin film of oil rapidly build up frictional heat. As the metals reach their melting point, they tend to weld together in spots or streaks. Lube oil system failures can cause significant damage to an engine in a short period of time. Proper maintenance and operation of the lubricating oil system is essential if your engine is to accomplish its mission.
Date: October 30, 1998
Creator: Gross, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-electric icemaking project: Analysis and dynamometer testing. Volume 2

Description: The wind/hybrid systems group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has been researching the most practical and cost-effective methods for producing ice from off-grid wind-electric power systems. The first phase of the project, conducted in 1993--1994, included full-scale dynamometer and field testing of two different electric ice makers directly connected to a permanent magnet alternator. The results of that phase were encouraging and the second phase of the project was launched in which steady-state and dynamic numerical models of these systems were developed and experimentally validated. The third phase of the project was the dynamometer testing of the North Star ice maker, which is powered by a 12-kilowatt Bergey Windpower Company, Inc., alternator. This report describes both the second and third project phases. Also included are detailed economic analyses and a discussion of the future prospects of wind-electric ice-making systems. The main report is contained in Volume 1. Volume 2 consists of the report appendices, which include the actual computer programs used in the analysis and the detailed test results.
Date: July 1998
Creator: Holz, R.; Gervorgian, V.; Drouilhet, S. & Muljadi, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test facility for advanced electric adjustable frequency drives and generators of typical industrial ratings. Final technical report

Description: A test facility has been developed, for electric adjustable-speed motors and variable-speed generators, that is unique in US universities in terms of its range (5 to 300 hp currently with 0.1 to 1,000 hp final capability) and flexibility (standard NEMA frame and novel geometry machines can be accommodated). The basic facility was constructed with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute. The instrumentation obtained under this DOE grant has been integrated into the facility which was completed in Fall 1997. The facility has already provided useful studies for DOE, EPRI, as well as several West Coast industries and electric energy utilities.
Date: December 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An agent-based tool for infrastructure interdependency policy analysis.

Description: Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate complex infrastructure interdependencies such as those between the electric power and natural gas markets. These markets are undergoing fundamental transformations including major changes in electric generator fuel sources. Electric generators that use natural gas as a fuel source are rapidly gaining market share. These generators introduce direct interdependency between the electric power and natural gas markets. These interdependencies have been investigated using the emergent behavior of CAS model agents within the Spot Market Agent Research Tool Version 2.0 Plus Natural Gas (SMART II+).
Date: December 14, 2000
Creator: North, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SMART II+ : the spot market agent research tool version 2.0 plus natural gas.

Description: Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate complex infrastructure interdependencies including those between the electric power and natural gas markets. The electric power and natural gas markets are undergoing fundamental transformations. These transformations include major changes in electric generator fuel sources. Electric generators that use natural gas as a fuel source are rapidly gaining market share. Electric generators using natural gas introduce direct interdependency between the electric power and natural gas markets. The interdependencies between the electric power and natural gas markets introduced by these generators can be investigated using the emergent behavior of CAS model agents.
Date: December 14, 2000
Creator: North, M. J. N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effects of variable speed and drive train component efficiencies on wind turbine energy capture

Description: A wind turbine rotor achieves optimal aerodynamic efficiency at a single tip-speed ratio (TSR). To maintain that optimal TSR and maximize energy capture in the stochastic wind environment, it is necessary to employ variable-speed operation. Conventional constant-speed wind turbines have, in the past, been converted into variable-speed turbines by attaching power electronics to the conventional induction generator and gearbox drive train. Such turbines have shown marginal, if any, improvement in energy capture over their constant-speed counterparts. These discrepancies have been shown to be the result of drive train components that are not optimized for variable-speed operation. Traditional drive trains and power electronic converters are designed to achieve maximum efficiency at full load and speed. However, the main energy producing winds operate the turbine at light load for long periods of time. Because of this, significant losses to efficiency occur. This investigation employs a quasi-static model to demonstrate the dramatic effect that component efficiency curves can have on overall annual energy capture.
Date: May 1998
Creator: Fingersh, L. J. & Robinson, M. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas-driven microturbine

Description: This paper describes an invention which relates to microtechnology and the fabrication process for developing microelectrical systems. It describes a means for fabricating a gas-driven microturbine capable of providing autonomous propulsion in which the rapidly moving gases are directed through a micromachined turbine to power devices by direct linkage or turbo-electric generators components in a domain ranging from tenths of micrometers to thousands of micrometers.
Date: June 27, 1996
Creator: Sniegowski, J.J.; Rodgers, M.S.; McWhorter, P.J.; Aeschliman, D.P. & Miller, W.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress in development of high temperature superconducting wire for electric power applications

Description: The technology of high temperature superconductivity has gone beyond mere scientific curiosity and into the manufacturing environment. Single lengths of multifilamentary wire are now produced that are over 200 meters long and that carry over 13 amperes at 77 K. Short-sample critical current densities approach 5 x 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K. Conductor requirements such as high critical current density in a magnetic field, strain-tolerant sheathing materials, and other engineering properties are addressed. A new process for fabricating round BSCCO-2212 wire has produced wires with critical current densities as high as 165,000 A/cm{sup 2} at 4.2 K and 53,000 A/cm{sup 2} at 40 K. This process eliminates the costly, multiple pressing and rolling steps that are commonly used to develop texture in the wires. New multifilamentary wires with strengthened sheathing materials have shown improved yield strengths up to a factor of five better than those made with pure silver. Many electric power devices require the wire to be formed into coils for production of strong magnetic fields. Requirements for coils and magnets for electric power applications are described.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Hawsey, R.A.; Sokolowski, R.S.; Haldar, P. & Motowidlo, L.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of TPV Network Losses (a Presentation)

Description: This talk focuses on the theoretical analysis of electrical losses associated with electrically networking large numbers of TPV cells to produce high power TPV power generators.
Date: December 8, 2004
Creator: DePoy, DM; Dashiell, MW; Rahner, DD; Danielson, LR; Oppenlander, JE; Vell, JL et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

INDUSTRIAL ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS: DEVELOPMENT & DEMONSTRATION

Description: Rochelle Municipal Utilities (RMU) was selected for the field evaluation site and placed an order for the first Mercury 50 generator set in November 1997. Field evaluation of the Mercury 50 package at Rochelle began in June 2000 and ran through December 2003. A total of 4,749 package hours were achieved on two generation 2-design engines. Engine Serial Number (ESN) 6 was installed in April 2000 and accumulated 2,324 hours and 267 starts until it was exchanged for ESN 7 in April 2001. ESN 7 ran until completion of the field evaluation period accumulating 2,426 hours and 292 starts. While the 4,749 hours of package operation falls short of the 8,000-hour goal, important lessons were learned at the Rochelle site that resulted in bringing a far superior generation 3 Mercury 50 package to commercialization. Among the issues raised and resolved were: (1) Engine shaft stability; (2) Engine power and efficiency degradation--Air inlet Restrictions, Compressor Efficiency, Turbine Efficiency, Exhaust System Cracks/Leaks; (3) Recuperator Core Durability; (4) Cold Weather Operations; (5) Valve Actuator Reliability; and (6) Remote Operation and Maintenance Support.
Date: February 20, 2004
Creator: Escola, George
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RTO Briefing

Description: OAK-B135 Transmission Updates The summary of this report is: (1) Small generators are not happy with FERC's Small Generator Interconnection NOPR, saying the proposed rule ignores much of the consensus developed between small generators and transmission owners during the ANOPR process. California wind generators seek clarification that repowering an existing facility or changing contract terms would not trigger a reevaluation of the interconnection. (2) The choices of former Alliance companies about which RTO to join, MISO or PJM, and whether they can obtain approval from states to do so, has created such a tangle that FERC held two days of hearings at the end of September on the issues and options for resolving them. But in addition to some constructive input, the hearings produced even more uncertainty, with transmission companies announcing their need to reassess their own RTO commitments depending on the decisions of others. (3) In the West, the Seams Steering Group--Western Interconnection (SSG-WI) completed a west-wide transmission study with a renewable energy scenario, the California ISO received FERC's approval on its market redesign proposal, and RTO West worked toward finalizing high-level consensus documents describing Day 1 implementation of the proposed RTO. (4) In Texas, ERCOT began $157 million in upgrades to the transmission system around McCamey--increasing capacity in and out of the area enough to handle existing wind projects there.
Date: November 1, 2003
Creator: Wiese, Steve
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Testing of the Mark 101 magnetic flux compression generator

Description: The Mark 101 explosive flux compression generator is a line-initiated, vacuum/magnetically insulated, helical generator. This device offered some unique challenges in transforming the theoretical design into a testable experiment. The two main reasons for this are that in theory an eight-turn, four-wire Mark 101 possesses a terminal dL/dt of approx.0.5 ..cap omega.. and operates with electric fields which are greater than the threshold for electron field emission. With this in mind, we designed an integral vacuum-jacket-generator configuration with a passive load inductance of less than or equal to0.5 ..mu..H. The generator contained approx.8 ..mu..H of initial inductance. The field emission required the stator to be entirely sealed within the vacuum jacket. The open, helical stator resulted in the presence of non-trivial leakage fields and voltages. To accommodate these fields, the vacuum chamber for the generator was segmented and axially insulated with rings of acrylic, similar to stacked-ring diodes. We made no attempt to break the azimuthal metal surfaces due to the physical difficulty this would incur. Diagnostics included an input current Rogowski loop, a load Rogowski loop, two dB/dt probes in the load, a Faraday fiber-optic current sensor, and two dB/dt probes in the region between the stator winding and the vacuum jacket to measure the leakage azimuthal and axial magnetic fields. The results of explosive tests are presented.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Freeman, B.L.; Fowler, C.M.; King, J.C. & Martinez, A.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department