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The Electoral College: Reform Proposals in the 108th Congress

Description: American voters elect the President and Vice President of the United States under a complex arrangement of constitutional provisions, federal and state laws, and political party practices known as the electoral college system. Despite occasional close elections, this system has delivered uncontested results in 46 of 50 elections since adoption of the 12th Amendment, effective in 1804. Throughout this period, nevertheless, it has been the subject of persistent criticism and many reform proposals. Related measures fall into two basic categories: those that would eliminate the electoral college and substitute direct popular election of the President and Vice President, and those that would retain the existing system in some form and correct perceived defects.
Date: June 30, 2005
Creator: Neale, Thomas H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The National Popular Vote (NPV) Initiative: Direct Election of the President by Interstate Compact

Description: This report monitors the National Popular Vote's (NPV) progress in the states. It includes sections that provide brief background on the electoral college, history of the National Popular Vote concept, more detail on the NPV initiative, pros and cons for the NPV, legal issues, and concluding observations.
Date: October 25, 2018
Creator: Neale, Thomas H. & Nolan, Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Recent State Election Law Challenges: In Brief

Description: This report begins by setting forth key constitutional provisions relevant to recent state election law challenges. Next, it discusses federal statutory provisions contained in the Voting Rights Act and the National Voter Registration Act and briefly examines pertinent Supreme Court precedent. Then, based on that legal framework, it provides an overview of several recent challenges to state election laws in Michigan, North Carolina, Ohio, and Texas that resulted in major decisions by the various federal courts of appeals as illustrative examples of the types of challenges that have been playing out in the courts. Finally, the report discusses some potential implications of these challenges.
Date: November 2, 2016
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Electoral College: How It Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections

Description: This report focuses on the institutions and procedures associated with the contemporary electoral college system. It opens by noting four rarely occurring electoral college eventualities that took place in connection with the 2016 presidential election. These included the election of a President and Vice President who received fewer popular votes than their major opponents; the actions of seven "faithless electors," who voted for candidates other than those to whom they were pledged; the split allocation of electoral votes in Maine, which uses the district system to choose its electors; and challenges to electoral votes in the joint session of Congress at which they are counted. The report also examines the constitutional origins of the electoral college system and identifies the additional components and processes that are the product of federal and state law, party requirements, and political tradition, explaining their role in presidential elections. It provides a timeline for operation of the electoral college system for the 2020 presidential election, a brief examination of alternative reform measures, including constitutional amendment proposals and non-governmental initiatives, such as the National Popular Vote initiative1 (NPV), and closes with concluding observations on the state of the electoral college system and prospects for change.
Date: May 15, 2017
Creator: Neale, Thomas H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress

Description: Report that describes the steps which precede the joint session and the procedures set in the Constitution and statute by which the House and Senate jointly certify the results of the electoral vote. It also discusses the procedures set in law governing challenges to the validity of an electoral vote, and makes reference to the procedures followed during the joint session in 2005 by which the election of George W. Bush was certified.
Date: November 30, 2012
Creator: Maskell, Jack & Rybicki, Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Counting Electoral Votes: An Overview of Procedures at the Joint Session, Including Objections by Members of Congress

Description: This report describes the steps which precede the joint session and the procedures set in the Constitution and statute by which the House and Senate jointly certify the results of the electoral vote. It also discusses the procedures set in law governing challenges to the validity of an electoral vote, and makes reference to the procedures followed during the joint session in 2005 by which the election of George W. Bush was certified.
Date: December 8, 2008
Creator: Maskell, Jack & Rybicki, Elizabeth
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections

Description: The Constitution assigns each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of the state’s Senate and House of Representatives delegations; at present, the number of electors per state ranges from three to 55, for a total of 538. This report discuses constitutional origins, the electoral college today and explains the allocation of electors and electoral votes.
Date: July 21, 1999
Creator: Neale, Thomas H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections

Description: The Constitution assigns each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of the state’s Senate and House of Representatives delegations; at present, the number of electors per state ranges from three to 55, for a total of 538. This report discuses constitutional origins, the electoral college today and explains the allocation of electors and electoral votes.
Date: September 28, 2004
Creator: Neale, Thomas H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections

Description: The Constitution assigns each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of the state’s Senate and House of Representatives delegations; at present, the number of electors per state ranges from three to 55, for a total of 538. This report discuses constitutional origins, the electoral college today and explains the allocation of electors and electoral votes.
Date: January 17, 2001
Creator: Neale, Thomas H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

The Electoral College: How it Works in Contemporary Presidential Elections

Description: The Constitution assigns each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of the state’s Senate and House of Representatives delegations; at present, the number of electors per state ranges from three to 55, for a total of 538. This report discuses constitutional origins, the electoral college today and explains the allocation of electors and electoral votes.
Date: September 8, 2003
Creator: Neale, Thomas H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Elections Reform: Overview and Issues

Description: This report discusses several issues as the Congress considers legislation to reform the voting process, a number of issues have emerged as part of the debate: the reliability of different types of voting technologies; voting problems and irregularities in the 2000 election; problems for militaryand overseas voters; the electoral college; and early media projections of election results.
Date: September 7, 2001
Creator: Coleman, Kevin J. & Fischer, Eric A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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