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Proceedings of the Symposium and Workshop on Advanced Battery Research and Design : March 22-24, 1976

Description: The idea for this meeting evolved from interest expressed by members of the Chicago Section of the Electrochemical Society in convening a symposium on the development of high-energy secondary batteries. The relevance of this subject is evidenced by the several research programs that have been initiated recently in the United States and Europe to develop advanced batteries for use as energy storage devices on electric utility networks and as power sources for electric automobiles.
Date: 1976?
Creator: Selman, J. Robert; Steunenberg, Robert K.; Barghusen, John J. & Howard, William G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Methods of Chemical Analysis Used to Characterize Battery Materials

Description: Procedures are given for the chemical analysis of a variety of materials of interest in battery development and research. These materials include LiCl-KCl eutectic, Li-Al alloys, lithium sulfide, lithium aluminum chloride, calcium sulfide, titanium sulfide, and various sulfides of iron, nickel, copper, and cobalt.
Date: May 1980
Creator: Jensen, Kenneth J. & Streets, W. Elane
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test Results for 36-V Li/FeS Battery

Description: This report describes a collaborative effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Westinghouse Naval Systems Division from 1986 to 1989. This effort resulted in the design, fabrication, and testing of two 36-V lithium-alloy/iron monosulfide (Li/FeS) batteries. The test results provided validation of a conceptual design for a full-scale electric van battery, as well as design and performance data for 12-V Li/FeS modules and fractional-scale battery components.
Date: January 1990
Creator: Chilenskas, A. A.; Malecha, R. F.; DeLuca, W. H.; Tummillo, A. F. & Hogrefe, R. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Calcium/metal Sulfide Battery Development Program. Progress Report, October 1979 - September 1980

Description: A Ca-Al-Si/FeS2 cell has been developed and has exhibited reasonably stable capacity through 3200 h of operation. This system is expected to be capable of meeting the ultimate performance goals (i.e., 160 W.h/kg) of this development program. Further tests of this cell system in the coming year will better define its ultimate performance capabilities.
Date: March 1981
Creator: Barney, Duane L.; Roche, M. F.; Preto, S. K.; Ross, L. E.; Otto, N. C. & Martino, F. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Li-Alloy/FeS Cell Design and Analysis Report

Description: This report contains historical information on the Li-alloy/FeS system that will be useful in its future applications. This document includes the following: (1) the chemical and electrochemical reactions for the Li-alloy/FeS system, accomplishments in past cell development efforts, and performance attained by state-of-the-art cells vs performance goals; (2) detailed drawings of state-of-the-art cell designs, documentation of cell fabrication techniques, and comparisons of alternative types of cell components (such as BN felt vs MgO powder separators, stainless vs low-carbon steel cell housings) and fabrication techniques (such as charged vs uncharged electrodes); (3) results of post-test cell analyses, including cell failure mechanisms, electrode morphology and active material distribution, and in-cell corrosion rates; (4) data from trade-off studies between specific power and energy; (5) discussion of battery design considerations (e.g., volumetric energy density, battery charger, and high-efficiency thermal insulation); (6) results of cost studies, which include materials and manufacturing costs of cells and batteries and heating costs involved in battery operation; and (7) projections of cell designs having the greatest potential for meeting electric-vehicle performance requirements.
Date: July 1985
Creator: Gay, E. C.; Steunenberg, Robert K.; Miller, W. E.; Battles, J. E.; Kaun, T. D.; Martino, F. J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Operating Temperature on the Characteristics of Nickel/Iron Traction Batteries

Description: Performance of improved Ni/Fe electric vehicle batteries was measured at ambient temperatures of 0, 25, and 50 C for a range of overcharge levels, open-circuit stand times, and charge and discharge rates. Tests in which charges and discharges were performed at different battery operating temperatures showed that the discharge capacity of a Ni/Fe battery is directly related to its operating temperature, but its charge acceptance is decreased at 0 and 50 C by approx. 6% from that obtained at 25 C. The decline in battery efficiency at high temperatures is the result of increased self-discharge losses. In the first 0.5 h after charge, the Ah self-discharge loss at 50 C is twice (6%) that at 0 and 25 C (approx. 3%), corresponding to an increase in initial self-discharge rate from approx. 8 to 16 A. The increased self-discharge rate apparently occurs during the latter part of charging and, thereby, causes the 6% decline in charge acceptance. A decrease in battery efficiency also resulted at 50 C (6% coulombic and 4% energy efficiency loss) when the charge current was reduced from the 3-h to the 6-h rate. In comparison, low temperatures impact battery internal resistance and IR-free voltage more than high temperatures. For an increase in ambient temperature from 25 to 50 C, battery IR-free voltage increased less than 1% and battery resistance decreased only 3%. However, a decrease from 25 to 0 C resulted in a 2.3% decrease in IR-free voltage and about a 22% increase in resistance. The available capacity and operating efficiency of a Ni/Fe battery are maximal near 25 C. To maintain the same Ah capacity achieved at 25 C with a 20% overcharge, the overcharge must be doubled at 50 C (42%) and tripled at 0 C (60%). Test procedures and equipment are described, test data ...
Date: July 1986
Creator: DeLuca, W. H.; Biwer, R. L. & Tummillo, A. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Failure Analysis of Mark 1A Lithium/Iron Sulfide Battery

Description: The Mark 1A lithium/iron sulfide electric-vehicle battery, which consisted of two 20-kW-hr modules containing 60 cells each, was fabricated by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc. and delivered to ANL for testing in May 1979. During startup heating prior to electrical testing, a short circuit developed in one of the modules, which resulted in a progressive failure of the cells. The other module, which was alongside and connected in series, was unaffected by the failure. The initial indication of difficulty was a small drop in the voltage of several cells, followed by short circuits in the balance of the cells and localized temperatures above 1000 C. A team consisting of ANL and Eagle-Picher personnel conducted a detailed failure analysis as the failed module was disassembled. The other module was also examined for purposes of comparison. The general conclusion was that the short circuit was initiated by electrolyte leakage and resulting corrosion in the nearby region which formed metallic bridges between cells and the cell ray, or arcing between cells and the cell tray through the butt joints in the electrical insulation. The above two mechanisms were also believed to be responsible for the failure propagation.
Date: October 1980
Creator: Kolba, V. M.; Battles, J. E.; Geller, J. D. & Gentry, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photovoltaic battery & charge controller market & applications survey. An evaluation of the photovoltaic system market for 1995

Description: Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Battery Analysis and Evaluation Department and the Photovoltaic System Assistance Center of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a U.S. industry-wide PV Energy Storage System Survey. Arizona State University (ASU) was contracted by SNL in June 1995 to conduct the survey. The survey included three separate segments tailored to: (a) PV system integrators, (b) battery manufacturers, and (c) PV charge controller manufacturers. The overall purpose of the survey was to: (a) quantify the market for batteries shipped with (or for) PV systems in 1995, (b) quantify the PV market segments by battery type and application for PV batteries, (c) characterize and quantify the charge controllers used in PV systems, (d) characterize the operating environment for energy storage components in PV systems, and (e) estimate the PV battery market for the year 2000. All three segments of the survey were mailed in January 1996. This report discusses the purpose, methodology, results, and conclusions of the survey.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Hammond, R.L.; Turpin, J.F. & Corey, G.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mathematical Model of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery

Description: A mathematical model of a spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery has been developed ~d used for parameter estimation and design studies. The model formulation is based on the fimdarnental Consemation laws using porous electrode theory and concentrated solution theory. The model is used to estimate the difision coefficient and the kinetic parameters for the reactions at the anode and the cathode as a function of temperature. These parameters are obtained by fitting the simulated capacity and average cell voltage to experimental data over a wide range of temperatures (-55 to 49"C) and discharge loads (10 to 250 ohms). The experiments were performed on D-sized, cathode-limited, spirally wound lithium/thionyl chloride cells. The model is also used to study the effkct of cathode thickness on the cell capacity as a finction of temperature, and it was found that the optimum thickness for the cathode- limited design is temperature and load dependent.
Date: November 24, 1998
Creator: Jain, M.; Jungst, R.G.; Nagasubramanian, G. & Weidner, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lithium-oxide-stabilized alpha manganese dioxide for rechargeable lithium batteries

Description: Objective was to increase the reversible cycling capacity of anhydrous {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} by stabilizing its structure. We have synthesized various {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} materials and modified their structures via lithia doping in order to determine what properties are important for controlling cycling performance. A set of new stabilized {alpha}-[xLi{sub 2}O]{center_dot}MnO{sub 2} (x<0.2) cathode materials was synthesized, structurally characterized, and electrochemically evaluated.
Date: June 1996
Creator: Johnson, C. S.; Dees, D. W.; Mansuetto, M. F.; Thackeray, M. M.; Vissers, D. R.; Argyriou, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

Description: This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&amp;S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.
Date: December 15, 1998
Creator: Trickett, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: The purpose of this investigation is to compile the remote surveillance needs of different DOE facilities and to design and build a system that can measure the required parameters (such as radiation field, temperature, roof leakage), and transmit the data to a base location. The base station with its transceiver, computer, and software will receive, store, retrieve, and manipulate the data so that the values can be graphically represented and trends predicted. It is also important that the components should be commercially available, so that they can be configured into a user-friendly system. Since the measurements need to be performed over extended periods, mostly unattended, the components and system should be able to withstand adverse conditions, such as varying temperatures and relative humidities, and corrosive and radioactive atmospheres. The integrated system will be tested at Florida International University's Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (FIU-HCET) and at a DOE site. Based on these tests, and cost-benefit analysis, plans for deployment of the system will be made. The closed facilities may not have main power and telephone lines. An alternative method of solar-powering the system with storage batteries has been considered, which would be capable of supplying power to the system for a week in cloudy conditions. RF module and RF radio will be used for transmission of data to the remote station and receipt at the base station.
Date: January 1, 1999
Creator: M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Cathode limited charge transport and performance of thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

Description: Several types of thin-film rechargeable batteries based on lithium metal anodes and amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (aV{sub 2}O{sub 5}), LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and LiCoO{sub 2} cathodes have been investigated in this laboratory. In all cases, the current density of these cells is limited by lithium ion transport in the cathodes. This paper, discusses sources of this impedance in Li-aV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Li-LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin-film cells and their effect on cell performance.
Date: November 1, 1994
Creator: Bates, J.B.; Hart, F.X.; Lubben, D.; Kwak, B.S. & van Zomeren, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Degradation Reactions in SONY-Type Li-Ion Batteries

Description: Thermal instabilities were identified in SONY-type lithium-ion cells and correlated with interactions of cell constituents and reaction products. Three temperature regions of interaction were identified and associated with the state of charge (degree of Li intercalation) of the cell. Anodes were shown to undergo exothermic reactions as low as 100&deg;C involving the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer and the LiPF<sub>6</sub> salt in the electrolyte (EC: PC: DEC/LiPF<sub>6</sub>). These reactions could account for the thermal runaway observed in these cells beginning at 100&deg;C. Exothermic reactions were also observed in the 200&deg;C-300&deg;C region between the intercalated lithium anodes, the LiPF<sub>6</sub> salt and the PVDF. These reactions were followed by a high- temperature reaction region, 300&deg;C-400&deg;C, also involving the PVDF binder and the intercalated lithium anodes. The solvent was not directly involved in these reactions but served as a moderator and transport medhun. Cathode exotherrnic reactions with the PVDF binder were observed above 200oC and increased with the state of charge (decreasing Li content). This offers an explanation for the observed lower thermal runaway temperatures for charged cells.
Date: May 4, 1999
Creator: Nagasubramanian, G. & Roth, E. Peter
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Nickel hydroxides have been used as the active material in the positive electrodes of several alkaline batteries for over a century. These materials continue to attract a lot of attention because of the commercial importance of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This review gives a brief overview of the structure of nickel hydroxide battery electrodes and a more detailed review of the solid state chemistry and electrochemistry of the electrode materials. Emphasis is on work done since 1989.
Date: November 1997
Creator: McBreen, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

USABC electric vehicle Battery Test Procedures Manual. Revision 2

Description: This manual summarizes the procedural information needed to perform the battery testing being sponsored by the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). This information provides the structure and standards to be used by all testing organizations, including the USABC developers, national laboratories, or other relevant test facilities.
Date: January 1, 1996
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of electric vehicle safety issues survey: Conducted on behalf of ad hoc EV battery readiness working group in-vehicle safety sub-working group

Description: This report documents the results of a survey conducted in the winter of 1994-1995 by the In-Vehicle Safety Sub-Working Group, a working subunit of the DOE-sponsored ad hoc EV Battery Readiness Working Group. The survey was intended to determine the opinions of a group of industry experts regarding the relative importance of a list of some 39 potential safety concerns, grouped into 8 broad areas related to electric vehicles and their battery systems. Participation in the survey was solicited from the members of the Battery Readiness Working Group, along with members of the SAE EV Battery Safety Issues Task Force and selected other knowledgeable individuals. Results of the survey questionnaire were compiled anonymously from the 38 individuals who submitted responses. For each of the issues, survey respondents ranked them as having high, medium or low importance in each of three areas: the severity of events involving this concern, the probability that such events will occur, and the likelihood that mitigating action for such events may be needed beyond normal practices. The accumulated responses from this ranking activity are tabulated, and the response totals are also provided by several subgroupings of respondents. Additionally, large numbers of written comments were provided by respondents, and these are summarized with numbers of responses indicated. A preliminary statistical analysis of the tabulated results was performed but did not provide a satisfactory ranking of the concerns and has not been included in this report. A list is provided of the 15 concerns which a majority of the respondents indicated could be of both medium-to-high severity and medium-to-high probability of occurrence. This list will be reviewed by the Safety Sub-Working Group to determine the status of actions being taken by industry or government to mitigate these concerns, and the likelihood that additional research, standards development or regulation ...
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Hunt, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reliability of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System

Description: We investigate the reliability If a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. A model system was constructed for this that includes the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supp Iy system, the rechargeable battery and a load. The solar resource and the system load are modeled as SI ochastic processes. The photovoltaic system and the rechargeable battery are modeled deterministically, imd an artificial neural network is incorporated into the model of the rechargeable battery to simulate dartage that occurs during deep discharge cycles. The equations governing system behavior are solved simultaneously in the Monte Carlo framework and a fwst passage problem is solved to assess system reliability.
Date: November 30, 1998
Creator: Barney, P.; Jungst, R.G., Ingersoll, D.; O'Gorman, C.; Paez, T.L. & Urbina, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Polymer electrolytes, problems, prospects, and promises

Description: Ionically conducting polymer electrolytes have generated, in recent years, wide-spread interest as candidate materials for a number of applications including high energy density and power lithium batteries. In the early 70s the first measurements of ionic conductivity in polyethylene oxide (PEO)-salt complexes were carried out. However, Armand was the first one to realize potential of these complexes (polymer-salt complexes) as practical ionically conducting materials for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries. Subsequent research efforts identified the limitations and constraints of the polymer electrolytes. These limitations include poor ionic conductivity at RT (< 10{sup {minus}8} S/cm), low cation transport number (<0.2) etc. Several different approaches have been made to improving the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolytes while retaining the flexibility, processibility, ease of handling and relatively low impact on the environment that polymers inherently possess. This paper- reviews evolution of polymer electrolytes from conventional PEO-LiX slat complexes to the more conducting polyphosphazene and copolymers, gelled electrolytes etc. We also review the various chemical approaches including modifying PEO to synthesizing complicated polymer architecture. In addition, we discuss effect of various lithium salts on the conductivity of PEO-based polymers. Charge/discharge and cycle life data of polymer cells containing oxide and chalcogenide cathodes and lithium (Li) anode are reviewed. Finally, future research directions to improve the electrolyte properties are discussed.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Nagasubramanian, G. & Boone, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department